Select Page

Apalache Vs. Apalachee

We are getting a whole bunch of emails from readers, all containing the same questions. Readers are confused about the difference between the words, Apalache versus Apalachee – and their relation to the Track Rock Terrace Complex. Hope this note answers your questions.


Apalachee is the name that the Spaniards gave to the Muskogeans of the Florida Panhandle. According to Charles Rochefort, these people called themselves the Alachua. They traded regularly with the real Apalache, but had a different language, government and religion.


The cultural descriptions of Rochefort indicate that Apalache was the name of the original Creek Confederacy. The “kingdom” of Apalache also included the western North Carolina Mountains, but did not include the coastal area of Georgia, which this book (1665) said was still occupied by Caribbean peoples. The Caribbean peoples initially invaded all the way into the North Carolina Mountains, but now they were a minority in the Piedmont and mountains, and vassals of the Muskogeans.

There was a “national” language for the Apalache “kingdom” which appears to be Itsate (Hitchti) Creek. However, Rochefort stated that among the provinces of Apalache were peoples speaking many dialects and more than one language.

Apalache’s capital was originally somewhere in the vicinity of Ocmulgee National Monument (Macon,GA) but when Caribbean peoples invaded from the south, the capital was moved northward twice. The “religious capital” in the 1600s was in the Nottely River Valley near Brasstown Bald Mountain, GA. The Nacoochee Valley was also considered sacred to these early Creek Indians. It is about 21 miles SE of Track Rock Gap.

There were two complexes of stone structures in the Capital of Apalache. The elite lived in stone structure complexes on the sides of the mountains. Spaniards from Santa Elena, who traded with the Apalache, called the older stone structure complex, Copal. Rochfort said that the priests in the stone temple on the side of a mountain burned incense there. The oldest temple complex faced the Winter Solstice Sunset. That is the Track Rock Terrace Complex. The second temple complex faced the sunrise of the Summer Solstice. The location of the Summer Solstice complex is being kept a secret for obvious reasons. We have also identified several small stone terrace complexes in the Georgia Mountains.

The town along the river where the commoners lived was called Melilot by the French Huguenots and was attacked by the Kashita in the Migration Legend of the Kashita People (incorrectly called “Creek People” by este-hatka.) The commoners lived in rectangular post-ditch wattle & daub houses. The elite’s clothing and lifestyles seem very Mesoamerican, while Rochefort’s description of the commoners sounds identical to that of the Creek Indians when first encountered by British colonists in the late 1600s. In fact, all of the descriptions of culture, architecture and clothing in this book seem 100% accurate for the Creek Indians at the time of European Contact.

Cherokee legend has it that the Cherokees destroyed the capital of Apalache after stealing two ruby eyes from a serpent idol in a mountain top temple. However, according to Rochefort, by the 1660s, the capital of Apalache was practicing a monotheistic religion that mixed Jewish, Protestant and Native customs. Tis quite odd that in December 2012 the North Carolina Cherokees claimed to have built the same structures that their own legends say they destroyed. What the USFS says about the matter is totally irrelevant.

Hope that clears up the confusion, until we can get a more complete description published.

The following two tabs change content below.
Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.


  1. Charles Rochefort did not say that at all. Remember, Marilyn Rae and I wrote the only American published book on Charles de Rochefort. He said that the people that the Spanish called Apalachee, did not call themselves by that name, but instead Talahawalsee, which means, “Towns from the Highlands.” He said that the so-called Apalachee in Florida were originally colonists from the real Apalache in Northeast Georgia. Over time, the colonists absorbed the cultural traditions and language of another people, which De Rochefort did not name. In fact, I have discovered that most of the Florida Apalache towns had Arawak names. The name of the capital of the Apalache, Anahaica, means “Place of the Elite” in Peruvian Arawak.


    I’m wondering if you have any information on specific people from the Apalache area tribe? I have some information that I think I would like somebody to look at as well that I have noticed in some of the treaties I keep saying over and over and over may help us legally as a loophole. I apologize so obviously you see great attention to detail out a notice to Apalachee versus Apalache in the spelling and the importance of the app so what I’ve noticed is probably more wanting to fault in the treaties an actual fault. I actually have a meeting with I actually have a meeting with James Billy tomorrow possibly and would like to get any input. Thank you my phone number is 702-416-7683 my name is Angela Sexton I come from the Jones Cherokees I believe my grandfather was Edwin Eugene Jones my mother was opal Jones. Grandma Luna Amerson

    • The Creek and Seminole Indians are the direct descendants of the Apalache in North Georgia. In his speech to the leaders of Georgia on June 7, 1735, Principal Chief Chikili interchangeably used the words Coweta and Apalache. Near the end of the speech, he stated that they meant the same thing. Apalache is just the old word for Creek Indian.


    Do you have any information on specific people by name? My grandfather told me he spent $65,000 to secure our family DNA in the eighties but I don’t know with who and he’s dead


    Iam a student of the deerskin trade. Kathleen Holland Braun has thatwsome book, Deerr skin and Duffels. I was not aware of the Spanish Connectoion in Appalachia.


    I had no idea you were so involved with southeastern archaeology. Jerry and I have visited numerous mesoamerican sites (Mexico and Belize) and museums – Museo Nacional de Antropologia is amazing! I am seeing from your posts there is much to find out about around the southeast. Just found your blog… now I have a LOT of reading to do! Would love to hear from you. Send me an email if you have a minute.

    • Are you Mary Jane Lowe from Lakeshore High . . . and my neighborhood?


    YEP!! That’s me! I am now retired and living in Cumming – 3 years – after a lifetime “ITP” after college. Drop me an email at Family updates and shared archaeology/travel interests! Would love to connect again.


Leave a reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Subscribe to POOF via Email

Enter your email address to subscribe to this website and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 825 other subscribers

The Information World is changing!

People of One Fire needs your help to evolve with it.

We are now celebrating the 11th year of the People of One Fire. In that time, we have seen a radical change in the way people receive information. The magazine industry has almost died. Printed newspapers are on life support. Ezines, such as POOF, replaced printed books as the primary means to present new knowledge. Now the media is shifting to videos, animated films of ancient towns, Youtube and three dimensional holograph images.

During the past six years, a privately owned business has generously subsidized my research as I virtually traveled along the coast lines and rivers of the Southeast. That will end in December 2017. I desperately need to find a means to keep our research self-supporting with advertising from a broader range of viewers. Creation of animated architectural history films for POOF and a People of One Fire Youtube Channel appears to be the way. To do this I will need to acquire state-of-art software and video hardware, which I can not afford with my very limited income. Several of you know personally that I live a very modest lifestyle. If you can help with this endeavor, it will be greatly appreciated.

Support Us!

Richard Thornton . . . the truth is out there somewhere!

Pin It on Pinterest

Share This

Share this post with your friends!