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DNA Reminder . . . the Salzburg Protestants

DNA Reminder . . . the Salzburg Protestants

 

One of the origins of the term “Black Dutch.”

If you think you have German or Austrian ancestors mixed in with your Native heritage, but were surprised that your DNA test showed test markers typical of the Sami and Basques, here is a possible reason why.  By the early 1700s, the majority of the people living in the rugged Tyrolian Alps, west of Salzburg, had become Protestants.  This is the region that Joana the Biologist’s family formerly lived in (See the previous POOF article).  They spoke a dialect of German, but were not ethnic Germans and perhaps were attracted to a simpler form of Christianity in which ethnic Germans did not compose the ruling elite.   After several decades of combined persecution and Counter-Reformation persuasion had reduced their numbers to a slight minority, they were expelled from Austria.  Most initially moved to the Protestant states of the Netherlands, Prussia and Hanover.  However, being rural mountain folk they often did not like the urban environments that they were forced to settle in.

See:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salzburg_Protestants

Several thousand Salzburgers eventually ended up in the British North American colonies . . . many in Georgia and South Carolina. Their Rhetian cousins in Bavaria, the Rhone Valley, the Italian Alps and eastern Switzerland also tended to emigrate to the British colonies more frequently than their ethnic majority neighbors.   Most had black hair and tan skin, which gave them a natural affinity for intermarrying with their Uchee, Creek, Chickasaw or Cherokee families . . . who also carried Sami type DNA along with their Asian DNA from the Uchee Admixture.   These people were called Black Dutch or Black Germans.  However, the term was also applied to Sephardic Jews, who fled to the Netherlands after being expelled from the Iberian Peninsula.  They were called Svart Duets or “Dark Dutch” by their neighbors.

On the other hand, you could be descended from the elite Alecmani branch of the Creek Confederacy.  Most, if not all, DNA labs will interpret your Archaic English DNA as being English that arrived after Columbus’s voyages, not a people who arrived in North America during the Bronze or Early Iron Age.

This is why I am very wary of the results from DNA labs that are mass-marketing to the general public or of geneticists, who produce simplistic explanations of history based on statistically non-significant DNA test samples.  The heritage of the Southeast is one of many, many different ethnic groups settling here over a span of thousands of years.  That is not a situation, which can be explained simply.

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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.

20 Comments

  1. urisahatu@yahoo.com'

    The latest posts are very interesting. Waiting for companies to take DNA samples and doing research on southeastern North American natives is probably not gonna happen.
    Are there any geneticists on POOF who are willing to make a DNA database for the natives of southeastern North America?

    It would be interesting to see how much of the DNA of the natives are pre-Columbian. Although I’m not a geneticist myself it seems like you’re able to calculate how old a DNA sample is by the amount of mutations it has. Surely Sami-like and early European DNA if present in the Americas for thousands of years should show a couple mutations.
    Depending on the mutation-rate of the DNA, if Sami-like and European DNA has no mutations it would be more likely post-Columbian.

    On a serieus note; people should be very careful not to misuse the early European DNA for political means. It would only lead to conflicts. Nobody will benifit from that. People ;especially post-Columbian Europeans; with bad intentions could use early European DNA to claim more native lands and violate treaties.
    If eastern north America is dominately (early-)European DNA wise it doesn’t mean all of the Americas were populated by Europeans in pre-Columbian times.
    Be happy with who you are and honor your ancestors.

    Reply
    • You are right. Keep in mind that most of the “Europeans” who came during the Bronze Age were Eurasians with black hair, dark eyes, tan skins and eyefolds. According to indigenous American traditions, there were also some red haired people. Basically the European Bronze Agers would have looked like most mixed-heritage Native Americans today.

      Reply
      • urisahatu@yahoo.com'

        Indeed, The Bronze Age Europeans were Eurasians. The red haired people remain mysterious.

        Change of topic, Did you ever heard of The Lurgan Canoe? It’s an Early Bronze Age canoe/boat found in Galway Ireland.
        There is an article about it on irisharchaeology.ie I will provide the link below.

        Reading through the article I noticed that the Lurgan canoe is being compared to the Polynesian type canoes which makes me wonder.
        Is it coincidence, a separate inovation on watercraft / maritime vessels or was there actual knowledge transfer on canoe construction either from early Polynesians (or other Oceanic people like Melanesians and Micronesians) to Bronze Age Irelanders or vice versa (other way around)?
        Also you did mention in one of your posts that there are Polynesian(-like) words found in Central Europe (Alps?) perhaps Polynesians and other Oceanians found their way to Europe and beyond. The Comoros islands and Madagascar were populated by (eastern) Island Southeast Asians who have the Polynesian motive in their DNA.
        If a maritime people with Polynesian motif DNA reached the islands off the eastcoast of Africa it’s not unthinkable they sailed north through the red sea into the Egypt region and perhaps found a way to the Mediterranean sea from there perhaps sailing towards the north (reaching Greece and or Italy perhaps?) some staying behind and found their way through mainland Europe into the mountains while others kept sailing along the southern coast of mainland Europe through the strait of Gibraltar eventually ending up in or around Ireland.

        Article: The Lurgan Canoe, an Early Bronze Age boat from Galway – October 21, 2014 – by Colm
        http://irisharchaeology.ie/2014/10/the-lurgan-canoe-an-early-bronze-age-boat-from-galway/

        Reply
        • markveale@hotmail.com'

          Urisahatu….Thanks’ again for your post!! I have been searching for a match of the catamaran in Bronze age Europe for sometime. Another clue that Natives of this landmass were the advanced Sea people of the Bronze age and used Catamarans (as found in St. Petersburg, Florida) for the Gulf and to cross the Atlantic Ocean. As far as who they were at that time…only further research of the Eastern Natives DNA would provide that answer. The Bronze age Euro/Natives Americans DNA seem to be very close according to Richard’s articles. Some were red haired as noted by Native lore and by mummies found in the America’s. Perhaps their type of blood prevented them from mixing with other peoples? But they were only one of the many peoples that made it across the Oceans to this landmass.The catamaran is believed to have been invented in India and may have been used to hunt whales to Antarctica and using that land bridge to the America’s. Artwork of Elephants does exist among some of the so called “Maya” peoples and perhaps a connection to Northern India with a people the Chinese called the “Yuchi”.

          Reply
          • urisahatu@yahoo.com'

            Mark, The posts/comments with the provided information are for readers/POOF members like you who are interested and eager to do research in the true history of men/mankind and their migrations; in this case migration by sailing the oceans on sea/ocean-going canoes.

            Although the catamarans are believed to have been invented in India it is probably based on the Oceanic double hulled canoes and the outrigger canoes from Island Southeast Asia and surrounding Islands (near Oceania). The catamaran in the present era is now further upgraded using modern materials. Those modern catamarans are used in sports and navy around the world.

            The word catamaran is derived from the Tamil word kattumaram ( கட்டுமரம்), which means “logs bound together.” The Tamil territory is originally in Southeast India and later includes North Sri Lanka formerly known as Ceylon.
            What’s interesting about the word kattumaram is the word kattu meaning “bound together” is actually a Malayo-Polynesian word “ikat” with basically the same meaning “to tie”, “to bind”.
            It shouldn’t come as a surprise that Malayo-Polynesian words (language), people and objects are present in the lands and islands in the Indian Ocean region since the Malayo-Polynesians have settled the Comoros Islands and Madagascar thousands of years ago which are islands off the eastcoast of Africa. Mainland South Asia would be easy to reach for the Malayo-Polynesian seafarers.

            In own opinion (theory) the red haired people who seemingly had their homeland or at least in a point in time lived in the Indus valley had two migration routes. One migration route via mainland Asia into minor Asia and beyond; perhaps Caucasus and mainland Europe from where they seemingly sailed towards the west reaching the Americas. The other migration route towards and via the Indian Ocean probably encountering Malayo-Polynesian seafarers or at least people influenced by Malayo-Polynesian seafarers who took the red haired people on their voyages on dubble hulled sea/ocean-going canoes to distant lands. That would also explain why some descendants from the Indus valley people speak a Polynesian language and found living among Polynesian people in contrast to the people in and around the Indus valley who speak and Indo-Aryan language.

            The Lurgan Canoe found in Ireland having characteristics of an outrigger or a dubble hulled canoe of the Polynesian / Oceanic type makes one wonder if the red haired Indus valley people (IF the red haired people and Indus valley people are one and the same people) found their way to Ireland and beyond; to the Americas; on (Malayo-)Polynesian (type?) canoes. It also makes one wonder if actual descendants of (Malayo-)Polynesians reached Ireland and the Americas too. In that case it would be proof of pre-Columbian Oceanic people reaching the eastern Americas which would also explain why there are petroglyphs found on the Santa Catarina Islands off the eastcoast of Brazil with Polynesian (Samoan) Tapa design.

            Note: there are even concentric ring petroglyphs found in the surrounding area of Santa Catarina Island, Brazil.

            Source/Links:

            Santa Catarina Islands:
            http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/santa_catarina/ – petroglyphs

            http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/santa_catarina/santinho/index.php – petroglyph similar to Samoan (Polynesian) Tapa design

  2. markveale@hotmail.com'

    Urisahatu, Always informative post from you. Yes the Catamaran type boat is the key that ties the other side of the world to this landmass in the ancient days. As Native man advanced larger ships for larger cargos were created like the type of ships found by the Great Pyramids of Egypt, Mexico and also used by the Native Americans of the West coast (flat plank). Are you aware that a Tobacco insect was found at one of the Minoans sites? Clear evidence of Atlantic travel to that time period. The red haired people might have started in the area of the Indus valley and spread to different lands by boats…I believe them to be connected to the Amorite peoples migration to the Americas and back to the middle East.
    The King of Kings is connected to the number 5040 BC and subtracting 1200 BC = 3840BC ( a number of the carbon date of the Great pyramids of Giza). The Egyptians seem to have connected their monuments to Star signs like the Maya cities were. The evidence is the Native Americans had a bronze age kingdom…the oldest Kingdom of the world which collapsed most likely because of an comet strike around 1200 BC.

    Reply
    • urisahatu@yahoo.com'

      Mark, After doing more research it seems like the Bronze Age people in the Americas are connected to Ireland in a slightly different way. In another post “Video: Commander Spock of Star Trek tells the story of Atlantis” I revisited the theory that Hy-Brasil and Atlantis could be the same island with different names.
      Although the Americas is the land bigger than Asia (Asia minor) and Libya combined as mentioned in Plato’s work; Atlantis itself might have been the legendary island Hy-Brasil off the southwest coast of Ireland. Read the comment on that post if you haven’t yet for more info and links.

      Reply
      • markveale@hotmail.com'

        Urisahatu, The Egyptian/ Greek Atlantis lore is based on a Royal city Kingdom West of the Mediterranean opening and I think they had Sea ports in different parts of the World…all the Earth landmasses. The Caribbean island land mass was most likely the Royal city location in 1200 BC (atoll) when a Comet strike hit East of Cuba hit extending to South Carolina. Note: the “comet eye” art works found in the South East. The Cherokees have a lore of looking down the Mountains and seeing mass destruction caused by a tidal wave. The Cherokees are a confederation of 14 different Bands that combined like the Creeks who have different lore’s from groups of Native elders. Most likely both Groups are related to Sea faring people lore for a reason? They incorporated peoples that were of that Sea fairing Bonze age time in the Americas until the long bow was invented (or brought by the Roman/Britton people to this land in the 3-400 AD time). Note: Compare the “Roman pagan hill temple” to the Rhode island stone tower. The Delaware and their allies seem to have defeated many of the remaining copper/ Bronze age culture peoples in New York, Michigan and drove the remainder into the Mountains and towards to South… until they also had the Bow/ arrow weapon. The peoples of the South continued to make Bronze tools/ Weapons found in Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina. The Bronze age peoples of The Eastern side of the US and Europe are closely related in DNA…to include the same type of Earthworks, stone henges, serpent mounds, shell rings, Clovis spear points as they left from the Americas and made they way across to Europe and the Mediterranean Sea area.

        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newport_Tower_(Rhode_Island)
        https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pagans_Hill_Roman_temple

        Reply
        • urisahatu@yahoo.com'

          Mark, The Azores seem to be in the right spot to be an important Sea port and trade post between the Americas, Europe and Africa.
          The Royal Kingdom City as you call it could be in the Caribbean, yet when you look at the seafaring people who left concentric ring petroglyphs on both sides of the Atlantic the trail leads to Ireland.

          If the Royal Kingdom City was let’s say in the Caribbean or perhaps the Yucatan region and their domain was Ireland, mainland Europe and lands in the Mediterranean the local people / tribes in Europe, Mediterranean should have DNA links with native Americans from a west to east migration yet it’s the other way around that’s why the Royal Kingdom City should be towards the east of the Americas somewhere in the Atlantic Ocean which I think is off the coast of Ireland with the Azores islands as an Important Sea port / Trade post.
          Off the southwest coast of Ireland you do have a circular basin also known as Porcupine Seabight. A portion of the Porcupine Bank right next to it is believed to be Hy-Brasil. I think there was land encircling the Porcupine Seabight like an atoll. Hy-Brasil is said to be circular.

          The Bronze Age Irish as a maritime sea power seemingly were in charge ;so to speak; of a big portion of the Atlantic ocean and a part of the Americas was their domain; in other words the Royal Kingdom City could be Hy-Brasil for the Irish also known as Atlantis by Bronze Age Greek seafarers and other Bronze Age Mediterranean based seafarers.
          Perhaps the navy/seafarers of the kingdom of Atlantis/Hy-Brasil and the Mediterranean kingdoms and their navy/seafarers were battling eachother to expend their domain and for direct access to the riches of the Americas. If one would believe Plato’s writings the Bronze Age Greeks (Athenians?) won by defeating Atlantis.
          Remember: “history is written by the victors”
          It could be that the Atlantis story was intentionally written in a vaguely manner to keep everyone guessing hiding the truth which is potentially a Bronze Age Irish people mainly controled parts of the Americas before anyone else from mainland Europe. Once Atlantis/Hy-Brasil was defeated with no Bronze Age Irish seafarers (royal fleet in the Azores?) guarding the pillars of Hercules/strait of Gibraltar; seafarers from the Mediterranean had basically free access to the riches of the Americas.

          Of course it’s just a theory, yet one should keep questioning the theories and stories and do intensive research to get to the truth.
          Challenging someone to critical thinking is good and urge anyone (readers) to do your own research and not just believe anything that is being said.

          Reply
          • markveale@hotmail.com'

            Urisahatu, You make some Good points about an ancient city West of Ireland. A good stopping point for Ships leaving from the Americas (Newfoundland) going across to Europe and a shorter crossing distance than the Azores. During the Copper age / Bronze age of 5000 BC perhaps a city called “IS” existed there by the coastline of Europe further towards the West in the time period… now under the Sea. “Paris” is named by (Bronze age people) after a city lost to the Sea. However, Didn’t the Native Americans advance in majors cities before the Bronze age Europeans? If with look at the data in a new way…Man advanced here first in many ways… first.

      • wrapscallionn@gmail.com'

        A note : go look at indus valley script and then tell me,it aint almost exactly the same as the Easter Island script.

        Reply
        • urisahatu@yahoo.com'

          Matt, A very good observation. The Indus Valley script and the Easter Island script also known as RongoRongo are almost exactly the same. It is believed to be a script from the Harappa civilization.
          The descendants ;or atleast some of them; of the Harappan civilization live amongst the Polynesians now and speak a Polynesian language which is a branch of the Austronesian language family. If the Harappan civilization was the origin of the Polynesian people they ;Polynesians; should al be able to read the script yet they can’t because it’s not theirs and don’t understand the Harappan language what ever that might have been.
          The Harappans are latecomers in the Pacific ocean region. If anyone could read and understand the Easter Island script / rongorongo it would be the descendants the Harappa living among the Polynesians mainly Maori in Aotearoa (New Zealand).

          Reply
  3. wrapscallionn@gmail.com'

    We do have Eastern Swiss dna. Leonhard Furrer moved here with his wife in about 1730, moving to florence county sc, then to meckelenberg county, nc before, with my family finally,ending up in South Alabama. Furrer comes from a word meaning ” artificial terrace” in Swiss German.

    Reply
  4. urisahatu@yahoo.com'

    Mark, Although some native Americans had advanced major cities prior to Bronze Age Europeans it doesn’t mean Atlantis or Hy-Brasil ;which I think are one and the same; is per definition part of a native American kingdom. Atlantis/Hy-Brasil probably conquered parts of the Americas and controled a big portion of the Atlantic Ocean (North Atlantic Ocean?)
    An east to west migration by Bronze Age Europeans seemingly had colonies in the Americas and lived there for decades perhaps centuries during the (late-?) Bronze Age hence there are similar Bronze Age European culture, words, petroglyphs, artifacts and DNA found in the Americas today.
    During the colonial times parts of the Americas were conquered from the east again, this time by the Spanish and Portugese empires with their conquistadors. They conquered exsisting kingdoms en ruled over the natives in different parts of the world especially the central and southern Americas but also big parts of southern (east and west) north America, again leaving their culture, words, artifacts and DNA in the kingdoms (lands) they have conquered.

    In Plato’s work Atlantis has rings and a channel for boats (canoes?) to enter. Hy-Brasil in Irish legend is circular and has a river or channel through the center. When you take a close look on the map of the Irish Continental Shelf you will see a circular basin ;now known as Porcupine basin; with a river/river system from east to west off the coast of southwest Ireland.
    That seems to be the best candidate to be the location of Atlantis/Hy-Brasil at least as the kingdom city / political center with parts of the Americas and the Atlantic Ocean as her domain.
    Having said that; It is unclear how old Atlantis/Hy-Brasil as a kingdom really is. For now a late Bronze Age time period is more likely which is 1200 – 500 BC until there is early Bronze Age evidence perhaps in writing (hieroglyphs?) about Atlantis/Hy-Brasil. Artifacts could also be used as evidence yet who really knows what type or artifacts belong to Atlantis/Hy-Brasil since there are no reference points and no known Atlantis/Hy-Brasil artifacts to compare it with.

    Link:
    https://usercontent1.hubstatic.com/3422404.jpg – (map Irish Continental Shelf)

    Reply
  5. markveale@hotmail.com'

    Urisahatu, The ancient seashore of Europe would have some clues of these Sea fairing Peoples. They seemed to have made copies of their Royal city in places like Tarshish, Spain. The “adena” culture has caught my attention as of late with their “atoll” shaped Earthworks also found in Europe are these types of Earth hinges. Clearly the Briggs site reminds me of features like Atlantis…perhaps these people were some that remembered the ancient “atoll” shape of the land and circular shaped cities. The bronze age people of Ireland seemed to have remembered the lore of a circular city West of them.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biggs_Site

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portsmouth_Earthworks#/media/File:Portsmouth_Works_Group_B_Squier_and_Davis_01.jpg

    Reply
    • urisahatu@yahoo.com'

      Mark, Very good info on the Adena culture and their atoll / ring shaped earthworks.
      It is believed that the Adena culture existed from 1000 to 200 BC which would be in line with the theory that Atlantis/Hy-Brasil probably was a late Bronze Age kingdom.
      The Irish legend of a circular Island is of an island named Hy-Brasil. Although to the (south-)west of Ireland a land as big as the Americas of course is not an island which rules out the Americas.

      So far it’s more likely that Hy-Brasil and Atlantis at least as an island kingdom and royal city are one and the same. The Bronze Age Irish people who settled in parts of the Americas either builded certain structures themselfs or influenced (Bronze Age?) native Americans to build structures in the style of Bronze Age Irish structures.
      One thing ;or rather several things; is for sure, the concentric rings, petroglyphs, DNA etc. found in the southeastern and eastern north Americas are linked to Ireland at some even beyond Ireland further east which is mainland Europe.

      Again to the readers and POOF members, all the above is a theory and should not be taken as fact.

      Source/Link:
      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adena_culture – (Adena Culture)

      Reply
  6. markveale@hotmail.com'

    Urisahatu’. Native Peoples just don’t understand the facts that their people on this landmass advanced first. Advanced math, Pyramids, first written script and Sea fairing people at one time that arrived by boats that domesticated over 70 % of the produce of the world was created here. The Bronze age peoples never have been fully studied on this landmass..but we can connect the dots with Bronze age Europe and Eastern America with Earthworks and words. Is it by chance that shell shaped atoll Earth works were created in America and Europe about the same time? and then Earth works of the same design? and then a circular city design by lore?
    I don’t have any misunderstandings that the Torah identities a land called Havilah which means “circular” somewhere on the Earth. “Havilah (Hebrew: חֲוִילָה‎ Ḥăwîlāh, “Circular”[1]) refers to both a land and people in several books of the Bible.” The items of Gold, Bdellium (copal), and the onyx stones are associated with that land and Kingdom. The Bdellium tree originated in the American tropics… clearly indicating a American circular landmass. The Caribbean landmass?

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Havilah

    Reply
    • urisahatu@yahoo.com'

      Mark, The questions are not who advanced first, who had the most advanced math, most advanced building technics, most advanced maritime vessels etc..
      The questions are who were the rulers of Atlantis/Hy-Brasil and who were the people of Atlantis/Hy-Brasil who ruled over a big portion of the Atlantic Ocean and ruled over (coast-)lands on both sides of the Atlantic.

      Less advanced people are very well capable of ruling parts of the world. In the meantime less advanced people would take what they can to help their own society.
      An example would be Germany in the 30’s last century (20th century) who were coming out of an economic depression and after(during?) being sanctioned by neighbouring countries they had virtually nothing yet managed to build an (short-lived) empire also known as the third reich who ruled over a great part of Europe and parts of Africa.

      Another example would be todays rulers of the world. Did they come up with most of the advanced knowledge themselfs? In fact they gather and trade as much knowledge as possible from other countries/nations and apply it in todays society and ruling over billions of people while doing it.
      An advanced civilization and/or people doesn’t mean much ;as an adversary; to the people who rule over them.

      Having said that, it does seem like many native/indigenous people/Americans don’t understand how advanced they are/were. With that another question arises; who were those native/indigenous people/Americans prior to the Bronze Age with their advanced knowledge, were they the descendants of the first people living in the Americas or were they themselfs foreigners?
      Keep in mind there are still thousands of remains/bones which need to be tested for DNA. What if the DNA results show up as Bronze Age European or pre-Bronze Age European (perhaps Siberian/Central Asian) or how about African? Are those remains considered belonging to native/indigenous people/Americans who are the originators of advanced knowledge?
      The point being nobody knows (yet?) if the present day native/indigenous people/Americans are genetically related to the populations of the (pre-Bronze Age?) American civilizations who were seemingly more advanced than Bronze Age Europeans.

      So far the few DNA results from southeastern American natives that are known show an east to west migration into the Americas and not a west to east migration towards and into Ireland, Scandinavia and mainland Europe …. unless there is a twist if pre-Bronze Age Europeans were indigenous to the Americas; now that would be something else.

      Than there is the case of similar ideas which can lead to similar knowledge if not identical meaning there is no knowledge diffusion or no spread of knowledge involved. If one asks a child in lets say America to draw a sun, a cloud, a tree, a bird and make a story another child in another continent doing the same they will most likely come up with similar type of drawings and story; you can consider that as a pictogram or pictograph which is a writing using representational drawings.
      The same would happen with survivalists in separate continents when asked to invent tools for hunting for example, they would come up with similar type of tools.
      ———

      In case of Havilah:
      Havilah is linked to the garden of Eden. In Genisis 2: 10-11 it says that a river went out of Eden to water the garden from where it was parted and became into four heads; in other words it is the source of four rivers.

      A similar story can be found in Vedic cosmology.

      From wikipedia Jambudvipa – In the Puranic description as per Vedic cosmology it says:
      Quote:
      “Markandeya Purana and Brahmanda Purana divide Jambudvipa into four vast regions shaped like four petals of a lotus with Mount Meru being located at the center like a pericarp. The city of Brahmapuri is said to be enclosed by a river, known as Akash Ganga. Akash Ganga is said to issue forth from the foot of Lord Vishnu and after washing the lunar region falls “through the skies” and after encircling the Brahmapuri “splits up into four mighty streams”, which are said to flow in four opposite directions from the landscape of Mount Meru and irrigate the vast lands of Jambudvipa.”

      The main diffirences are the name Jambudvipa and that Mount Meru/Sumeru is the center which is depicted as a concentric circular mountain as can be seen in a carving of Jambudweep/Jambudvipa in Ranakpur (western India).

      In case of Bdellium:

      The Bdellium is a semi-transparent oleo-gum resin extracted from Commiphora wightii and from Commiphora africana trees.

      From wikipedia Bdellium:
      Quote:
      “The Midrash gives two opinions. According to one, it is a precious stone, and according to the other the reference is to “the bedolah of perfumers”. In Genesis the Midrash decides in favor of the first interpretation because there it is associated with gold and onyx.”

      From wikipedia Commiphora_wightii (species of Bdellium):
      Quote:
      “Commiphora wightii, with common names Indian bdellium-tree, gugal, guggul, gugul, or Mukul myrrh tree, is a flowering plant in the family Burseraceae. The guggul plant may be found from northern Africa to central Asia, but is most common in northern India.”

      From wikipedia Commiphora_africana (species of Bdellium):
      Quote:
      “Commiphora africana, commonly called African myrrh, is a small deciduous tree belonging to the Burseraceae, a family akin to the Anacardiaceae, occurring widely over sub-Saharan Africa in Angola, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.”

      It is the Midrash that decided Bdellium meaning precious stone which is a matter of interpretation. As far the Bdellium being a tree originating in American tropics, the Bdellium tree seem to be from the Asian and African continents.

      Notes:
      – Midrash is biblical exegesis by ancient Judaic authorities, using a mode of interpretation prominent in the Talmud. The term is also used of a rabbinic work that interprets Scripture in that manner.
      – Exegesis is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.

      Source/Links:
      Indian Hindu Cosmology
      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jambudvipa – (Jambudvipa – concentric island continents)

      Jain Cosmology
      https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/20/Ranakpur-JambuDweep-Dec2014.jpg/1068px-Ranakpur-JambuDweep-Dec2014.jpg – (Carving of Jambudweep /Jambu Dweep in Ranakpur; Pali district Rajasthan, western India)

      Bdellium
      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bdellium – (Bdellium)

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commiphora_wightii – (Bdellium species Commiphora wightii)

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commiphora_africana – (Bdellium species Commiphora_africana)

      Reply
      • markveale@hotmail.com'

        Urisahatu, You and I are 1 part oxygen / 2 part Hydrogen ( like a river’s chemistry) so the river that when out of Eden is implying Man’s migrating to the different landmasses of the Earth. Pi-shon (Antarctica), Havilah ( the America’s Caribbean landmass… Atoll shaped ), Gihon (Greenland), Cush (Africa), Tigris (Australia) and EU-phrates (Europe and Asia combined) = 6 landmass. Havilah is mentioned because of the King of Kings is related to Kings of that landmass going back to 5040 BC that built circular cities. The story of Atlantis originated from Sais Egypt that still has a river that parts into “head rivers”? (delta rivers for a main river). Eden.

        Bdellium is from the family of the first incent tree: “Burseraceae” is traced to the Americas. and so the King of Kings family migrated to different places and were Nobles with red Hair… some mixing with brunet haired peoples that became Hebrews. Like Mary the Virgin is reported to have been. Of course, the Native peoples have lore of Red haired peoples, China, India, Peru, the Pacific areas…the migration of a Red haired peoples. Until resent times many red hair people could not mix because of their blood type… so like many peoples that migrated here…were part of a muti-racial kingdom that advanced and became known to the Greeks as At-lan-tis.

        Reply
  7. wittman@htc.net'

    Thank you so much for this post. My Grandmother said we were Black Welsh, but a cousin says her mother said we were Dutch and Blackfoot. This post gives me more information for family research. BTW – I’m happy to report my 83 yr old father will be coming to live with me soon and I plan to ask him more questions about our native heritage. Your blog is a blessing for many.

    Reply

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