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Author: Richard Thornton

Here’s the truth about the situation in Sweden

How idealistic Scandinavian politicians managed to invite a Trojan horse into paradise Creeks were always known for being much more cosmopolitan than Crackers, so we will look at an international issue today.  LOL  Normally, the People of One Fire only discusses Scandinavia in regard to Bronze Age petroglyphs, plus Saami (Lapp) DNA markers in Uchee and Creek descendants.  However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the balanced nature of Muskogean social values and political practices is vastly superior to what the mainstream of the United States has devolved to.   Folks need to start listening to Native Americans or they...

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Footnote: Second Pardo expedition definitely went to the north of Santa Elena

Juan Pardo went on several expeditions.  Neither the Wikipedia articles or the TV documentaries tell people this.   After returning to Santa Elena in early 1568,  the governor asked him to make a sweep through all the major Native American provinces in the region in order to obtain donations of food.  Santa Elena was starving, because Spaniards didn’t believe in manual labor.  It is a prevailing story wherever one goes in Latin America.  When neophyte Spanish colonies were starving, they would beg for food from nearby indigenous peoples.  As soon as the Spaniards were well fed, they treated those...

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Joara . . . what the public is not being told

PART TWO of the series on the Juan Pardo Expedition An educated Native American is an empowered Native American.  You may think that the interpretation of Early Colonial History has nothing to do with your tribe, but as we pointed in Part One,  skewed history is frequently used later on to justify whether or not tribes get federal/state recognition, grants or even appropriate representation in museums.  We saw in Georgia where the lust to build Cherokee casinos caused Creek festivals to be banned,  the Creek manager of Etowah Mounds to be fired and almost succeeded in Etowah Mounds National...

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The Search for Juan Pardo’s routes through the Appalachians

PART ONE A journey through the Southern Appalachian Mountains during the same months that de Soto and Pardo were there. In 1567, Captain Juan Pardo received orders from the Viceroy in La Habana de Cuba to find the shortest overland route from the new colony of Santa Elena on present day Parris Island, South Carolina to the Spanish silver mines in Zacatecas, Mexico.   Sephardic Jewish pirates based in the Bahamas;  French Huguenot privateers based in Gascony and Navarre; plus English privateers licensed by the new Protestant Queen Elizabeth I of England, were reeking havoc on the Spanish treasure fleets. ...

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Fascinating TV documentary on St. Catherines Island, Georgia

St. Catherines Island is part of the Golden Isles of Georgia and immediately north of the mouth of the Altamaha River.  It was one of the islands visited by the French Huguenot colonists of Fort Caroline in 1564 and 1565, but very soon thereafter became the site of one of the first Spanish missions in North America,  Mission Santa Catalina de Guale.  From around 1600 to 1685, it was the headquarters of the Spanish mission system on the South Atlantic Coast.  Plantations were developed here in the 1700s by Anglo-American colonists, which continued operation until the American Civil War. ...

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The Forgotten Garden Villages of the Blue Ridge Foothills

It was the dawn of permanent agricultural settlements in North America . . .  1000 BC – 300 BC The year is 1939.  With the blessing of  the famous archaeologist,  Arthur Kelly, young South Carolina archaeologist, Robert Wauchope, had been hired by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) to conduct a comprehensive survey of all of North Georgia.  He was to simultaneously become the first anthropology professor at the University of Georgia.  It was an extraordinary project that on paper was presented as primarily a means to provide jobs for down-and-out cotton farmers, laid low by the boll weevil. Wauchope...

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Eric Boot’s research on the Itza and Chichen Itza now available online

  As we told you in an article late last year,   Dutch ethnologist, Eric Boot, died recently.   However, his legacy goes on. has posted his articles on the Itza Mayas and Chichen Itza.  They may be downloaded for free.  Here is a link to one of his articles: Eric was one of the very few scholars, writing in English, who really sought to know the various peoples called “Maya” as people.  Generally, I have to go into Spanish language texts to learn such things as that the Tamulte de Sabanos de Tabasco practice the same cultural traditions...

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For years, Georgia tried to build a Cherokee reservation and casino at the Atlanta Airport!

  The People of One Fire has had over six thousand new readers join us in the past few days because of our news stories on proposed Native American gambling casinos. Hope you enjoy some of our other articles on the fascinating and ancient history of the indigenous peoples of the Southeast. They are actually a lot more fun than gambling . . . and free! What you don’t know about is the incredible machinations that have been going on behind the scenes since the mid-1980s in order to change Georgia’s history.  Not only did the Atlanta Journal Constitution...

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Koasati, Cusate, Cusseta, Coushetta . . . what’s the difference?

  In the late 20th century, University of North Carolina graduate and University of Georgia professor, Charles Hudson, unilaterally translated the European spellings of numerous Creek words in the chronicles of the De Soto and Pardo Expeditions without consulting either a Creek dictionary or the Creek People. He was consistently wrong.  Some he even labeled “ancient Cherokee words, whose meanings have become lost.”  Because from that generation onward anthropology in Southeastern universities has been characterized by rote replication of the opinions of authority figures rather than training students how to think and analyze, his mistakes have become fossilized.  Any...

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Would you believe that Kituwah is an Alabamu word?

  A white skinned, balding, bearded, (authentic) Cherokee just ordered me on LinkedIn to stop spreading my sick, delusional lies. He said that the Creator gave the name Kituwah to all Cherokees.    Well . . . guess the Creator is an Alabamu from Wetumka, Alabama. You see both the words kitani and kituwa are Alabamu words, meaning “sorcerer” and “sacred fire.”   They are derived from the Alabamu root verb, kitaaya, which means “to start a fire.”   Footnotes in the Alabamu dictionary will tell you that originally kitani was the name of the priest, who started and maintained the sacred...

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