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A New Understanding of Ocmulgee National Monument

A New Understanding of Ocmulgee National Monument


Since 1974, archaeological, geospatial, astronomical and architectural analysis has radically changed the understanding of the enormous Ocmulgee Bottoms Archaeological Zone. These challenges to past speculations are neither reflected in anthropological literature nor in the exhibits at the Ocmulgee Museum. However, a dissertation in 2012 by Dr. Daniel Bigman for his Ph.D in Anthropology at the University of Georgia, cannot not be ignored by his profession. Ironically, Bigman was not aware of some of the most revolutionary implications of his research. His findings had a scientific basis and therefore, cannot be construed as speculations.


Two of the most famous archaeologists of the 20th century, Arthur Kelly and Gordon Wiley, were associated with Ocmulgee’s excavation in the 1930s. However, after the Nixon Administration inexplicably moved the National Park Service’s Southeastern Regional Archaeological Center to Tallahassee, FL as part of some political deal, Ocmulgee slowly sank into oblivion as far as archaeologists elsewhere in the nation were concerned.

Anthropological texts about the Southeastern United States indigenous peoples, published in the past 20 years, have either barely mentioned Ocmulgee or not mentioned it all. If mentioned, it is treated as a small, culturally insignificant cluster of mounds in a remote location. Incredibly, Midwestern and Pacific Coast anthropologists are still being taught that Ocmulgee was founded by immigrants from Cahokia. That myth was discarded at least 60 years ago.

A very special place

Macon, Georgia, USA ~ Great Temple Mound: Latitude: 32°50'13"N ~ Longitude: 83°36'30"W

Macon, Georgia, USA ~ Great Temple Mound: Latitude: 32°50’13″N ~ Longitude: 83°36’30″W

Around 900 AD or earlier, immigrants began grading a terrace overlooking the Ocmulgee River for a town devoted to regional trade and religious rites. Its “full blown Mississippian” cultural traits preceded those at Cahokia by about 150 years. Construction stopped on the acropolis of the town around 1150 AD. The timing corresponds exactly to the abandonment of many large towns near Lake Okeechobee, Florida.

Ocmulgee National Monument is a 701.54 acre unit of the National Park Service on the southeast side of the Ocmulgee River just below the Fall Line that separates the igneous Piedmont from the sedimentary Coastal Plain. It was originally planned as a 2000+ acre national park, but a substantial chunk of the original tract purchased by the citizens of Macon was utilized for public buildings, public housing, highways or sold back to commercial investors. The national monument includes the acropolis and initial ring of satellite neighborhoods of the town. In recent years, archaeologists have discovered that the Ocmulgee’s immediate neighborhoods extended northward to Fort Hawkins and across the river to what is now Downtown Macon.

Citizens of Macon are currently attempting to persuade Congress to convert Ocmulgee National Monument into a full-fledged national park. This was the promise made by the federal government in 1934, when it was given the original tract of land by the City of Macon.

The Ocmulgee Bottoms Archaeological Zone includes at least 48 indigenous town and village sites along a 34 mile long corridor. At least 26 of these sites were contemporary with the acropolis at the monument and were obviously satellite communities. Many of these satellite villages contained one or two small mounds. However, a large town on the east side of the Ocmulgee River in Twiggs County contains 28 mounds. It is owned by a paper company and not open to the public.

Members of organized Creek tribes and Creek descendants all consider Ocmulgee to be a sacred place. When I was six, my mother took me there. At the time, the burial of an important leader was on display in situ. My mother took me to the burial first and said, “Richard, this could be one of your ancestors.”

In June of 2014, Rep. Austin Scott, a Republican from Tifton, GA and Rep. Sanford Bishop, a Columbus, GA Democrat, filed a joint bill Thursday to create Georgia’s first national park. The bill calls for the expansion of the national monument to a 2,000+ acre reserve, known as the Ocmulgee Mounds National Historical Park.

Model of Ichesi in the Muskogee-Creek Capitol Building

Model of Ichesi in the Muskogee-Creek Capitol Building

Ichesi ~ the 1974 Lamar Village Excavation

The Lamar Village is located two miles south of the Ocmulgee acropolis on a detached component of the national monument. Ichesi means “Corn – descendants of” in Itsate-Creek. The equivalent word in Mvskoke is Achesi. The word, Ochesee, sometimes used by archaeologists, is an Anglicization. The village, however, is typically called the Lamar Village by archaeologists and the Ocmulgee National Monument staff.

It is named after the prominent Lamar Family, who in the early-to-mid-1800s played a major role in the expulsion of the Creek Indians from Georgia then acquired several large plantations in the Macon and Eatonton areas. The second president of the Republic of Texas, Mirabeau Buonoparte Lamar, grew up and lived on Lamar plantation lands until 1835. Lamar wrote and stated several times that “total extinction of the Indian tribes was necessary to make the lands available to whites.”

The archaeologists should have done a little research before calling it the Lamar Village. It was Mirabeau Lamar who ordered the brutal attack on peaceful Cherokee farmers in Texas that killed Chief Bowles, a friend of Sam Houston. In the research that Roger Kennedy* and I did in 2011, we found that the primary reason for the Texas Cherokee massacre was that their land was considered ideal for cotton plantations.

  • Former National Park Service Director, Roger Kennedy, hired me to assist him in the research & graphics for his last book on Greek Revival Architecture.

The signage and literature at the Ocmulgee Museum tell visitors that the Lamar Village was founded around 200 years after the acropolis at Ocmulgee was abandoned or about 1250 AD. That statement is false.

In 1974, two National Park Service archaeologists excavated a section of the “Temple Mound” at Ichesi, plus dug several test pits. They also ran radiocarbon tests of charcoal deposits. The results were big surprises that were soon published in a typed report for an archaeological conference held at the monument. For unknown reasons, the new information never got into the textbooks that anthropology students use around the country and are not reflected in the exhibits of the Ocmulgee Museum.

Ichese was founded at least as early as 990 AD by the same people, who simultaneously founded Etowah Mounds 116 miles (186 km) to the northwest. Residents of both villages made Etowah Complicated Stamp style pottery. However, the archaeologists also found much earlier styles of pottery in some locations, such as Swift Creek Complicated Stamped and Napier Complicated Stamped, This suggests that the site was intermittently occupied by hamlets much earlier.

The town was originally built on a horseshoe bend in the Ocmulgee River. So was Etowah. Etowah’s real name is E-tula, the Itza Maya word for “Principal Town.” Around 1200 AD, a massive storm of unimaginable ferocity struck Georgia. The Ocmulgee and Etowah Rivers cut across the horseshoe bends of Ichesi and E-tula, destroying many buildings and creating islands. Yes, the Etowah River originally flowed NORTH of the Great Mound there. You can see evidence of the former channel in the terrain.

There were major influxes of population at both Ichesi and E-Tula around 1250 AD. This is what started the “urban legend” that Ichesi was founded around 200 years after Ocmulgee was abandoned.


2004 Geospatial Analysis

In 2002, the rangers at Ocmulgee National Monument went out of their way to help me financially by inviting me to sell my ceramics at the Southeastern Native American festival and then selling my ceramics at the museum shop. In late 2001, my architecture practice had been destroyed when some rogue federal law enforcement officers called up my clients and told them I was an “Al Quaida agent.” They and some state cops also called up women I dated and told them either that I was a serial killer, predator of college coeds or a gay, pedophile. (Now THAT is an interesting criminal modus operandi.)

I learned the next year that after 60 years of federal stewardship, there was still no accurate site plan for Ocmulgee National Monument. To show my gratitude to the rangers for their continued support, I prepared a site plan based on USGS topography, aerial photos and satellite imagery.

Within the first hour of this volunteer work, I was shocked to discover that ALL Native American mounds in the Ocmulgee Bottoms, dating from 900 AD onward, were aligned perfectly to a triangular matrix, set by the solar azimuth. For 60 years, archaeologists had missed this important fact because they apparently did not know that all modern maps are based on Magnetic North, not True North.

For example, University of Georgia anthropologist, David Halley, commented in 1986 that the mounds had “strange 25 ½ degree orientation.” I used CADD to shift the map to True North and voila! The principal mounds were aligned to the Winter Solstice sunset, which is the beginning of the Maya New Year.

Someone in the regional office of the National Park Service in Atlanta authorized a conventional land survey, costing about $10,000, in an effort to disprove my site plan. When they matched, the National Park Service’s copies of the site plan were evidently thrown in the trash can. However, the plan impressed the heck out of Muscogee-Creek Nation officials. This led to a series of projects for several clients over the next 10 years that could not be thrown in the trash can.

2005 Astronomical Study

The following year, Yale astronomy professor, Dr. Vance R. Tiede, started out with my True North site plan and then went several steps further. He went on site at Ocmulgee with sophisticated astronomical equipment and found that not only were all the major structures oriented to the Solar Azimuth matrix, but individual structures also functioned as “observatories” of the stars, planets and moon.

Tiede’s astronomical studies of Ocmulgee and the Town Creek Mound in North Carolina were published in several national professional journals for astronomers. They never seemed to make it into anthropological journals or the exhibits at the Ocmulgee Museum.

2006-2012 ~ Ocmulgee Archaeological Society

Under the leadership of professional archaeologist, Steve Halleck, the Ocmulgee Archaeological Society has made some discoveries that radically changed the size of the Ocmulgee Conurbation. There were satellite neighborhoods across the river in what is now Downtown Macon and close-in neighborhoods. Humans continued to occupy this area after there was no longer construction activity in the acropolis. However, anthropology books published outside of Georgia either don’t mention Ocmulgee or describe it as a small mound site that was permanently abandoned after 1150 AD.

Halleck is currently in England, working on a doctorate in anthropology at Oxford. However, since 2010 other archaeologists and volunteers have continued working at Fort Hawkins Hill and at a municipal park across the river from the national monument.

2008 ~ Ocmulgee Acropolis Model


This model was constructed for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Ocmulgee, Oklahoma. I used the same techniques as the Etowah Mounds model, which was built the previous year. The field journals and site sketches of archaeologists were interpolated with state-of-the-art infrared imagery. This technique worked beautifully at Etowah Mounds, but not so well at Ocmulgee.

Whereas the streets, blocks and courtyards were very visible at Etowah, Ocmulgee had contradicting patterns that looked like different town plans stacked on top of each other. It would take geo-magnetic sensing to solve this riddle. Meanwhile, I tried as best as I could to match Dr. Arthur Kelly’s field notes with what I saw on the infrared scans.

2012 ~ Daniel Bigman’s dissertation at the University of Georgia

Bigman bit off a huge project for his PhD dissertation. He used geo-magnetic sensing devices (underground radar) to survey most of the core area of Ocmulgee. If this was not enough, he also analyzed potsherds from areas around several of the mounds at Ocmulgee. Many of the potsherds had been stored in boxes since the 1930s.

To read the entire 344 page dissertation, go online to: An Early Mississippian Settlement History of Ocmulgee

The media articles about Bigman’s study of Ocmulgee emphasized his use of geo-magnetic sensing devices. They provided extremely important information about the architecture and site planning at Ocmulgee. In practice, though, the fascinating data was under-utilized. A LIDAR scan should have accompanied the surface survey. What was missing on his dissertation committee was a specialist in geospatial analysis at large indigenous town sites. It was one thing to use ground radar in a 19th century cemetery; an entirely different matter to apply to a large, 1000 year old town. Nevertheless, the data retrieved was fascinating and conflicted somewhat with prevailing understanding about Ocmulgee.

In practice, Bigman was pushed by the faculty committee to concentrate on analysis of potsherds. Much of his dissertation focuses on the potsherds. The problem is that the excavations at Ocmulgee involved large numbers of WPA laborers and very young archaeologists. Bigman had no clue exactly where these potsherds were found, only general areas. He had no way of knowing if the surviving potsherds were representative of what was actually in the ground.

It is a well known fact that the best artifacts, unearthed at Ocmulgee went out the gate under the overcoats of workmen to be sold to private collectors. The most amazing discovery at Ocmulgee, several hundred 2-3 feet (.67 – 1 m) diameter Maya style salt brine drying trays have never been put on display, because archaeologists, who focused on the Southeastern United States didn’t know what they were. Bigman was able to safely say that (1) Unlike the impression given by museum exhibits, there were several styles of pottery produced at Ocmulgee; (2) specific styles of pottery were associated with specific neighborhoods; and (3) the styles of pottery produced at specific neighborhoods shifted over time.

Oh there is one other thing. Bigman mentioned that the pottery found at the village on Browns Mount, about 10 miles south of the acropolis, (and only that location) had owls on the sides of the bowls. Owls? That’s the style of pottery was produced by the primitive, non-Arawak, Guanahatabey People of western Cuba. What the heck? The Guanahatabey and their almost as primitive, Ciboney Arawak neighbors, were the favorite sources of slaves for the Mayas. These hunter-gatherer peoples were overwhelmed by the boat passage across the Yucatan Channel and sudden exposure to Maya Civilization.

Surprising architectural discoveries

The dissertation under-analyzed the geo-magnetic data. There was no neighborhood or town-wide plan produced from the data as was created at Etowah Mounds between 2005 and 2007. Bigman described verbally the patterns that he saw on ground radar printouts, but this approach lacks the precision of architectural drawings. There was no way of knowing if his interpretation was accurate. He is not an architect and there were no architects or city planners on his dissertation committee.

Geomagnetic printouts of small clusters of buildings or individual structures did solve the riddle that had confused me when analyzing infrared images. Yes, indeed, over time the arrangements and architectural styles of structures built at Ocmulgee changed.

There was a radical change in Ocmulgee, just after1000 AD. For those of you who don’t know, that period was when the Track Rock Terrace Complex was constructed in the mountains and the round structure that Georgia archaeologists call, “the Ocmulgee earth lodge” was built. It was not an earth lodge. It was a chokopa in Itsate or a chukofa in Oklahoma Mvskoke . . . basically a super-sized teepee.

Daniel Bigman discovered that the earliest buildings on the Acropolis Terrace had been large round structures, like those built by Arawaks in South America and central Cuba. Archaeologist Arthur Kelly had also noted round structure at the bottom level, but that aspect of his report was ignored by his peers from other areas of the country, who believed that Ocmulgee was founded by immigrants from Southern Illinois

Daniel Bigman discovered that the earliest buildings on the Acropolis Terrace had been large round structures, like those built by Arawaks in South America and central Cuba. Archaeologist Arthur Kelly had also noted round structures at the bottom level, but that aspect of his report was ignored by his peers from other areas of the country, who believed that Ocmulgee was founded by immigrants from Southern Illinois.

An earth covered building would be totally impractical in the Southeast, because of the constant rains and high humidity. The Creek Indians did not build earth lodges. However, no matter how much the Creeks complain to the Georgia archaeologists and even show them accurate drawings of cone shaped communal buildings, drawn by William Bartram, the professors pout their lips, cross their arms, look askance and announce that their professors called these structures earth lodges and therefore, they are earth lodges . . . despite what the people whose ancestors built these structures, say.

This was the actual appearance of the so-called Ocmulgee Earth Lodge, if superimposed on the park's landscape today.

This was the actual appearance of the so-called Ocmulgee Earth Lodge, if superimposed on the park’s landscape today.

This problem is related to a bigger problem that has developed in academic anthropology over the past three decades. Professional papers frequently cite the speculations of authority figures as “scientific facts.” Bigman’s dissertation is filled with such citations. They can be accurate. They can be inaccurate, but harmless, because no one cares what the academician said . . . or these speculations can be extremely dangerous if interpolated as a stack of facts, when they are actually speculations made outside the realm of the archaeologist’s expertise. Because he didn’t know diddlysquat about the three Creek languages and didn’t know how to pronounce Spanish, archaeologist Charles Hudson made many inaccurate speculations that are now taught as facts to young anthropology students. There are many more examples within the body of professional literature. A geo-magnetic scan is a fact. A speculation is not a fact.

And now for another shocker at Ocmulgee

Bigman only briefly discussed something that was a complete shock to me. Fortunately, he did provide a geo-magnetic printout to back up his statement. For the first hundred years of Ocmulgee’s existence, the houses were round. All previous archaeological reports on Ocmulgee said that from 900 AD onward the houses were rectangular and of post-ditch construction. Not only were these houses round, but they had center posts for support and they were relatively large.

Archaeologist Arthur Kelly at the 9FU14 archaeological site

Archaeologist Arthur Kelly at the 9FU14 archaeological site near Atlanta. The town existed from c. 250 AD to c. 450 AD. Note the large post holes in the walls and the central hearths.

Pre-Mississippian Period round houses in the Southeast had stout posts in the thick exterior walls for supporting the roofs and a hearth in the center. Attached is a photo of Dr. Arthur Kelly standing near a typical Woodland Period round house near Atlanta. The photo was taking from on top of a modest mound at site 9FU14.

Large round houses with center posts for extended families are a Caribbean tradition! They were associated with the primitive Guanahatabey and Ciboney Peoples of Cuba, plus some of the less advanced Taino Arawaks. What was Caribbean style architecture doing at Ocmulgee in 900 AD?

After 1000 AD the residential architecture quickly shifted to rectangular houses. However, there were two styles of rectangular house. In the elite neighborhood on the acropolis were now large rectangular, post-ditch houses that were typical of the Puntun and Itza Maya middle class merchants in southern Mexico. Out in the less affluent suburbs of Ocmulgee were smaller houses with central posts. That’s the style of house built by the Taino Arawaks in eastern Cuba, Haiti and Puerto Rico. Only in later levels did Bigman find a preponderance of rectangular post ditch houses in the suburbs.

Changes in residential architecture were accompanied by changes in the site plans of neighborhoods. Over time, the houses changed from being semi-circular clusters to circular clusters focused on mounds and plazas to houses formally sited on blocks and courtyards. The blocks and courtyards are associated with the direct ancestors of the Creek Indians. There were obviously many ethnic infusions and inter-regional cultural influences on Ocmulgee during the 250 years that its acropolis developed.

Yes, the Ocmulgee Museum needs to revamp its exhibits, but the National Park Service better create these exhibits in a manner, where they can be easily changed again. Suddenly, we know very little about this great megapolis on the Ocmulgee River. Take away the ridiculous Spanish galleon at the end and the movie, Apocalypto, is looking more and more like a PBS documentary.

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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.



    Well, done. I’m tired of all the academic cover-ups in the fields of archaeology and anthropology. They have done the some with suppressing information about the Hopewell culture that was located in present-day Ohio and pre-Colombian metallurgy. Your research and the show American Unearthed have helped me to put a lot of pieces of the puzzle together.


    Outstanding work on Your efforts to uncover the true ancient history of Georgia. I have learned more from your articles than all the history classes combined that I attended as a kid in school and college about how ancient the state of Georgia is and it’s connection to other areas of the world.
    The sounds of words Chatt “ah”, Yon “ah”, Paduc “ah”, and many, many more Long A sounded words in the America’s seem to be connected to many locations around the world.

    • Mark,

      I can’t speak for many of the other languages, but yes indeed the Ah sound is very prevalent in both the Creek languages (Mvskoke, Itsate, Apalache,Koasate, Miccosukee) and Itza Maya. Delighted that you are enjoying the website. Although my name takes a high profile, it is actually a team effort. I have several friends in POOF, who are constantly sending me their discoveries that intermesh with mine.

      Have a blessed day
      Richard T.


        You and yours Friends are rewriting the History books. Clearly Civilization in Georgia and other areas around the world are much more connected, and in layers of times, than people, I think, know. The influx of some of the Romanized technologies? do appear to have been connected to the Yucatan / Itza/ Itsa (GA., S.C.) and perhaps a major migration event of people to the South East, US, to include Florida, Georgia (600-800AD).
        The fertile land, mines ( Gold Zinc, Copper, Green stone) and the right location could have played a key part in the Itza bringing their type of mounds, crops, and Earth works to Georgia in that time period. Clearly, your work and your friends make a compelling statement.
        The sound of the long A: “ah” appears to have traveled with some of these peoples from Peru, Yucatan, Mexico and then Georgia a long time ago. Again, Thank you, Richard, for your Great work.
        And, God Bless You.


        It’s really sad that one can walk anywhere around the river right now and look down at thousands of little artifact. Just this week I came upon an intact cooking vessel dnd what looks like an old intact coconut hollowed out. Can’t even imagine what’s been ruined.


    As a retired teacher of Georgia History, I am amazed at these findings and so pleased that this information is now available. I live in Macon and have always been interested in this treasure. Thank you for your important work!

    • Thank you Connie! Please tell all your neighbors and fellow teachers to do everything they can to make Ocmulgee Mounds National Park a reality. It will be great for Macon’s economy and open the door to many other professional studies like the accomplished by Dr. Bigman.


    It is so good to see some people putting the puzzle parts together. Every year we delay, we lose more of a rich past.
    I visited Fort Mountain and remembered that there were walls on Brown’s Mount . An internet search brought me several walled mountains. Although some did not seem to be good defenses, I thought of marking them on a map. Most seemed to fit a general corridor, but three struck me as odd: Ft Mountain, Stone Mountain, and Brown’s Mount run in a very straight line and Stone Mountain seems equidistant from the other two. I could not place them exactly on a map, but they seemed 79 or 80 miles apart.

    • Marion,

      You are exactly right. There was a string of mountain top fortifications, shrines and signal pyres which allowed for communication between Lookout Mountain and Stone Mountain.

      I have studied the original descriptions of Brown’s Mount before building contractors stole many of the rocks to construct chimneys. The fortifications there are not at all like those built by Native Americans, but identical to those built by Europeans in the 1500s and 1600s. I think that it is a fort built by the French or Spanish.

      Thanks for writing.

      Richard T.

  5. Update on May 1, 2016: The substantial expansion of Ocmulgee National Monument into a national park has been approved by a Congressional sub-committee so it is likely to now become a fact. Such bills generally are grouped together and passed by acclamation.


    Thanks for this. I was wondering why my South American DNA not only included Mayan and Incan territories but Cuba , Puerto Rico and Haiti. There was mixing there.


    If you really want to know about the indigenous people of Macon.. just ask us.. we are still here.. in East Macon. You know where they removed us under the Removal Act from the mounds and put us in Davis Homes..


    Is there evidence in GA that predates Inca. Is it possible some culture travelled south through the Gulf of Mexico and there found stone to elaborate on previous earthen mound traditions.

    • The Incas were late comers. Their empire arose only a couple of centuries before the arrival of the Spanish. The oldest mound in Georgia currently is dated at 3545 BC.


    I found a Clovis two days ago in Macon. There is an area of private property recently dug up near the mounds and I ask the guys working on the property if I could look for old china shards and marbles. I saw a piece of flint lying on the dirt and picked it up and put it in my pocket. Got home and did some research and realized it’s a Clovis point. I’m still in shock.

    • Wow! With your luck, why don’t you come up here to the Nacoochee Valley and hunt for gold? We can split your discoveries 50/50. LOL Seriously, I remember reading in the past that Arthur Kelly had found Clovis points during the 1930s excavations at Ocmulgee, but at the time the label “Clovis” had not been assigned and then for decades afterward, we were led to believe that Clovis points could only be found in the Southwest, when in fact, they are most numerous in the Southeast. Also, the oldest Clovis points are found in the Southeast. Congratulations.


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