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Cherokee Renegade Sour Mush and the Last Battle of the American Revolution

Cherokee Renegade Sour Mush and the Last Battle of the American Revolution

The true version of this fascinating story has been so altered by generations of folklore and more recent Cherokee Wannabe embellishments that it barely resembles what is told on state historic markers and in official Georgia history textbooks.  The last battle of the American Revolution was fought six weeks after a peace treaty had been signed in Paris.   The Pro-American Creeks in Northeast Georgia lost most of their land as a result, even though it was Creek scouts, who guided the Patriot Mounted Rifles to the hostile Cherokee village.

This is an excerpt from “The Native American History of the Etowah River Valley” in .  The complete version contains notes and cited references.

Sour Mush was the leader of a small band of mixed blood Cherokees in  the Wild Potato Clan.  Most in the clan were half- Cherokee or less.   His band lived in the Little Tennessee River Valley of Tennessee until around 1777, when the majority of Cherokee leaders sued for peace with the Continental Congress.

Those Cherokees, who wanted to continue war were declared outlaws and fled the Cherokee Nation to settle in NW Georgia or what is now Tennessee.  They settled on lands owned by the Upper Creeks, but since the Upper Creeks were also fighting the American Rebels, the renegade Cherokees were given asylum.   The Upper Creeks never dreamed that within a decade, most of the Cherokee population would join these refugees.

Sour Mush’s band of about 50 men, women and children established a hamlet on Long Swamp Creek about four miles north of the ruins of a satellite town of Etowah Mounds at the confluence of Long Swamp Creek and the Etowah River.  This ancient town was founded around 800 AD and abandoned in the 1600s.

There was never a Cherokee village named Long Swamp Creek.  No such village appears on maps or records of the Cherokee Nation, even though a Georgia state historic marker proudly proclaims its existence.    It was a myth created by early white settlers, who saw the ruins of the Proto-Creek town and assumed that Cherokees lived there.  Even the History of Pickens County, GA (1935) by Luke E.  Tate, states this fact.   Nevertheless, the website of that county’s historical society tells readers that “Long Swamp Creek was an important Cherokee town dating at least from the early 1700s.”

Near that historical marker is another one.  It proclaims the Battle of Taliwa, in which “the Cherokees won all of North Georgia at the close of the 40 year long Creek-Cherokee War.”    That battle never occurred.  There was no Creek town named Taliwa anywhere.  The entire Cherokee Nation was catastrophically defeated by the army of the town of Koweta and sued for peace to end the war.  In the peace treaty of  December 1754,  the Cherokee gave up all lands that they had conquered in Georgia and extreme western North Carolina since 1715 .   For the next 10 years, there were no Cherokees in Georgia. The 1785 official map of Georgia shows northwest and north-central Georgia occupied by the Creek Nation.

British Tory raiders bring trouble with them

Col. Thomas Waters commanded Loyalist garrisons at Ninety-Six, SC and Augusta, GA, until he was driven out of Augusta in June of 1781. He was married to a (at most*) 1/2 Cherokee woman named Sarah Hughes, who was a relative of Sour Mush. He and Sarah had a son, named George Morgan Waters in 1777.  Sarah was a 1/2 sister of Cherokees*, John Vann and Waw-li Vann (mother of Chief James Vann).

*It is difficult to assess true percentages of Native ancestry for these people in the late 18th century.  They had been intermarrying with Europeans and Middle Easterners for over a century.  Quite a few Cherokees, who are listed on current BIA records as “Full Bloods” have turned out to be less than 12% Native American – some as little as 2%.  Current Vann descendants are showing up with 0% Native American, but with high levels of Jewish, Iberian, Middle Eastern and Scottish mtDNA. 

Sarah Hughes had a brother Charles Hughes, who was involved in a complicated clan dispute with Sour Mush. A teen-aged James Vann killed his own uncle, who was Charles Hughes. Sarah Hughes also had 1/2 siblings named David Rowe and Richard Rowe. Affluent Cherokee men typically had multiple wives and concubines.

Waters band of Tories moved to a location next to Sour Mush’s hamlet in 1781, after being driven out of Augusta.  It is an exaggeration to call them soldiers.  They were really very violent, bushwhackers and thieves, whose tactics actually hurt the British cause in North America.

Upon arriving in the mountains, they immediately began committing atrocities on the frontier, which was about 150 miles to the southeast in east-central Georgia.  The bands of white and mestizo raiders generally killed all men, women and children when attacking a farmstead. They attacked on horseback. This was not the style warfare fought by traditional Cherokees.

Colonel Andrew Pickens and Major Elijah Clark led about 400 Georgia & South Carolina Mounted Rifle militiamen, on a raid into the North Georgia Mountains.   At that time (1783) they knew of only three significant “Cherokee” villages in Georgia – Tugaloo (Tocale), Nacossee (Nokoshe) and  Sour Mush.  As will be explained below that was not the case at all. There were 12 villages in the province with their own principal chief. They were NOT part of the Cherokee Nation at that time.

The first two villages Pickens’ Army visited did not contain any white raiders. Long Swamp Creek, located near present day Ball Ground, GA did.   The militiamen from South Carolina and Georgia attacked the village of Long Swamp Creek on October 22, 1783.*

*This was the last recorded military action of the American Revolution. The Treaty of Paris was drafted on November 30, 1782 and signed September 3, 1783. It took six weeks for the news of peace to reach North America and another month to reach the interior. 

The village quickly surrendered after the first attack, but allowed the Tories to escape the village first.  As a peace offering, the Sour Mush, (who was ethnic Cherokee) presented Andrew Pickens a treaty written in English, which gave the Americans the Creek Confederacy-owned lands in northeast Georgia. It did not give away Elati or Cherokee lands.  Most Creek men in Northeast Georgia were Patriots (including my gggg-grandfather) and were on the Georgia Coast at that time, fighting the British Rangers.

The Mounted Rifles quickly found where the Tory guerillas were hiding and attacked. It was a one-sided battle. According local folklore, all Tories, who were not killed in battle, were hung on the spot . . . including the wounded. This aspect of the battle was thought to be completely a myth until 1885 when a railroad was being built to open up the enormous marble deposits in this county.  The skeletons of several executed Tories were uncovered by a railroad cut near Nelson, GA.  However, Thomas Waters and most of his men did escape. Most fled up the Etowah River into eastern Lumpkin County, GA. Colonel Waters eventually showed up in Florida.

Treaty of Salicoa

Folklore and online Cherokee histories state that the treaty was signed with the Cherokee Nation in the “Great Cherokee town of Long Swamp Creek.”  That is malarkey.  The Elati were a separate people from either the Cherokees or the Muskogee Creeks.  They spoke a dialect of Hitchiti-Creek and had 12 villages with Creek, Yuchi and Arawak names. 

A few days after the Battle of Long Swamp Creek, Alexander Pickens and Elijah Clarke summoned the Principal Chief and 12 town chiefs of the Elati Tribe to meet at their principal village on Salacoa Creek in present day southeastern Gilmer County, GA on November 3, 1783. Its location is now the small town of Fairmont.

The  Elati chiefs signed the formal draft of the treaty. It included an added clause that recognized the northern boundary of Georgia as the southern boundary of the Cherokee Nation. This wording was also included in the wording of the later Treaty of Hopewell.  It should have raised some eyebrows.  If the chiefs signing the treaty were Cherokees, why did they want a treaty in which Georgia promised to keep the Cherokees out of their territory?

All European maps from 1754 to 1780 also showed the 35th longitude line (GA-NC-TN line) as the southern boundary of the Cherokee Nation. Apparently, the Elati were expecting the State of Georgia to protect them from the increasing number of Cherokees moving down from Tennessee.

Although a legion of Cherokee history texts and web sites call the Treaty of Long Swamp a treaty between the Cherokee Nation and the State of Georgia, neither party was involved and the treaty was not even at Long Swamp Creek – It was about 25 miles away at the Elati capital of Salicoa . This treaty was between a tribe forgotten by history with a militia colonel from South Carolina. The treaty only gave away Creek land in Northeast Georgia that was not owned or occupied by the Elati or South Carolina. In fact, on the official maps, the Elati themselves were living on Upper Creek land.

Colonel Pickens would soon take care of that problem.  When Congress declared the treaties of Salicoa and Hopewell Plantation invalid,  Pickens told Georgia officials to go ahead and fill the Creek lands with settlers, so the Creeks would be forced to give away the lands anyway.   When Creek leaders later reluctantly agreed to sign off on what an accomplished fact,   they thought that they were only ceding the land east of the Oconee River.  It was depleted of game and not particularly good for corn farming anyway.

The aftermath

Georgia officials sneaked in vague wording  into the Creek Treaty, which then (they thought) gave license to sign a separate treaty with the actual Cherokee Nation, while ignoring their treaty with the Elati Tribe.  This treaty designated Northwest Georgia as Cherokee hunting lands to be shared with existing Creek and Chickasaw villages.   However, Cherokee families flooded into Northwest Georgia in the late 1780s.   When the Creeks found out about the secret Cherokee treaty in 1790,  they declared war on the State of Georgia.  Upper Creeks staged a series of raids into Northeast Georgia, but soon called off hostilities, when they learned that under the new Federal Constitution, they were now be at war with the United States.

The various myths now appearing on Georgia state historic markers about “the Cherokees conquering all of North  Georgia” were created by the editor of the Cherokee Phoenix newspaper,  Elias Boudinot.   They are pure fiction.   The State of Georgia hoodwinked the Creeks and Cherokees.  It stole the Creeks’ lands without compensation then got a promise from the federal government that in return for Georgia ceding what is now Alabama and Georgia,  the Cherokees would be moved out of Georgia to Alabama by the year 1800.

This is why Georgians were so aggressive in pushing the Cherokees out of their state in the 1820s and 1830s.   Georgians considered the Cherokees to be non-indigenous squatters.   Perhaps this is the reason that later generations in the state put up the legion of state historic markers that told a very different story.

Around 1785,  most of the Sour Mash band moved westward into what is now Bartow County, GA.   The land was much more fertile there.  A niece of Sour Mush,  Sallie Hughes,  developed a turnpike running along the edge of the Cohutta and Pine Log Mountains, plus a ferry over the Etowah River.  She became one of the wealthiest people in the Cherokee Nation.

At the end of the Revolutionary War, Thomas Waters took his son to the Bahamas, and later the Colonel went back to England, but his wife and son returned to Georgia to regain Waters’ the large land holdings. George M. Waters was the 2nd wealthiest Cherokee (90 African slaves) enrolled on the 1835 Census.

The Waters family remained in Georgia when the rest of the tribe was removed to Indian Territory (Oklahoma).  George Waters owned a large plantation on the Chattahoochee River in Gwinnett County, which he was able to retain by petitioning for state citizenship.  The Waters Family were so light skinned that they were assumed to be pure Caucasian by later generations.

Little is known about the other men, who served under Colonel Waters.   Some were probably killed by vigilantes, but apparently most “disappeared from the radar” of angry Patriots by blending in with the Cherokees.   They seemed to have settled down with their mixed blood Cherokee wives in present day Lumpkin and Dawson Counties, GA.  Several roads near the Etowah and Amicalola Rivers in those counties bear the names of men in Waters’ Band of Tories.  Because their children were mostly of European ancestry, it would have soon been very easy for the families to label themselves whites.

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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.



    Family oral history is that we are part Cherokee, but my ancestors assimilated into the white culture and I’ve found no documented proof of our native ancestry. However, I am first and foremost a truth seeker and greatly appreciate your work and this blog. And after reading your work, I find I’m hoping that in reality we are part Creek. 🙂

    Thank you for your interesting posts and sharing them with others.

    • Hey Angela
      What part of Georgia did your family live in back in the early 1800s. That would be the best way of determining. It is not as simple as it seems. Almost all Native Americans in Fannin and Murray Counties are either Uchee or Creek, because the Cherokees were captured, but the tribes were not on anybody’s pick up list.

      Richard T.


        In the early 1800’s, our family was in Jackson Co., Tennessee and before settling there, they lived in Caswell Co., NC. I don’t know of any Georgia connection at this time.

        Maybe I’m just a Creek wannabe. 🙂

        • Hey Angela

          Caswell County, NC is a Saponi area. They were also known as the Eastern Blackfeet.

          However, to the northwest in Southwestern Virginia were the Tamahiti, who were Creek, but returned to Georgia in the 1720s.

          Jackson County, TN was Chickasaw country. The Chickasaws were first cousins of the Creeks and were actually members of the original Creek confederacy. The Georgia Chickasaw town of Ustanauli relocated to Jackson County when NW Georgia was given to the Cherokees. The Ustanauli had intermarried with Jewish miners in their aboriginal region. The famous trader and historian, James Adair, married a woman who was half Ustanauli Chickasaw and half Jewish.

          Another possibility is that you had a Creek slave in your heritage. I can trace my Creek ancestry back to Creek slave named Mary, who was in Fredericksburg, VA when freed. King George II freed all Native American slaves in 1752. Mary returned to her homeland in South Carolina with a Scottish husband a couple of years later, but most of their children married other Creeks.


            Thank you! You’ve been most helpful! My grandmother told me we were “Blackfeet.” She didn’t disagree with the report of Cherokee ancestry, but took me aside and said it was Blackfeet. 🙂 I’ve discovered she has been very accurate with the information she recorded in the family Bible and passed on to her grandchildren. I will also investigate the Chickasaw, as my 3rd Great Grandfather went to Jackson Co. in the early 1800’s. May the good Lord bless you for helping shed some light on my family history. 🙂


    So Richard I have a question if this war didn’t take place when and where did Nancy Ward’s first husband Kingfisher die?

    • Maybe they were fighting the Chickasaws or something. The discovery about the Battle of Taliwa being non-existant was made by a team of University of Oklahoma professors in 2008. All they found in the colonial records of South Carolina and Georgia was that there was a real fear that the Kowetas were going to wipe the Cherokees off the face of the earth. The Cherokees signed a peace treaty with all other branches earlier in the year. They had been on the retreat for a long time. The Cherokees surrendered to Koweta in December of 1754. So in 1755 there was no Cherokee Creek War going on. Let me write a article on this, so every will understand.


        Please do write more on this. Really interesting about the Taliwa battle misinformation, as well as the actual identify of the Georgia Cherokees who were displaced from Georgia.


    Richard, my 5th great grandfather – Col. James Little was very likely with Generals Clarke and Pickens on these raids in the upper Etowah country. He was Ga. Militia and played a key role at the Battle of Kettle Creek before that where he was shot and almost died. So they were all colleagues. These “treaties” with “Cherokees” were of course illegal under the Articles of Confederation. A good deal of the land they took went toward creating the original sized Franklin County in NE Georgia. Little got his land bounty grant near present day Carnesville. I’ve been to the place where he is buried near the old homestead and have some stunning photos of his and wife’s gravestones. This is all interesting family history but not something I’m proud of in regards to Creek or Cherokee Indians. Little fought off several of these retaliatory raids in the Carnesville area that you mention above as he was also commander of Wilkins Station one of a string of blockhouse forts called “The Western Line of Defense” for the settlers to shelter from Indian raids. Thanks for the article.

    • Mark, would you believe that my Creek ancestors took shelter in those forts? Alexander McGillivray ordered the Upper Creek war parties to attack the Creeks farmsteads in NE Georgia because they had been Patriots. McGillivray was a Tory raider during the American Revolution. The bitterness toward the Muskogee Creeks because of these raids continued into the late 20th century. I didn’t even know that a Muskogee was a Creek until I was in my early 20s.

    • That is correct. Mooney did not know what he was doing. I have all the published maps of Georgia from the 1500s 1600s, 1700s and early 1800s, plus one obtained from the New Echota National Landmark library. There was never a Cherokee village named Long Swamp Creek. The official map of the Cherokee Nation shows a blank spot where the folklore places “Longswamp Creek” As I mentioned in one of my recent articles, Cyrus Thomas, who was an archaeologist, ran out of time to complete his archaeological survey of North Georgia for the Smithsonian Institute. He asked Mooney, who was a self-trained ethnologist, to complete it. Mooney was literally spellbound by The Swimmer and believed whatever tall tale the man said. Very few of the “authentic Cherokee legends” published by Mooney are authentic. but rather are yarns by the Swimmer. When Mooney took over for Thomas, he labeled all the mounds he visited in Georgia as “Cherokee”. There were ruins at Long Swamp Creek, but it was a satellite town of Etowah Mounds, dating from about 800 AD to 1600 AD – not a historic Cherokee village.


    Also in the 1835 Cherokee Census there sure are a lot of Cherokees living in Long Swamp Creek being removed. Why is that if we never had a town named that?

    • Long Swamp Creek is a very long creek. I used to live in Pickens County, where it mostly flows. The stream is 21 miles long and has good bottom land its entire length that is ideal for farming. What you are seeing in those records are lots of farmsteads. However, there is something else weird about Long Swamp Creek’s Cherokee inhabitants. Most of their names are either English, Creek, Spanish or Jewish. The vast majority of Ethnic Cherokees moved into the Etowah, Coosawattee and Oostanaula Valleys from Tennessee. Indians without political connections or real Cherokee heritage were forced to live in other areas. They had absolutely no political influence. The Cherokee Nation was dominated by former members of the Chickamauga Cherokees.


    There are also several Cherokee in 1832 from the Emigration rolls from Long Swamp. I guess it wasn’t a town after all according to these Cherokee….


      Richard, Just saw your post on Sour Mush and enjoyed it very much. I am very onterested in this research and have a couple of questions – just to clarify for me.
      Early on you said there was never a village called Long Swamp Creek yet a few paragraphs later you wrote “The first two villages Pickens’ Army visited did not contain any white raiders. Long Swamp Creek, located near present day Ball Ground, GA did. The militiamen from South Carolina and Georgia attacked the village of Long Swamp Creek on October 22, 1783.*”
      Am I wrong in reading the village of “Long Swamp Creek” was attacked in October of 1782? Second, If no village called Long Swamp Creek – what was the name?
      Also – you wrote “A few days after the Battle of Long Swamp Creek, Alexander Pickens and Elijah Clarke summoned the Principal Chief and 12 town chiefs of the Elati Tribe to meet at their principal village on Salacoa Creek in present day southeastern Gilmer County, GA on November 3, 1783. Its location is now the small town of Fairmont.”
      Who was the Principal Chief/Mico of these 12 villages where Pickens and Clarke went to clear them of the rangers and the renegade whites? I was thinking The Terrapin but I also thought he was Cherokee.
      If I understand your research you are proposing that many of the Lower Cherokee villages (in Georgia) are Elati (is this a version of Itsate) – at least in north central Georgia – I may be interpreting this wrong and I truly value your response.
      This would make sense as to why the treaty of the Long Island of the Holsten with the Patriots and Old Tassel (of Chota) did not include the Lower Villages.
      This is extremely interesting that the Elati signed a treaty at “Long Swamp” giving away land below them not belonging to them (Creek) and created a boundary above them saying the Cherokee will stay above it (again – if I am reading your words correctly).
      Many thanks.

      • I have always wondered why all of the “Cherokee villages” in Georgia before 1785 had Creek names. I really began to wonder when someone in NE Georgia was showing off to me that he knew “Lower Cherokee” and the words were Itsate (Hitchiti) Creek.

        Sour Mush’s camp on Long Swamp Creek. It was near Nelson, GA and not at the mythical location of a large Cherokee town at the confluence of the Etowah River and Long Swamp Creek. Sour Mush left that location soon afterward.

        I have not been able to find the name of the Principal Chief. My main source on this is the memoir of Andrew Pickens. I am still looking for more info on this, but obviously I must put first priority on work that produces me income. I do get any income from this sort of thing.


    I had always heard the Chickamaugua Cherokees were the only(?) full bloods. When moved to Oklahoma Tr., I heard/read that they moved into the outer areas and refused to be enrolled in Dawes. I think they later were referred to as “pin” Indians because they stuck 2 straight pins into their lapel (cross pattern) as identification. maybe it is just another one of the stories.

    • Naw . . . that is one of many in a long list of modern Cherokee myths. Most of the Chickamauga Cherokees were half or less Cherokee. Charles and David Hicks were at most 1/4th Native American. Major Ridge’s family were Natchez. The Vanns were Chickamauga Cherokees, yet their direct descendants are showing up with 0% Native American mtDNA. That means that the Vann’s were not even Native Americans.


    Weren’t Chickamauga Cherokee mixed with Creeks?


    As somebody descended from Tsiyu Gansini (Dragging Canoe) I can say that Richard Thornton is correct in regard to the Chickamauga. “Blood Quantum” meant absolutely nothing. The idea of a “Nation” was something taking shape at that time which the Chickamauga did not acknowledge. Each town was its own entity and the Chickamauga were an alliance of different towns coming from many different backgrounds. Dragging Canoe was viewed as a “fullblood” Natchez. It is said that he was of the Aniwaya but that does not fit with what I have been taught. What I’ve been told is he was Anitawodi Clan (now called Aniwodi). The Tawodi were the Hawk People and Lookout Mountain in Tennessee was referred to as the “Hawks Nest”. His mother was Natchez by birth, a daughter of Obalalkabiche (Tattood Serpent) and the niece of Great Sun.

    Dragging Canoe was born in the Chickasaw Natchez refugee town of Falacheco in 1732 and was with his mother in 1740 when Natchi’yi (Natchez Place) was established. She married Attakullakulla but Ada was not Dragging Canoe’s father by any account. Ostenaco raised Dragging Canoe. Ada was a captive of Chief Pontiac from 1741-1748 and Nionee Ollie only married him after he was returned to the Cherokee. Dragging Canoe’s birth father was a Berber Warrior/Pirate taken prisoner by the French and held at Fort Rosalie. When the Natchez massacred the French at Fort Rosalie in the late 1720’s he was freed by them and joined their fight against the French. His horse was named Al Barack (God’s Lightening) – a name which I’ve been told Dragging Canoe later gave to his own horse (Abaraka). His father helped his pregnant mother escape to the Chickasaw and likely found his way back to North Africa through the British allies of the Chickasaw. Dragging Canoe’s birth name was Kitzakulka which many whites thought was a reference to Attakullakulla. It was actually a reference to the Aztec Quetzacoatl and Mayan Kukulkan (Feathered Serpent War God) which is why Dragging Canoe was called “The Dragon” by whites. He was half Indian though I’m absolutely certain nobody in their right mind would question his identity as Native considering what he did.

    The idea of “Fullblood” east of the Mississippi is a fiction concocted in the 1800’s. There was no such concept prior among Eastern Natives. Not a single true “Fullblood Indian” leader can be found East of the Mississippi (with 100% certainty) with the exception of leaders during Wahunsenacawh and Opechanacanough. Even they could have been mixed since the Spanish, French and Dutch had been interacting prior to British arrival. Hell, the Vikings were mixing with Northeastern Natives as far back as 2,000 years ago and possibly even further.

    The Plains and First Nations people as well as those of Mexico down to South America remained much more racially homogeneous but the Eastern Woodlands people were mixing with different incoming peoples from the beginning to form alliances.

    The idea of a “Fullblood Cherokee” is ridiculous. There were very small pockets of Native people in the region who didn’t mix with others but they were very rare and not among the power players. Intermarriage was what allowed people to rise in rank. An example is Ostenaco who traveled to London to meet King George III with Henry Timberlake and ended up marrying an Irish woman named Lucy Ward who was a Lady in Waiting to the Queen of England. Ostenaco’s adult daughter had at least one child with Henry Timberlake. Justin Timberlake (the musician and actor) is a descendant of that union.


      Absolutely fascinating! Thank you so much, Rex, for sharing your knowledge with us; I feel indebted to all posting here for the history shared. 🙂


    Tecumseh (Shawnee and Creek) was the protege of Dragging Canoe and lived in Running Water Town with him from 1786-1789. Dragging Canoe was with Tecumseh’s Creek mother during that time. It was Dragging Canoe that Tecumseh was trying to be in the early 1800’s but he didn’t command the same respect among all Natives as Dragging Canoe. Even Piomingo who refused to meet with Doublehead later sat down and heard Dragging Canoe out. The Chickasaw leader still refused to join the Chickamauga to unite all Natives along the Mississippi against the Americans but the meeting ended with mutual respect (unlike with Doublehead later threatening the Chickasaw following the defeat of General Arthur St. Clair (organized by Dragging Canoe with Little Turtle and Blue Jacket among others). The British and French were mixing with the Chickamauga as well as various Native people who were also mixing and forming alliances. History is being re-written by racists.


    Mixed Blood was not a term even used by the Chickamauga. The term “rogue” and “friendly” were insults. A rogue was any Native who was willing to be bought and sign away lands and a friendly were Indians working with the American conspirators (then called Virginians or Sons of Liberty) who were all tied to illegal Land Companies like the Ohio Land Company, Transylvania Land Company, etc. Unfortunately individuals like Alexander McGillivray were double dipping (McGillivray was a cousin of the McKintosh family). His family was all tied to the Scottish families involved with Washington and several members of his family also traveled back to Scotland to take part in wars there. Those two Scottish Clans were part of the McKintosh Clan and were allied with descendants of the Polish Nobility who had fought off the Ottoman Empire with the Polish Winged Hussaria.

    The idea of ignorant isolated Indians living primitive lives west of the Mississippi is sheer stupidity. The Moytoy “Emperor” (Moytoy of Tellico) was himself a descendant of a man named Thomas Passmere Carpenter who came from London to Jamestown in the 1620’s and married one of Opechancanough’s daughters. His wife was a niece of Matoaka (Pocahontas) and Thomas Carpenter was a descendant of William “le Carpentier” of Melun (Crusades). Thomas’ father owned a fleet of 16 ships he leased to the India Trading Company from London and the Carpenters banked in Barbados during the Pirating period. This is the real reason that Attakullakulla was called “Little Carpenter”. He was a small guy and adopted by Moytoy of Tellico. The word Moytoy comes from Ama Matai (Water Master). Matai is French (to Master) and Ama is the Tsalagi word for Water. The 7 Chiefs who met with King George in 1730 were all related to the British Royal Family through Thomas Carpenter which is the real reason why they referred to George as their “Great White Father”.


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