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Changes in European DNA can be correlated with events in the Americas

Changes in European DNA can be correlated with events in the Americas


The same people once lived in southern Scandinavia,  northern Scotland and western/northern Ireland.

Before I publish any more books, I am trying to get as much factual information on the Scandinavian Bronze Age petrolyphs in the North Georgia Gold Belt, plus the ancient European words in the Creek and Uchee languages. The facts just keep on changing. Københavns Universitet (University of Copenhagen) has just released a genetic study of the archaic Danes and southern Swedes.  These are the people, who lived in southern Scandinavia after around 1700 BC, but before the arrival of northern Germans.  The northern Germanic peoples spoke languages ancestral to Danish, Swedish, Gothic, Frisian and Anglo-Saxon English. These were NOT the same people, who created the Nyköping Petroglyphs around 2000 BC.  The situation gets really complicated because, according to the Anglo-Saxon scholar, Bede,  the Picts and the original Anglisk lived in southern Sweden.  Old Anglisk became a Germanic language after the Anglisk moved to southern Denmark. Based on recent genetic studies, It is the Picts, who seem most closely related to the petroglyphs in Dundee, Scotland, western Ireland, the Etowah Valley of Georgia, Tepoztlan, Mexico and Peru. 

From POOF’s series on linguistics we learned that there are four principal suffixes that mean “people, tribe or nation” among the Indigenous Peoples of the Southeastern United States.  They are:  (1) re/le/li [Early Bronze Age Swedish, Pictish, Archaic Irish, Uchee, Southern Siouan, northern Gulf Coast of Mexico, Chontal Maya  (2) ge/ke [Irish Gaelic, Algonquian, Shawnee, Cherokee and Muskogee-Creek], (3) Kora/kola/koa [Archaic Scot, Highland Apalache, Apalachicola, Choctaw, Chickasaw, northern Arawak, middle Arawak] and (4) te [Itza Maya, Itsate-Creek, Hitchiti, Miccosukee].


Comparison of symbols at the Nyköping Petroglyphs (2000 BC) to those at Track Rock Gap in NE Georgia.  Nyköping was a center of the trade of Baltic amber for tin and copper from SW Britain.

The riddle of the Bronze Age Petroglyphs

Section of the Nyköping petroglyhs

The petroglyphs at Track Rock Gap, the Forsyth Stone. Tugaloo Rock and the Nacoochee Stela in Northeast Georgia are identical to some of the oldest known petroglyphs in Scandinavia.  All but two of the designs on the six Track Rock Gap boulders can be found at Nyköping, Sweden, where they have been dated to 2000 BC.  On the other hand,  petroglyphs in the Etowah-Amicolola River Basin in Georgia, the Copper Mountains near Tepoztlan, Mexico and a section of Peru, where the Spanish encountered light-skinned, blue-eyed Indians, are identical to later Bronze Age designs in Southern Scandinavia,  northern Scotland, western Ireland, plus Asturia and Galicia in Spain.  The petroglyphs in Georgia, southwestern Ireland and Asturia/Galicia are located in gold-mining regions.  There is no gold in Denmark and southern Sweden. 

Several of the Nyköping and later Bronze Age glyphs became “sacred symbols” among the Uchee and Creek peoples.  They also can be seen on rock faces in Parawan Gap, Utah.  One of the glyphs at Nyköping and in Northeast Georgia became the Maya glyph meaning “Great Sun” or “high king.”  Based on the petroglyphs,  it appears that during the Bronze Age at least two distinct ethnic groups from Northwest Europe settled in the Southeast and blended in with the locals.  So far, I can find no other examples of the writing system at Nyköping . . . except in the Americas . . . and probably of much later date. The portrayal of numbers in the Maya writing system also seems to have been derived from the Nyköping system.


A Pan-North Atlantic Neolithic Culture?

For over 25 years, Dr. Gordon Freeman of the University of Alberta studied the “sun wheels” on the prairies of eastern Alberta.  He soon noticed that many strongly resembled the earliest forms of “stonehenges” in Northwestern Europe.  However, radiocarbon dating revealed that those in Canada were anywhere from a thousand to 500 years older than their counterparts in Northwestern Europe.  The oldest Sun Wheel in Alberta has been dated to about 3,500 BC.  The earliest Stone Circle site in the British Isles dates to about 3000 BC.  THE Stonehenge was a major ceremonial site by around 2500 BC.  However, in recent years Russian and Scandinavian archaeologists have identified “sun circles” and “sun wheels,” associated with the ancestors of the Sami, in southeastern Finland and the northwestern tip of Russian.  They are slightly younger than their counterparts in Canada.  This suggests that there were cultural connections between the three regions. 

Genetic analysis seems to support ancient ties across the North Atlantic. As seen in the map above, Haplogroup R is concentrated on both sides of the North Atlantic today.  However, different sub-types of R tend to predominate on either side of the Atlantic . . . suggesting that the admixtures occurred long ago. 

The Copper Age began around 2500 BC in Scandinavia.  Over time, this evolved into a very advanced Bronze Age Civilization. From the beginning, the acquisition of copper and tin by Proto-Scandinavians for making bronze required sophisticated maritime skills, since there were no known major copper deposits in Scandinavia until the 1700s AD.  The subjugation in the 18th century of the Sami by Swedes was a direct result of gold, copper and iron deposits being found on their land.  The primary source of tin for Bronze Age Scandinavia was always in southwestern Britain. 

The “High” Scandinavian Bronze Age Civilization is considered to have run from around 2400 BC to around 1200 BC.  The Danish Archipelago and lower elevations of southern Sweden were devastated around 1200 BC by a storm or tsunami, which leveled all the trees and left a deposit of muck as much as a meter thick in Denmark.  The most likely culprit is now thought to be an asteroid or comet impact on the North Sea around 1170 BC.  A less vigorous Bronze Age culture appeared afterward, in which, lacking dependable access to copper, the region devolved back to a violent Neolithic Culture that practiced human sacrifice and slavery, until the technology for making iron tools reached the region around 500 BC. 

It has been long assumed that different peoples lived in southern Scandinavia before and after the apocalyptic event.  Genetics has determined that was a genetic change began in northern Germany around 1700 BC then it worked its way northward through southern Scandinavia.  It could be that the catastrophe around 1170 BC did an ethnic cleansing of the aboriginal people in the southern tip of Sweden and Denmark, who created the Nyköping  petroglyhs, while they remained for several centuries farther north in southern Sweden.

Genetic maps match petroglyph locations

As can be seen in the map at the top of the article, it is now known that a new population began settling on the coastal areas in southern Scandinavia, prior to  the “cultural extinction event.”  They were “Proto-Celts.”  The survivors of the catastrophe apparently intermarried with the ancestors of the Celts.  Over time, many of the people with this admixture, the Picts and Scots, left Scandinavia then settled northern and eastern Scotland, plus the northern tip and western edge of Ireland.  The majority of Ireland’s population, however, are descended from Proto-Celtic peoples, who crossed the heart of Europe much earlier to reach the British Isles.  Most likely, it was the Proto-Celts, who introduced human sacrifice,  slavery and chronic tribal warfare to southern Scandinavia.  The important link to our path of research is that the locations, where the same petroglyphs appear on both sides of the Atlantic are where the hybrid Celtic-Sami peoples from Scandinavia settled.

Scandinavian geneticists now believe that ancestors of the Sami once occupied all of Scandinavia and northwestern Russia. They were Eurasians, who looked quite similar to mixed-blood Native Americans of mostly Asiatic heritage.  The Sami carry very little R1 (male) haplogroup chromosomes, unlike peoples to the southeast and southwest, which shows that they never became dominated by immigrants, who became the Celts.  That is not the case with modern Scandinavians, who carry substantial R1b DNA.  Any copper mining or immigration activity between Early Bronze Age Scandinavia and North America is likely to have been by people related to the Sami, since the Celtic tribes did not start entering the region until 1700 BC.    Yet, the petroglyphs in the Etowah Valley of Georgia, Tepoztlan Valley in Mexico, east central Peru and the interior of New Zealand are identical to hybrid Celtic-Sami petroglyphs, not those at Nyköping, Sweden.

These copper artifacts, found in the Great Lakes Basin, are identical to their counterparts in southern Scandinavia. Note the grain sickles!

Implications for understanding the ancient history of the Americas

There seems to have been multiple periods before the Iron Age, when there was direct contact and migration between Northwestern Europe and the Americas.  Genetic maps suggest that the Algonquians migrated from an Ice Age enclave in western Siberia to northeastern North America, not via the Bering Strait.  However, linguistics suggest that the Algonquians are distantly related to the Gaelic peoples of Ireland.  There is no other explanation for the same suffix being used on both sides of the Atlantic. 

(1) Archaic period: The fact that stonehenges appeared first in Canada suggests that the ancestors or relatives of the Algonquians may have immigrated to northwestern Europe during the Neolithic Period.  This is the theory of Dr. Gordon Freeman at the University of Alberta.

  • Around 3500 BC,  humans were (1) building a mound and artificial harbor on the Savannah River, (2) constructing an earthen ring with superimposed mounds at Watson Brake, LA,  (3) Massive Sun Wheels were being constructed in Alberta. (4) Indigenous plants were being domesticated in the Southeast,  Mesoamerica, Peru and the Amazaon Basin, while cities and earthen pyramids were being constructed in Peru.  Nothing particularly spectacular was going on in the British Isles and Scandinavia.
  • The appearance of pottery and shell rings in the vicinity of the Savannah River around 2350 BC closely followed an apocalyptic flood, which occurred in Ireland and Britain for about 20 years. According to recent archaeological studies, the aboriginal populations primarily remained in the mountains of western Ireland, plus the mountainous northern half of the island of Britain.
  • Around 1700 BC, there were climatic disturbances in the Mediterranean Basin and Middle East.  Intense heat forced Middle Eastern farmers to migrate northward and into Europe.  An earthquake forced the river flowing past the Indus Valley city of Harrapa into another channel.  This caused Harrapa to be abandoned and triggered a general outmigration from the region, perhaps to many parts of the world.  The DNA of the Red-Haired Maori of New Zealand has been traced to the mountainous southern tip of Iran, next to the Indus Valley. These people practiced terrace farming from the Neolithic Period to the present.  Genetic testing of the indigenous Araucana chicken of Peru have revealed that its closest relative was the domesticated chicken of the Indus Valley during the Bronze Age. 
  • The time period around 1700 BC is highly significant in the Americas.  Newcomers arrived at Poverty Point, Louisiana about that time.  Newcomers arrived on the coast of Vera Cruz and Tabasco States, Mexico about that time.  That event is considered the beginning of the so-called “Olmec” Civilization.  The real Olmecs did not settle in that region until around 1000 AD or later.   Newcomers also arrived in the vicinity of the future Maya City of El Mirador about that time.  This event is considered the beginning of the Maya Civilization.
  • The catastrophic impact of an asteroid or comet into the North Sea around 1170 BC, would have wiped out most of the population of the Denmark Archipelago, but would have also flooded adjacent lands without necessarily killing the majority of the population.  The Uchee have consistently stated that their ancestors crossed the Atlantic from “the home of the Sun” and settled in the vicinity of the mouth of the Savannah River.  The appearance of the Deptford Culture is probably associated with their arrival, but this is not known for certain.  Beaker-shaped Deptford Culture cord-marked pottery was virtually identical to the cord-marked “beaker ware” of southern Scandinavia, northern Scotland and Ireland.  Both cultures were known for making flint swords.  The photo on the right is of an exhibit of Early Bronze Age artifacts in an Irish museum  . . .  not a museum in the Southeastern United States!

A 19th century Lakota or Cheyenne sketch? No, this is Sami art from the 18th century!

(2) Early Woodland Period:  Deptford  Culture (Georgia) and Adena Culture (Upper Ohio Basin) houses were identical to those of the Southern Sami in Sweden and Norway.  The Sami also utilized teepees, when hunting or following migratory herds. There is not much cultural information on the Southern Sami during the Bronze Age, but I strongly suspect that it strongly resembled Adena art.  I googled “Sydsamisk konst” and found two samples of Southern Sami art.  In particular, the copper buckle and wampum belt below strongly resembles surviving Adena artifacts and the wampum belts of Great Lakes tribes.  

The Deptford Culture People were dark complexioned Proto-Sami, who first intermarried with Celtic newcomers then over the centuries intermarried with American Indians to such an extent that 18th century Europeans assumed that they were full-blooded American Indians.  The Uchees were also the demographic foundation of most branches of the Creeks.  This is what genetically defines their differences between pure Muskogeans, such as the Choctaw and Chickasaw.

This is a Sami WAMPUM belt. The Samis have been making shell-bead belts for thousands of years.

(3) Middle and Late Woodland Period:  Significant cultural influence from Northwestern Europe on the Southeastern Indigenous Peoples ended with the onset of the Deptford Culture around 1100-1000 BC.  From then on, using Celtic Bronze Age motifs as a base, the eclectic Southeastern cultures developed home grown modifications then became strongly influenced by concepts from South America and Mesoamerica.

  • Caches of Roman coins have been found in Kentucky and West Virginia caves.  What appears to be Irish Ogam writing has been found engraved on rocks in the New England, Upper South,  Lower Midwest and eastern Southern Plains.  Ogam first appeared in Ireland during the Late Iron Age and became more commonplace in the Roman Period.  Late 20th century advocates of a European origin for the Southeastern Moundbuilders described these possible ogam engravings as dating from the Bronze Age in order to “prove” that the mounds were built by Europeans.  As stated earlier, though,  there are mounds in Louisiana and Georgia which date from around 3500 BC.  They predate similar mounds in Ireland and Scandinavia.
  • Some sporadic contacts with Europe may well have continued into the Late Bronze Age (1000 BC-500 BC), Iron Age (500 BC-100 AD), Roman-Iron Age (100 AD-500 AD) on to the Early Medieval Period.
  • Professional archaeologists have found bronze and iron weapons & tools INSIDE Woodland Period mounds, particularly on the Georgia Coast and in the Northeast Georgia Mountains. These items were duly noted, but not discussed.
  • For example,  in 1925, archaeologist Warren K. Moorehead found heavily oxidized iron tools and weapons deep inside a mound near the Coosawattee River in Ellijay, Georgia.  He listed the find in his report, but because he didn’t understand the presence of iron tools, he never discussed them again.
  • In 1937, the Smithsonian Institute assigned archaeologist James Ford to investigate an 18th century sugar mill on the south bank of the Altamaha River . . . near the earthen ruins of Fort San Mateo. Ford initially unearthed 16th century French and Spanish china and cooking implements.  In lower layers, he found first ancient iron weapons then bronze tools and weapons.  He interpreted all of the artifacts as belonging to a late 16th century Spanish army camp site . . . actually the upper level was Fort Caroline!   Nevertheless, the Spanish stopped using bronze swords and axes around 600 BC!

Map by Visconti (1524)

(4) Early Medieval Period Scandinavians – Winya Bay, SC:   Winya is the Early Medieval Swedish-Norse word for “pasture place” or “grape vine place,” depending on the specific pronunciation.  I am convinced that Vinland was on the South Atlantic Coast, where wild grapes and black walnuts are abundant.  This region is labeled “Witmannsland” (White Mans Land) in Early Medieval Anglo-Saxon monastic journals. Black walnuts hulls were found in the excavation of the Viking settlement in Newfoundland.   Further evidence can be found in Visconti’s navigation map of the 1524 voyage of Giovani de Verrazano down the Atlantic Coast of North America.  On the southern end, he strangely listed two coastal towns with Latinized Scandinavian names,  Normanvilla (Norseman Village), Longvilla (Long Village) and another labeled Angleland (English Land).

  • A långby (long village) was a specific type of Viking settlement, which stretched along the banks of a river.   It was associated with trading centers and very typical of the Rus settlements, established by Swedish Vikings. Long is NOT an Italian word.  If this was indeed the true location of Vinland, there is no evidence of the Scandinavians having a significant cultural impact other than contributing Scandinavian DNA to the genetic pools of coastal tribes.

(5) Early Medieval Period Irish – Duhare:  The first book written on the history of Georgia by William Bacon Stevens (1843) matter-of-factly begins with the statement that “early settlers on the coast of South Carolina and Georgia encountered some light-skinned Indians, who spoke Irish Gaelic.   Stevens then referenced some Irish and French monastic journals, which described several voyages from Ireland to Witmannsland by Irish, Anglo-Saxon and Norse refugees, during the Norman conquest of eastern Ireland in the late 1100s AD.  

  • The Normans severely persecuted Irish Christians, whose egalitarian religious practices were similar to those of the early Christians in Rome. French priests and bishops replaced Irish clerics.  The manors and farms of Irish, Anglo-Saxon and Norse parishioners were seized.  Many, who refused to worship in the “Roman Rite,” were burned at the stake.  It was not uncommon for Pre-Norman-Conquest Irish and Anglo-Saxon priests to marry.   Only monks and nuns were held to celibacy.  
  • Norse seamen from Dublin and Wexford furnished the ships for transportation to Witmansland.  The Scandinavians settled north of the Irish and Anglo-Saxon refugees.  This perfectly matches Visconti’s map.
  • The descriptions by Stephens and the Early Medieval monastic journals also perfectly match the description of Duhare.   In 1521, two Spanish slave raiders,  Francisco Gordillo and Pedro de Quejo, who visited Duhare before abducting two shiploads of Uchee/Creek slaves in the Province of Chicora.*   They described the people of Duhare as being very tall, freckled with red or brown hair.  They had a lighter complexion than most Indians, but there had obviously been some mixing.  The people of Duhare raised dairy deer and made cheese.  They lived in Native American style houses and made pottery similar to their indigenous neighbors.  They grew both indigenous crops and crops typical of Ireland.  They raised several animals only found in Europe.  The account by Gordillo also provided some of the names of their leaders.   For 500 years,  European and American scholars have ignored this story because “everyone knows that there is no such thing as a dairy deer.”

*North and South Carolina academicians have long gotten it wrong.  They place this slave raid in northeastern South Carolina.  However, the memoir of Captain René de Laudonnière clearly states that the capital of Chicora was 16 miles up the Savannah River, SOUTH of Port Royal Sound.   Chicora is the shortening of Apalachicora, the first capital of the Creek Confederacy, where Downtown Savannah is now located.

There was something about this story that rang true to me.   William Bacon Stephens is a highly reliable source for history. He would not have not included the mention of Irish-speaking Indians had it not been true.  The new Consul General of the Republic of Ireland in Atlanta, Paul Gleeson, to put me in touch with professors at Trinity College in Dublin.   I asked these professors to look over the story of Duhare and give me their thoughts.

All the Duhare words mentioned by Gordillo were Early Medieval Gaelic.   There is NO WAY that two Spanish mariners would have known the language of Ireland spoken 500 years earlier.  Duhare is the Hispanization of Du H’aire.   All the personal names were also modern Gaelic words.   For example, the Duhare Chieftain, Datha, was described as having colorful tattoos all over him.   That is exactly what Datha means! 

The professors told me something else very interesting.  The Gaels  . .  the last people to settle in Ireland before the Vikings arrived were from the Iberian Peninsula.  They were Celts from Galicia.  The Britons were also Celts, but their ancestors came from Gaul (France).  Gaels from Galicia, pushed the Scots up into the northern edge of the island and the Ciare (dark skinned people) into the southwestern mountains.

Well-l-l, would you believe that the Irish raised domesticated dairy deer for thousands of years?   There were no dairy goats in Ireland until introduced by the Vikings in the 900s AD.  There were no dairy cows in Ireland, until introduced by Norman monks in the 1200s AD.   The Osrey People of Leinster were known for their dairy deer cheese and specialized in both dairy deer and meat deer husbandry.  The Osrey were known to be very large and said to have been descended from “giants,” who once inhabited Ireland.  Osrey means “Deer People.”  It was at that point that I realized that the pre-Gaelic suffix for “tribe or nation” was the same as the suffix for “tribe or nation,” commonly seen in the Southeast.   OMG!

Look up the Norman Subjugation of Ireland in any standard Irish History Text, such as Wikipedia.   You will see that during the late 1100s, Leinster, especially the Osrey part of Leinster, bore the brunt of Norman atrocities and land grabs.  All the pieces of the puzzle fell together.

The people of Duhare eventually moved a little westward and joined the Creek Confederacy in the 1700s.  They were closely related to the people of Tuckabatchee (Tokahre) and so probably eventually became associated with Tuckabatchee . . . which was originally on the Chattahoochee River near Atlanta.  The tall, brawny, freckled Creek warriors of Tuckabatchee developed a reputation for being folks that you definitely did not want to mess with.    Today, their DNA is spread all over the Creek and Seminole Peoples.  

There is a reason why the most important symbol of the Uchee and Creeks,  the Sacred Fire, was considered the most sacred symbol of the Celtic Peoples.  If you are Uchee, Creek or Seminole,  your ancestral base came from Northwestern Europe . . .  then received multiple admixtures of various peoples of the Americas . . . mostly from Mesoamerica, Peru and the Amazon Basin.   Thus,  if you get a standard DNA test from a commercial genetics lab,  the lab employees will not know that a significant portion of your “Irish-Scottish-Scandinavian” DNA dates from those ancestors, who came to America, long, long before Columbus and therefore should be classified “Indigenous American.”

Now you know!


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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.



    4000 years old, highly advanced for the period and region, very little available information, “The passage is orientated towards the sunset, unlike other similar tombs in the region which tend to face towards sunrise.[2]”

    • That is the area of Spain, where it is now believed that Atlantis was located. The Gaels came from western Iberia and began building similar tombs in their new homeland.


    Richard, Thanks for Another Great article. The “painted ones” (blue paint) as the Romans called them are connected all the way to Peru with the DNA supporting you with a test completed on one of the red haired elongated skulls of Peru. This type of skull is also found around the black Sea were the Scots/Pics stated their people had once lived and then migrated to Spain. The main Sea port of Spain was Tarshish (built like Atlantis was described by Plato) which probably was trading with the Natives of Savanna Georgia (3400BC) and the Tin people of Alba (now called Cornwall area of England) the Greeks called the English island “Alba” (300BC). From the area of Western Spain it’s possible the Para-Kushe and some of the Scots/Picts migrated to the South East U.S. These 2 items on this Picti art only found in The Americas (Arizona large cacti / Florida manatee): and 2 major trading circular cities?

    • “Somebody” from Europe or Eurasia with blue eyes and light skin settled in Peru. I am still not sure who they were, but the Panoans, Uchee, Swedes and Danes use the same word for “living place” – bo. Cusabo means “Strong – Living Place of.”

  3. Aldavis@davismfg.cOm'

    How could I send you a photo of anmace that I found beside a dirt road in my home town of Montezuma Ga 63 years ago.


    Oh my goodness! Thank you so much for this article. So much is beginning to make sense to me now. . . .

    • thank you! Well, we still don’t have the whole picture, because there have been no DNA studies of the indigenous Southeastern tribes!



    Actually something unusual WAS happening in Scandinavia during the period of 3500 BC. This was the period when larger volumes of imported native copper from an unknown source was making its way into the region for around 200 years before abruptly ending around 3300 BC. Curiously, the largest Superior basin copper mine on Isle Royale started around *4500 BC* with production peaking shortly before activity ceased completely around *3400 BC*. Same situation occurred on the Keweenaw Peninsula.

    The Mesolithic and Early Neolithic in Scandinavia is described as follows…

    “Among the significant Early Neolithic characteristics is an early copper horizon, which started in the final
    Mesolithic with a few imported single finds dated from c. 4500–3700 BC, and flourished in the later Early
    Neolithic (EN II, c. 3500–3300 BC), making south Scandinavia comparatively richer in metal than central
    Europe in this phase. The paramount focus was on heavy copper flat axes, which represent a significant
    amount of copper imported to South Scandinavia together with metal forging technologies in the later
    phase (Klassen, 2000).”

    Lake Superior… (Note same time period)

    “Metal pollution detected at multiple locations on both Isle Royale and the Keweenaw Peninsula demonstrates mining activity occurred across the greater Lake Superior region from 6500 to 5400 yr BP (Figure 7).

    … Interestingly, a coherent cessation of lead emissions at multiple study sites after similar to 5400yr BP coincides with the onset of dry conditions found in regional paleoclimate proxy records.”

    It is entirely possible that copper could have been the reason for the construction of Watson Brake. As for the harbour on the Savannah River perhaps the Appalachian native copper (gold etc) deposits in Georgia and Tennessee that the Hopewell used were the objective?…

    • According to Om tidsbestämning inom bronsåldern med särskilt avseende på Skandinavien (“On Bronze Age dating with particular focus on Scandinavia”) – Scandinavia went from a Neolithic Culture directly into a Bronze Age around 1700 BC.


        The term ‘Bronze Ages’ has always been somewhat troublesome. Copper ore smelting from oxides and sulphides had already occurred by 5000 BC while hammered and heat treated native copper had been in use thousands of years before that. As for bronze itself, only the Egyptian and Nordic metalworks had any consistemcy in achieving 10% tin alloys. 70% of European ‘bronze’ during the period including arsenical alloys was nothing of the sort

        1700 BC was a very eventful time in the British Ises and Scandinavia, while the ‘Bronze Age’ proper was just heating up dozens of copper ore mines in Britain and Ireland were shut down with the only exception of the Great Orme with its easy to extract and smelt malachite ore. Perhaps this was the consequence of the arrival of large quantities of pure NA metal? Also a maritime trading monopoly in the metal was established. The Nordic metalworks acquired the same new source during this period that also arrived in the SouthEast of England complimenting the output of the Great Orme. The source of this metal is still speculative since the lead isotope signature suggests a source that older than most known deposits in Europe and Asia (300My+). Since most NA copper has lead in the low PPM any remelting with even the smallest amount of commonly high leaded 1%+/- European metal from a previously used crucible or open furnace would be enough to erase the NA lead isotope signature. The Cu65 isotope analysis is almost equally as useless but the NA metal is practically dead-on compared to the Eastern European and Iberian sources they think it may have come from.

        What I would love to see is the chemical analysis and the Pb 206,207,208 ratios of those 3500 BC Scandinavian native copper flat axes. With that information the issue of NA copper reaching the Old World during the early Neolithic could easily be addressed.

        Just wishing…

        • Dr. Gordon Freeman of Alberta University has pretty much proven that the concept of stone circles and sun wheels traveled from west to east. It would seem logical that these same people would have brought the knowledge of working native copper. Because the sun wheels in Karelia predate those in the British Isles, but post-date the oldest ones in Canada, I strongly suspect that the initial route was across the Arctic . . . which is the shortest route.


            Exactly… Occam’s Razor. Plus we also alreafy know that the copper had reached the Atlantic coast by 4000 BC. We know he Maritime Archaic folks were deep water swordfish fishermen and the Atlantic Nordics wrote the book on long distance ocean travel for their seal hunting endeavours. It all adds up perfectly. If there was any traffic at all between NA and Europe it could have brought some copper back and the gold standard to test is the native copper that was never melted.

            In any event it’s a travesty that the issue can not even be spoken of in acedemia.

            Thanks for all the great thought provoking articles and when I find that artifact match to our NA sources you’ll be the first to know.


    Uchee ‘Chief Langley’ wonder if that has something to do with the ‘scandanavian’ Long

    • Yes, Langley is the Anglicization of a Scandinavian name, in the portion of England conquered by the Norse and Danes. Long is spelled lång in the Scandinavian languages. The original word was långlik or långlig, which means long-like or tall.


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