Evidence points toward a Pan-North Atlantic culture
It is important that readers understand that the evidence POOF is uncovering points toward a Pan-North Atlantic Culture, not “intellectually superior Caucasians bringing enlightenment to the Americas” as has been in vogue of 50 years. What we are saying is that the commercial DNA labs are deceiving their customers into thinking that geneticists have accurate descriptions of all the indigenous peoples of North America. Furthermore, 70 years ago the anthropology profession created a simplistic “model” for North America’s past, which assumed that Siberians crossed the Bering Strait Land Bridge during the couple of hundred years it was open and then became the ancestors of all indigenous peoples in the Americas.
From the days when Ric Edwards helped found the People of One Fire in 2006, he has repeatedly reminded us that it would have been a much shorter distance to travel between North America, Northwestern Europe and Western Siberia by canoeing from island to island or ice sheet across the Arctic region than to sail across the route used by Columbus. The fact is that the Inuit migrated from northern Alaska to Greenland in a rather short time period. Greenland Inuit have ancient maps that would enable one to reach Alaska and Siberia from Greenland. All three ethnic groups, which were formerly called “Eskimos” crossed from Siberia many thousands of years after the Land Bridge flooded.
Ric theorizes that early humans may have begun following the edge of the ice sheets during the last Ice Age. Humans reached Australia 65,000 years ago, so this scenario is quite possible. As the ice sheets retreated, mariners from both North America and Europe continued to follow their old routes, knowing that there was land on both sides of the Atlantic. The recent discoveries of North American style flint blades in Iceland, northern Scotland and western Norway reinforce his theories.
POOF will simply list the facts as are known now, so you will better understand the evidence. The People of One Fire has published hundreds of articles to back up these statements over the past seven years. Readers, new to POOF, may want to Google “People of One Fire – <key words> to find these articles.
(1) There are no DNA test markers for most of the indigenous ethnic groups of North America . . . none for the Southeastern United States, whatsoever. Many indigenous peoples in the Southeastern United States, Mexico, Peru and Amazonia were made extinct by the impact of European colonization in the 1500s and 1600s. The indigenous population declined at least 90% in these regions between 1500 AD and 1700 AD.
(2) Questionable Algonquian DNA test markers from northern Ontario and Quebec are being used to determine what is a “Native American” in the eastern 2/3 of the United States. Commercial DNA lab customers are not being told that very significant fact.
(3) There are hundreds of indigenous ethnic groups in the Americas, who have never been genetically tested in statistically meaningful studies. Each of the 24+ branches of the Creek Confederacy would have originally carried very different genetic traits.
(4) One of the oldest civilizations in the world (c. 4000 BC or earlier) was founded on the Pacific Coastal Plain of Peru by a tall, red-haired people with odd-shaped skulls. Their descendants later became the extremely tall “Toltec” tribes of eastern Mexico and the Apalache in North Georgia, plus some other branches of the Creeks in Georgia. The Kashite Creeks (Cusseta) were a “Toltec” tribe in Mexico, which was persecuted by the Aztecs.
(5) Another early civilization founded by red haired people was on the extreme southeastern tip of Iran near the mouth of the Indus River.
(6) The oldest use of the sun wheel symbol is currently found in Alberta, Canada and dates from at least 3500 BC. The oldest stonehenges are also in Alberta and date from that period. Stonehenges next appeared in Wales about 500 years later. By 1200 BC or earlier the sun wheel became the primary symbol of Bronze Age religion in northern and western Europe. It was also the “logo” of Etula (Etowah Mounds) which was founded around 1000 AD, but appears on petroglyphs in northern Georgia, which probably date 2,000 years or more earlier.
(6) The Bilbo Mound in Savannah, GA (c. 3545 BC) and Watson Brake Earthworks in northeastern Louisiana (c. 3450 BC) predate any ceremonial mounds in the British Isles or Scandinavia by at least 1000 years. Ceremonial mounds did not appear in Mexico until around 1200 BC or later. Burial mounds appeared both in the Americas and Europe at about the same time.
Scholars from other parts of North America and Europe are frequently puzzled as to why there would be such early manifestations of advanced culture in Georgia. There are several factors. The Gulf Stream swings close to the coast of Georgia and southern South Carolina, but also that region is the least likely location on the Atlantic Coast of the United States to receive a direct hit by a major hurricane. The purest natural gold in the world is found in the North Georgia Mountains. When European settlers first arrived, the region of the Gold Belt between Amicalola Falls and Ellijay, GA also contained large nuggets of almost pure copper on the surface. Copper was mined commercially in this region until the late 20th century, when the large copper smelting plant at Copper Hill, Tennessee was closed. There is also a commercial-sized deposit of natural brass north of Dahlonega. The Georgia Mountains also contain many types of precious and semi-precious stones. In southwestern Georgia is one of the world’s largest deposits of attapulgite, which was the critical ingredient for making Maya Blue stucco, plus was added to several other colors of pigments.
(7) Silbury Hill is the oldest ceremonial mound in England and the largest mound in Europe. Construction began around 2400 BC and continued to around 2300 BC. It originally included a spiral ramp like the Spiral Mounds in Georgia, which were built about 3200 years later. The peoples of the British Isles began burying their dead in small “barrows” about 3,000 BC, but they were not ceremonial mounds.
(8) The Rheinhardt Boulder, originally found on an ancient trade route near the Upper Etowah River, (and several lesser known petroglyphic boulders in North Georgia) are virtually identical to petroglyphic boulders in County Kerry (southwest) Ireland. Those in County Kerry were created by the aboriginal Ciarraighe People during the Early Bronze Age. Their name means “dark-skinned” people. They are the ancestors of the Black Irish, but were driven out of much of Ireland by the Gaels or ethnic Irish at the close of the Bronze Age. The Ciarraighe had black hair, semi-Asiatic facial features and copper colored skin. They were probably either close relatives of the Sjo Sami, who were the aboriginal people of Scandinavia or related to indigenous peoples in the Americas.
It may be significant that County Kerry has very similar geology to the North Georgia Mountains. The earliest copper mining and panning for alluvial gold in Ireland began in County Kerry around 2,000 BC. That date is 2,000 years after copper mining and copper implement fabrication began in the region around Lake Michigan, USA (See below). Thus, based on chronological evidence, it is plausible that miners from North America came to Ireland, rather than vice versa. Tin mining began in Cornwall around 2150 BC, once bronze replaced copper as the most important utilitarian metal in the Mediterranean Basin.
(9) The Track Rock Petroglyphs near Brasstown Bald Mountain in Georgia (and several lesser known petroglyphic boulders in North Georgia) contain numerous symbols that are also found on the Nyköping Petroglyphs (c. 2000 BC). As seen above these symbols later became common features of early Bronze Age art in Sweden, Denmark and southern Norway.
(10) The Metcalf Stone was found in dismounted barbecue pit near Columbus, GA. It was soon given to the Columbus Museum of History, whose archaeologists and historians interpreted it as some unknown form of European writing. Most Georgia archaeologists either ignored this discovery or dissed it as being a fraud. In August 2017, the world’s leading expert on Minoan writing systems, without hesitation stated that it was Minoan Linear A script . . . but he could not understand how it could be found in Georgia, USA.
(11) In Feburary 2017, Architect Richard Thornton photographed the Tugaloo Stone at the Travelers Rest State Historic Site near the headwaters of the Savannah River. The stone has lain in the same location for two centuries. It either has been ignored by Georgia archaeologists or interpreted as “Cherokee grafitti.” Yet, in 1957, Smithsonian Institute archaeologist Joseph Caldwell radiocarbon dated the nearby Tugaloo Mounds to have been occupied by ancestors of the Creek Indians from around 200 AD to 1700 AD. Thornton turned the photographic images upside down and digitally enhanced them. The stone actually portrayed three Bronze Age ships and the same Scandinavian Bronze Age symbols as seen above.
This is a sample of the thousands of copper artifacts found in the Lake Michigan Copper Belt, which were produced between 4000 BC and around 1000 BC. These artifacts are identical to contemporary copper artifacts in Ireland, Scotland, England and Scandinavia. In fact, copper artifacts were were being made in North America about 2200 years BEFORE they appeared in Scandinavia. What is labeled as sickles by the author are called “knives” by Midwestern archaeologists . . . who apparently don’t want to admit that they are identical to the sickles used for harvesting wheat and barley throughout Europe and the Middle East.
(12) Old Lake Michigan Copper Complex – Indigenous peoples began making artifacts out of the almost pure deposits of copper near Lake Michigan around 4,000 BC and continued to around 1000 BC. The Copper Age began in Europe around 3500 BC. Archaeologists have determined that most of the copper weapons and tools found around Lake Michigan date from between 4,000 BC and 3000 BC.
Yes, that’s right . . . the Copper Age came to North America at least 500 years before it came to Northern Europe. Again, chronological evidence makes it plausible that the use of copper tools and artifacts were introduced to Europe at the same time that the concept of “stonehenges” were introduced. Dr. Gordon Freeman at the University of Alberta has accumulated abundant evidence that indigenous peoples from Canada came to Wales and Ireland around 3000 BC and made the same type of stone implements, they made at home . . . while introducing the concept of ceremonial circles of stone. These peoples would have undoubtedly passed through the Lake Michigan Copper Belt in order to reach the North Atlantic. That is a very different spin on the interpretation of ancient history than one sees in standard references and textbooks.
The truth is out there somewhere!
Latest posts by Richard Thornton (see all)
- What you are never told at New Echota National Historic Landmark - September 23, 2018
- Fall 2018-Spring 2019 POOF Research Project . . . Pre-1700 AD Mound & Stone Architecture Survey of the Nacoochee and Soque Valleys - September 21, 2018
- Once upon a time at a Chevy Chase Christmas Party - September 20, 2018
- News Update: Quapaw and Mandan were at Ocmulgee! - September 18, 2018
- Example of why doing Native American history research is so difficult - September 16, 2018