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Elite on South Atlantic Coast had same name as Famous Civilization in Peru’s Nazca Valley

Elite on South Atlantic Coast had same name as Famous Civilization in Peru’s Nazca Valley

Numerous eyewitness accounts from the 16th and 17th centuries describe the elite or the high kings of South Atlantic provinces as being named the Paracusi or Paracusite.   This title also was used by the high kings of the Apalache Kingdom in the Southern Highlands and the Calusa in Southern Florida. The word happens to be the real name of the first civilization on the Nazca Plain of Peru.

The Indigenous Peoples of the South Atlantic Coast – Part Three

Both the name of the Republic of Peru and its province of Paracas are Hispanicizations, derived from the Panoan word Parakusi, which means “ocean-strong”.  Kusi or in some Panoan languages, Kausi or Kaushi, came to also mean the elite of an ethnic group.  The Paracusi (Paracas) People built the famous fieldstone effigies in the Nazca Plain.  After they left the region, the Nazca People built the fieldstone lines on the Nazca Plain.  Both cultures also built earthen pyramids – aka “Indian mounds.”

The famous Paracas skulls contain up to 25% more area for the brain than typical homo sapien skulls.  The extent that the Paracas People were genetically different than other homo sapiens is still the subject of frenetic debates.  However, there is no doubt that they were substantially taller and brawnier than most other branches of the human family. 

If you know French, read the memoirs of Captain René de Laudonnière, commander of Fort Caroline, or the encyclopedic book on the Caribbean and Southeast by Charles de Rochefort, l’Histoire Naturelle et Morale des isles Antilles de l’Amérique .  If you prefer modern English, go to Three Voyages by Charles Bennett to read De Laudonnière’s description of the South Atlantic Coast in the 1560s or The Apalache Chronicles by Marilyn Rae and myself to learn about the visit of Richard Briggstock to the Lower Southeast in the 1650s.

Both books describe the high kings or leaders of assimilated provinces as being called either Paracousi or Paracousity.  Spanish explorers used similar words such as Paracus, Paracusy and Paracas.  This title was also used by the high king of the Calusa People in southern Florida.  In most regions, the title quickly died out after Spanish diseases and firearms caused the assimilated provinces or “paramount chiefdoms” as anthropologists call them, to disappear.

The elite of the South Atlantic peoples were described as being extremely tall, up to seven feet, when most European men were 5′-4 to 5′-8″ in height.  They had brawny physiques, which made them powerful warriors in battle.  Some are described has having flattened foreheads.  Others are not.  It is difficult to determine the exact shape of the Paracusi of the Satibo (Satipo) people in the engraving above, because his headdress is conical in shape.  Anthropologists did not know that the word Sati-uriwa was an alternate Panoan language title for the king of the Sati and so incorrectly call the entire ethnic group words similar to Satouriowa.

The mummy of an Apalache Paracusi is transported along a mountain ridge roadway.

The mummy of an Apalache Paracusi is transported along a mountain ridge roadway.

Charles de Rochefort furnishes readers far more details on the traditions and religious practices of the native peoples in the Lower Southeast.  He said that the commoners generally buried their dead in the floors of their houses then burned the houses.  However, the elite or Paracusite were mummified.  The mummies were carried around in liters or placed on stone shrines until they began to mold.  This custom is one likely explanation of the thousands of stone cairns found in northern Georgia.  Other cairns may have been used for cremations or altars for burning copal incense. 

The molded mummies were then placed in hand dug tombs.  The caves were sealed with either fieldstone or conch shell walls.  Of course,  in Peru, mummification goes back over 9,000 years to the Chinchorro Culture.   Mummification of Paracusi elite in the Southeast, along with the clothing, customs and Panoan language words of many peoples in the Lower Southeast is substantial evidence that the Paracusi of the South Atlantic region were descended from the Paracusi of western Peru.

Two Paracusi mummies in Peru, found in a hand dug tomb and sealed with a fieldstone wall.

Two Paracusi mummies in Peru, found in a hand dug tomb and sealed with a fieldstone wall.

Entrance to an Apalache royal tomb in the North Georgia Mountains.

The writings of Charles de Rochefort have been ignored by North American scholars for three centuries because he said that there was an advanced indigenous civilization in the mountains of Georgia named the Apalache that built towns out of stone.  In earlier articles, we have quoted pioneer anthropologist, Charles Jones, Jr about the fact that early settlers in Southern Highlands and Piedmont encountered many, ancient stone ruins.  Of course, their name is all over the maps in the 1500s and 1600s, but that didn’t matter.

There does not seem to be any awareness among anthropologists and historians concerning the connection of the title, Paracusi, in the Southeastern United States with the Paracusi People of Peru . . . but there should be.   If the Inuit could migrate over 3,000 miles across hostile terrain between Siberia and Greenland,  it is certainly plausible that the Paracusi could have hiked and paddled an equal distance between western Peru and the South Atlantic Coast.

Excerpt from speech given by Paracusi-te (High King) Chikili of the Creek Confederacy to the leaders of the new Colony of Georgia on June 7, 1735:

Our first capital was where Savannah now sits and our first emperor is buried in a tomb near there.



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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.



    The picture of Paracusi on page one of January 23, 2016 issue reminds me of the Egyptians and I think of Nefertiti in around 1342 B.C. and her brother Tutankahamun “King Tut”, b. 1341.
    while in USAF, in 1954 – we flew to Cairo, Egypt and I visited the Egyptian museum that was in the process of re-opening after WW II, and there were a lot of crates that had been stored during the war, that they were unloading for display. One was a beautiful coffin (no guards) and later we found out it was King Tut. I was stationed in Wiesbaden, Germany and that was a NO BOMB city during WW II and one of the warehouses the Germans had stored lots of treasures during the war and once a month they would open up some of the boxes and put them on display . One time they had Nefertiti on display and now she is back in Berlin on display and I have again seen her and her brother again in Berlin many times. Will send you their picture with their elongated heads. Robert Page

    • Yes, I read several articles on the web about the skulls of Nefertiti and Tutankhamun being shaped like the Paracas skulls. However, I was not sure how factual they were, and this article was about Native Americans anyway.


    Thanks for this great piece of info. Fascinating.

    • Thank you Karla. This is our organization’s 10th year of existence. Our view of the Southeast’s past has radically changed during that time.

      Richard T.


    Richard, The cultural “elongated skull” connections of the early civilizations like the Paracusi (Peru), Maya (Maiama), Apalasi (“Children of light”), Egyptian, Natchez, Allegany (Ala-ghey)… peoples that worshiped the Sun around the world.
    As a reader of ancient history, I was surprised to learn of so many connections around the world of “Sea faring peoples” that arrived at different locations around the same time of 3500-3000 BC. Perhaps all these were connected with a Sea “trade” empire long ago? and people were clearly moving around the Ocean by 50,000 BC.
    History is being rewritten outside the Universities (1527 map.. Palma?) with scholars like you, that can understand the clear connections between words that still have meanings in different parts of the world.
    The Peru (“Biru”) word might have some connection to the “Nibiru” word of the Ancient Sumerians. They were also noted as having Giants as kings…in those days.

    • Peru was the Spanish version Para, the last A pronounced like a Muskogean V sound. One of the reasons that I wanted to do a thorough study of the South Atlantic Coast was that repeating reference to “Sea People”. I wonder if they are the source of the legend of Atlantis.


        There clearly was/is a coverup by certain historians on the peopling of the American continent.
        “Sea People” from all over the globe have been sailing to and from the Americas for ages.
        Maybe it’s a very unpopular thing to say; I think during the colonization many indigenous people were forced to abandon their own culture, language and forget about their history / origin which resulted in a complete disconnect with the civilizations they were once familiar with.

        The Genetic Memory (if you can call it like that) does seem to atleast vaguely remember a connection to other civilizations from a long gone era.
        That’s why many so called ‘modern’ people around the world still recognize certain aspects in indigenous cultures because they feel (Genetic Memory) as if they have always known to be connected in some way.


        Richard, The Ani’-Kuta’ni (Clan) “family of the Nicotani” perhaps were the “Pi-tani” people that were not “from” Scotland but were “from the Americas and Alba”… a Sea trading people that had settled in the 3000 BC time?
        The “Albaama” Native people could be connected to these Sea clan peoples and their ancient priests written language? that would connect them to the Hittite/Amorite people as far as the Black Sea.
        Some of the peoples of North America do seem to have migrated (stone/wood hinges) to Europe and then all the way to the Black Sea (elongated skulls, dolmen sites?)
        Atlantis?… “Atali” is a name that the “Nicotani family clan”/ Chi-ra-ki priests? could have named for the “island by South America” that their ancestors had sailed from long ago… most likely named “Pi shon” in the Torah.
        “Sumerian paradise is described as a garden in the myth of Atrahasis where lower rank deities (the Igigi) are put to work digging a watercourse by the more senior deities (the Anunnaki)”. The Cherokee call their ancestors “Atsilagigai”
        “Ala-lu” was a Giant “Hittite /Amorite” clan leader of the “princely offspring”(An-un-na-ki) and could have some connection to an ancient location of “Ala-si-ya” before the 1200 BC “bronze age” collapse. Likely… a major Seaport city in the North American area with access to the 99.7 Great lakes copper that was exported 5700-1200 BC. “Olami” mountain was noted in your book… “The Eternal One (`Olam) has made a covenant oath with us” is noted in ancient “Ugarit text”, now considered by some as the first alphabet. When those Amorite cities were destroyed… the massive copper mining ended for 200 years.
        The Greeks started writing again in 9-800 BC… the “Maya” not until 300 AD? Perhaps the Greeks paganized the story with the understanding of what one of the “Sea clans peoples” called the city of “IS” noted to have had walls and dikes surrounding the city.
        It is very likely that the first named city was destroyed around 9400BC when a giant tidal wave wiped out the “Clovis people” and 200 large animals of the Americas. By the way….NASA scientists have emphasized for years that “Nibiru” planet doesn’t exist. They call it “Eris”. That other name is what they would call a 3200 BC written “myth”. “and there were Giants in those days and after…..”

        • Kitani (or as they now write Ku’tani) is an Alabama Indian word, now meaning sorcerer, but formally the title of the priest, who ignited the sacred fire. It is from the Alabama root word Kituaa, which means “to ignite a fire.”


            Thank you!!! Richard for your Good works.

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