After exactly 200 years . . . we have returned!
Photo Above: Once the rotten siding has been replaced, the “moon goddess” gray will be painted over with Sunnybrook Farm Yellow!
Prior to the 1790s, Itsate (Hitchiti) was the most spoken language in Georgia . . . not English or Muskogee!
During the American Revolution, the half-blood Tory, Alexander McGillivray, unilaterally disenfranchised the Creek tribal towns in Georgia, who had joined the Patriot Cause or remained neutral. He surrounded himself with some Tory cronies and made himself Principal Chief of the Creek Confederacy. They then moved the capital from Koweta on the Chattahoochee River to the Pro-British town of Pensacola in British West Florida. For the next twenty years, McGillivray waged an undeclared war against the Uchee, Itstate-Creek, Apalache-Creek, Elate-Creek and Anglo-American farmsteads in the western edge of South Carolina, plus Northeast and Middle Georgia. Upper Creek war bands from what is now northeastern Alabama repeatedly launched raids against their fellow Creeks in these regions until 1796. The horrific memories of this era were so deeply ingrained that I always thought that the Muskogees were the villainous enemies of the Uchee and Creek Peoples, until I was in my mid-20s.
In order to survive, the Uchees and Creeks, being attacked by the Pro-British Creeks, joined forces with their non-Native neighbors. They fought side by side behind the timber forts that were erected. Creek provinces along the Oconee River even invited white families to live among them . . . granting large tracts of fertile farmland as an inducement. They also encouraged their offspring to marry the offspring of the new settlers . . . thus cementing familial and political ties. In truth, there was very little difference in the lifestyles of the Natives and newcomers . . . except that the Creeks were more skilled farmers. It was not a situation like in the Midwest or Great Plains, where agriculturalists from Europe confronted Native hunter-gatherers. The two cultures merged and one result was is called now, Southern Cuisine. It was really traditional Creek cuisine. The Uchees and Creeks had been smoking turkeys, plus batter-frying fish and poultry for centuries.
Meanwhile, the Creek Confederacy became essentially the Muskogee Confederacy. That is how it is labeled on the first map of the State of Georgia in 1785. In a series of land cessions between 1784 and 1818, the Muskogees gave away all the lands belonging to the Uchee, the Itsate and Georgia Upper Creeks, but very little of their own.
A myth was begun that the Uchee never existed and that the Hitchiti Creeks were a tiny, insignificant minority . . . not the majority. In 1817 and 1818, the Creeks and Cherokees gave away their remaining lands in Northeast Georgia. It was a narrow corridor, running between what is now Rabun County and Fulton County, where Atlanta was soon founded. The northern portion was occupied by Uchee, Soque and Elate, living on land assigned to the Cherokee Nation in 1784. From Clarkesville southward, was the Creek part of the cession, even though most county histories in the region, now state that their county was part of “Great Cherokee Nation” for thousands of years. The Uchee in the Cherokee portion were allowed to take allotments. The Soque declined their allotments, while the Creeks . . . considered dangerous because of the Red Stick War . . . were not offered allotments. Many were able to stay anyway, because they were mixed-bloods, intermarried with white neighbors.
The Red Stick War and the hostility of most Creeks to slavery are the primary reasons that many mixed blood Uchees and Creeks in Northeast Georgia and Upstate South Carolina began calling themselves “part-Cherokee” after the Trail of Tears. Even as late as 1884, a book on the history of the Methodist Church in Georgia, stated, “The Creeks are savages. They are so ignorant that they refuse to accept their natural inferiority to white men and that slavery of Africans was ordained by God. It is good that Georgia is rid of them. ”
Update on the big move
There is a lot of work, plus expenditures, involved with fixing up a fixer upper, but my cost of living will be drastically less when the work is completed. This ultimate fixer upper was the only real house I could afford to buy. Even most mobile homes were asking $20-30,000 more. Rent has gotten so ridiculous in the United States since the Great Recession, ownership of a modest house is by far less demanding on the budget. Nevertheless, I am putting in 18 hour days and don’t have much time for research or writing right now.
The house had several large trees that were about to fall on it. That is why it had not sold earlier and then had been allowed to deteriorate due to lack of maintenance. This past week, those trees were removed by the amazing men of McAllister Tree Removal Service . . . with with help of some very nifty machines. The end product was those piles seen above of wood chips and shredded leaves. Yes, that is the Etula Sacred Fire standard, implanted in one of the piles of wood chips! We’re back home, folks.
Latest posts by Richard Thornton (see all)
- First edition of People of One Fire found after being lost for 48 years! - August 18, 2018
- What is wrong with this Washington Post “anthropology” article? - August 16, 2018
- Thoughts on the peopling of the Americas, while washing paint brushes, baking a pizza and chatting with Ric Edwards - August 16, 2018
- Sheezam Andy! Chattahoochee is an Itza Maya word! - August 13, 2018
- Implications of the discoveries around Tepoztlan, Mexico - August 8, 2018