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America In 1492 – The Kikilemanaki

North America in 1492 was a great deal different than what we have been taught and told.

This mis-information floods our school system up and through the university level, it is rampant in all things written, from novels to what profess to be scholarly thesis’s, dissertations, articles for academic and scientific journals and books.

I do not work with the groups of Natives in the far west, southwest and northwest but do know more than a little about what was going on in the east, southeast and northeast at that time and can speak a little in that regard.

As you know I tend to write in a chain of thought sort of style but will do my best to make this coherent if read by others.

In 1492 the largest segment of Natives east of the Rockies were what is called Algonquian-speaking now but we call them our Kikilemanaki, those Old People of Old Times.

So I will use that term to avoid any misunderstanding or misinterpreting of them as being solely one or more of the Historic or colonial or later Indian Tribes.

Our Kikilemanaki had been growing and developing in this hemisphere and on this continent for thousands upon thousands of years.

They included the ancestors of the Shawnee, Chippewa, Ottawa, Pottawatamie, Miami, Illinois, Lenape, Powhatan, Piscataway, Susquehanna, Mingo, Munsee, Arapaho, Blackfeet, Cheyenne, Cree, Chipewyan and many more tribes as we now know them and many more who are now forgotten or mislabeled in one massive interrelated, interconnected, cooperative society that stretched from the Atlantic seaboard to the Rocky Mountains and from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Circle.

Their origins date from at least what is called the Ice Age by some or the last Pole Shift by others.

Most of their origins seem to appear in the far north near what is now the Arctic Circle and spread southward into more hospitable climates. This origin in the harshest of climates seems illogical and is the subject for another missive at a later time.

Their original population had absorbed newcomers from all directions on the compass, from Asia; Japan, China and Mongolia, from Europe; the British Isles, Scandinavia, Western Europe and the Mediterranean Basin, from Western Africa, from the Pacific Isles and even India and Australia, from South America; the northern Andes and nearby lowland jungles, Central America and Mexico at many different times.

Most of these contacts and migrations had started as traders, explorers or refugees. Some progressed on to be established colonies while some never grew beyond the original groups among our Kikilemanaki.

Some of their cultures and languages are reflected in our Kikilemanaki especially where the contacts and migrations were larger and longer in duration, as in the Old Copper culture and others.

These newcomers found an already thriving society and in most cases simply merged directly in by marriage and the growth of mixed-blood families.

Few if any modern American-based or American-backed researchers want to even discuss, let alone acknowledge, the well known knowledge and evidence that there were large colonies of many of these people existing up to or very near to 1492.

We know that the Norse were here by 1000 AD. We know that the Norse of Greenland came here around 1330 AD.

But we are not told that when the first Norse arrived here they met Irish (their term) or Celtic people of obvious European origin.

We see Mesoamerican artistic motifs throughout the area in burials and carvings but the fact that it represented the presence of Mesoamericans east of the Mississippi River is denied for some inexplicable reason.

We see earthen mounds in western Mexico that are identical to those found throughout the land of our Kikilemanaki but any connection with the mound-building societies of western Mexico and our mound-building Kikilemanaki is denied through the baffling “separate but identical” theory.

We know that there are burials, artifacts and cultural connections between the Ohio valley “Adena” of our Kikilemanaki and an ancient people on the west coast of Sweden but are again subject to denial by any and all orthodox researchers and writers.

We know from archeological evidence that Trade Routes were established across the continent by 10,000 BC, simply by the presence of materials for widely divergent areas being in the burials and living areas of places that are hundreds and even over a thousand miles from their point of origin.
To justify the ability for regular and far-ranging Traders to travel, exchange valued products and materials unmolested safely, one must assume that there was both a common language spoken in most of the area they traveled through and an agreed upon system of political co-operation in place to allow that trade to happen.
That is one of the very definitions of a society or culture; material and cultural exchange, common language and political co-operation. Far from being the small, widely scattered, extremely primitive hunter-gather families that orthodox science and history tells us about, our Kikilemanaki were obviously much more refined, much more discerning, much more cultured and much more widely connected.

They knew from their own travels and from in-migrations of areas and people thousands of miles away from them.

They knew how to meet and get along with many different groups, how to trade with them, what to trade and who to trade with.

They knew where materials and objects that were of special value to them were and what it took in time, labor and trade items to obtain them.

The society of our Kikilemanaki had grown from the first individuals, to their extended families, to clans of blood-linked people, to villages of even more clans, expanding from the original clans by out and in-marriages both within their own groups to far distant bands that covered wide areas that were still within a not too difficult travel to then on to even larger tribes, bands of clans of families all united that could cover hundreds of square miles.

These groups, from families to tribes, met and absorbed people from literally every continent except Antarctica over the centuries, taking what was best of their culture and technology as they did so.

Few today even know that prior to Columbus in 1492 and continuing literally until after the American Revolution and the development of the official American version of history it was common knowledge among the educated and well-traveled for centuries that there was a western hemisphere and that several European societies had long colonies there.

It was reflected on multiple maps for hundreds of years with the colonies’ names even showing on many of them.

Even before colonization of the continent began the earliest explorers sailing up the Atlantic coast in the very early 1500’s described seeing people of every shape, size and color that ranged from quite short in the south to very tall in the north, that varied from dark and almost African in appearance to the far south or yellowish and Asian appearing along the middle regions to light-haired, light-eyed people that looked to be European from the Chesapeake Bay to far north of the Hudson River.

Even fewer are aware that when the first French and Spanish religious leaders tried to offer the Bible and Christianity that our Kikilemanaki declined saying that they knew the person it was about, that He had been among them, they knew His Word and His Father.

The fantastic alleged nature worship that the whites later wrote about is nothing more than seeing and knowing that all things are the creation of the One God and deserving of some respect and reverence.

But before I digress too badly let me jump ahead to circa 1000 AD and mention a few events in North American and some of the non-North Americans that were living here from then until 1492.


The previous four thousand years (3000 BC to 1000 AD) had been eventful and exciting, with major developments in technology all across the continent, some imported from other continents, some improved on here and some the product of North American minds and hands.

Travelers, explorers, traders, refugees, colonists from all along the Atlantic and Pacific had come to our land and merged into our Kikilemanaki, some leaving marked evidence, some merely fading into the population with barely a sing to tell of their coming.

Cataclysmic events shook most parts of the globe, displaced thousands upon thousands of people, wiped out more than a few flourishing societies and spurred innovation among the survivors.

Trade routes established thousands of years before become the routes of migrations as our Kikilemanaki and newcomers from other lands seek to find hospitable climates and sustainable homelands.

The people found in many parts of the western hemisphere during these forty centuries do not nearly match the image put forth in popular education and even science, with far more tall, lighter skinned, people with blue to green eyes being mentioned than orthodox science and education can begin to explain.

Popular misconceptions of who was first or greatest fail to acknowledge that our Kikilemanaki were already breaking into the earliest forms of the historic tribes by the time the Maya were first using pottery instead off baskets and that was a thousand years before Rome was even established.

Many things were occurring in 1000 AD that shaped the future of North America. Some of these are:

  • The Maya center Teotihuacán MX was virtually deserted due to changing climate, invasion, disease or a combination of these factors, some of the Maya follow those that had come north circa 750 to 900, following the Mississippi River to Cahokia a capitol of our Kikilemanaki as well as following the gulf coast route to their trade colonies in the southeast.
  • The Chimu begin their monumental canal to divert the water of the Chicama River of Ecuador.
  • Mississippians, a modern name applied to some of our Kikilemanaki are living on Bussell Island Louden Tennessee.
  • The Huari & Llacuaz by the thousands leave Peru in ocean-going balsawood boats & rafts.
    They travel northward along long established trade routes along the Pacific Coast. They land on the delta of the Colorado River on the Sea of Cortez, occupied by their trading friends the Trinchera, the ancestors of the Copacha. Of interest here is that the Tohono O’odham of modern times recall them as being called “Siwan”, while the Zuni recall them being called “Shiwanni”, both meaning in the local languages “rain/water priest”.
    They eventually are trading with tribal Chiefs in Chile, the Toltec in the Valley of Mexico & the Adena in the Mississippi and Ohio Valley in the northwest.
  • The Atztalan and their capitol temple-city in Wisconsin are the most northern of the Mississippians of our Kikilemanaki.
  • Irish colonists are living in Greater Ireland, Vitramannaland or White Man’s Land, which was described as being beyond the Appalachians & below the Great Lakes, an area that is known to be the homeland of at least a large part of the historic Shawnee.
  • At that same time Welsh fleeing the invasion of their homeland sailed across the Atlantic to an unknown land, this continent, landing on the east coast and founding a colony they called Avalon.
  • North of the Welsh was where Leif Eriksson landed and his Norse soon established the colonies of Vinland and Normubega.
  • The Mississippians/our Kikilemanaki build Joara Mound in Burke North Carolina, the Mitchell Mound in Davison South Dakota, the Sellars Mound in Wilson Tennessee, the Shiloh Mound & Swallow Bluff Island Mound in Hardin Tennessee and hundreds more across the continent.


Leif Erikson names his Cape Cod Massachusetts campsite Vinland for the wild grapes they find there.


Thorfinn Karlsfeni, with his wife Gundrun, with 7 ships loaded with supplies, tools and life-stock and 160 men and women, establishes the Norse colony, Normubega at Vinland, they capture two Irish Children, who tell of a great Irish colony further inland, the Norse begin to trade with our Kikilemanaki.


The Mississippians build Fewkes Group Mounds in Williamson Tennessee among many others.


Some time before 1053 some Christian Danish flee Ireland, sailing as those before them had to the great continent beyond the western horizon and landed among the Norse in the Vinland colony in the New England area, where in 1053 the Catholic Church sent its’ first Bishop of the Church of America.


The Sunset Crater volcano erupts near Flagstaff Arizona, spewing lava and ash that snuffs out all life in the Wupatki Basin.


Before being shown on a map made in 1076 the Scots had established a colony named Albania along the east coast, near but not competing with the Irish, Norse and Welsh colonies.


The Mississippians build the Adams Mounds in Fulton Kentucky, Castilian Springs Mounds in Sumner Tennessee, the Rowlandton Mound in McCracken Kentucky, the Town Creek Mound in Montgomery North Carolina, the Turk Mound in Carlisle Kentucky and the Wickliffe Mound in Ballard Kentucky among hundreds more across the continent.


The Catholic Church sends its’ second known Bishop of the Church of America to try to insure that the tithes of the American diocese are sent to Rome on schedule.

Arabian fishermen are sailing out of the Mediterranean and to the east coast of North America by 1150 when they are shown on Arabic maps.


Persian trading ships record that they travel to Greater Ireland, a massive colony beyond Iceland to trade. It is only sensible to think that there were populated ports at the end of such a lengthy sea voyage to greet the fleets from the east.


The Azteca-Mexica-Tenocha, that later become the Aztecs, enter Mexico from the north and attack and destroy Tula the capitol of the Toltec, sending streams of refugees fleeing, many to the east and northeast.


Three fleets of Welsh of Norse descent cross the Atlantic seeking their ancient colony of Avalon but sail too far to the south and sail into the Gulf of Mexico, two land near the Coosa River while the third, blown further off course, enters the Mississippi River.


An important year around the world and especially in North America. A few of the high points of the beginning of that century are:

  • The climate worldwide is disrupted by a series of massive volcanic eruptions, bringing drought to some areas and flooding to others, volcanic dust in the atmosphere causes crops fail, life-stock fails to reproduce or dies, and whole economic systems are changed or fail. Panic stricken survivors migrate in all directions, following ancient routes trying to find a place where they can survive.
  • The Azteca-Mexica-Tenocha in northern Mexico are joined by the Chichimec, also of northern origin and together they invade the Valley of Mexico in mass, sending refugees racing away from their onslaught.
  • The Welsh that landed on the Coosa River have been moving north, leaving a string of stone structures in Alabama, Georgia and Tennessee.
  • The city of Mayapan in Mexico is built under the direction of the white-skinned god-king Kukulacan.
  • The Inca Empire is established in Cuzco Peru and some of their predecessors migrate to the north to escape or even survive.
  • The Mississippians build the Moundsville Mounds on the Black Warrior River at Tuscaloosa Alabama, Battle Mound in Lafayette Arkansas, Tolu Mound in Crittenden Kentucky and the Twin Mounds in Ballard Kentucky to name just a few.
  • The capitol temple-city of the Atztalan in Wisconsin reaches its’ largest size & importance, its’ influence spreading out for hundreds of miles.
  • The Anasazi of Chaco Canyon New Mexico are connected throughout their 95,000 square mile empire by six systems of accurately surveyed and skillfully engineered 30 foot wide, bermed, perfectly straight roads.


Genghis Kahn of Mongolia begins his conquest in Asia, forcing the migration to the northeast of thousands of refugees , which cross the Bering Sea to North America and spread down into the continent. Genghis Kahn is noted for his red hair, inherited from a western ancestor.


A prolonged drought worsens, it is partly due to the volcanic eruptions of 1200, causing the social order for the Hohokam & Anasazi of the southwest to collapse. Some seeking survival migrate off to other parts of the continent.


Is considered by most to be the beginning of the Little Ice Age that soon blocks trans-Atlantic travel in the North Atlantic. People and events from across the continent leave their imprint on the land and our Kikilemanaki.

  • Some of our Kikilemanaki are located in the Savannah River valley of South Carolina and Georgia, Their villages reach into Alabama, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and Kentucky.
  • The Yucatan city of Chichen Itza is overthrown by rival city Mayapan, survivors and refugees follow ancient trade routes toward their distant colonies.
  • Norse settlers leave Greenland by the hundreds for the colony of Normubega in New England, south of Vinland, east & north of Greater Ireland.
  • Explorers & traders from West Africa are present in the Caribbean Islands, the Gulf Coast & Mexico.
  • Mississippians build the Old Town Mounds and the Jarman Farms Mounds in Williamson Tennessee and Beasley Mound in Smith Tennessee.
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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.

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