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Footnote: More about the 7 feet tall people of the Okefenokee Swamp

Footnote:  More about the 7 feet tall people of the Okefenokee Swamp


In yesterday’s long article,  I wanted to keep the discussion in the realm of established facts.  They would surprising enough for most readers, not familiar with the real history of the Lower Southeast.  I also wanted the readers to understand that there is no comprehensive archaeological information about the Okefenokee Swamp Basin and its indigenous inhabitants. All available information points to the Okefenokee Basin being a “Indigenous Garden of Eden” from which advanced cultures in many areas of North America sprang . . . but we don’t know that for a fact.  Most of what little information we have was concealed by the clique of anthropology professors, who took control of things, after Dr. Arthur Kelly was non-personed.  Below is a list of known facts, mixed with my speculative interpretations.

The Sati-Uriwa of the Satile People, standing beside Captain Jean Ribault in 1564  ~ water color by Jacques Le Moyne

Ethnic identity of the tall people:  They were obviously the Paracusa from western Peru, since the extremely tall High Kings of the provinces on the coast of Georgia and South Carolina were called Paracusa or Paracusa-te (Paracusa People).  The high kings of the Apalache Kingdom and Creek Confederacy also went by this title.  North American academicians (unless you consider me an academician) did not attempt to translate the name of the king of the Satile, which was Satiuriwa.  As you will read in a legion of anthropological articles and books, they assumed that Satituriwa as the name of the ethnic group.  It actually is a Panoan (Peru) agglutinative word, meaning “Colonists – King.”

Locations of Tall People Skeletons: The Georgia archaeologists, who discovered the 7 feet skeletons in the larger mounds, within the Okefenokee Swamp were employed by what was then called the Fish and Wildlife Bureau.  The summary of their report stated that “the builders of these mounds were obviously a superior race with physiological features different than those of the Seminole (actually Oconee Creek) mound builders, who followed them.”  This statement indicates that someone compared skeletons excavated from burial mounds in the Okefenokee Swamp.   However, current personnel of the Fish and Wildlife Service claim to have no knowledge of the archaeological studies or the skeletons.

Archaeological Reports:  I have a digital copy of the 1973 nomination of twelve mounds in the Okefenokee Swamp Basin for the National Register of Historic Places.  It was prepared by the Georgia Historic Preservation Office and provided full citations for the archaeological studies on which these nominations were based.  These archaeological reports were included as attachments, but I don’t currently have a copy of the attachments.  The reader should know that a total of 76 Native American mounds and village sites in the Okfenokee Basin were identified by the archaeologists or biologists, but the State of Georgia only nominated 12 mounds . . . all of which contained 7 feet tall skeletons.  None of the mounds containing shorter skeletons or the remains of cremated humans were nominated.  The National Park Service approved the nominations.   Below is a sample for one of the mounds.

The present Georgia Division of Historic Preservation claims to have no copy of this National Register nomination and no knowledge of the archaeological studies done by faculty members of the University of Georgia in the late 1960s and early 1970s.  This office referred me to Dr. Mark Williams, Director of the Laboratory of Archaeology at the University of Georgia.  He did not respond to my request for information.

In 1993, the University of Georgia Department of Anthropology published a 65 page book entitled, The Mississippi Period Archaeology of the Georgia Coastal Plain.  The book does not specifically mention or even note on a map the 76 Native America mounds and village sites given official state site numbers or the 12 mounds that are now on the National Register of Historic Places.  It also does not mention the archaeological work done in the Okefenokee Swamp by University of Georgia faculty members and employees of the federal government.  It makes no mention of the French exploration of the Okefenokee Swamp, when it was called Sarrope or William Bartram’s visit in 1776.   Below is the sole discussion of the national wildlife refuge’s extraordinary archaeological treasures in this book.

Okefenokee Swamp

Chris Trowell of South Georgia College has been conducting a survey of artifact collections and surface exposures within and around the Okefenokee Swamp for several years (1978, 1979, 1984). The survey and test excavations are opportunistic; therefore, his data are not statistically representative. However, his efforts have extended over such a temporal and spatial distance that his discoveries are probably an accurate reflection of the cultures which occupied the swamp. Trowell’s investigations of the many mounds in the swamp has determined that they are associated with Weeden Island ceramic types.  A radiocarbon date of 955 B.P. +/- 105 (UGA 2136) was obtained from a trash pit at site 9Wel on Cowhouse Island which contained Weeden Island ceramics. This date places the site within the temporal limits of this review. However, Weeden Island sites are typically placed within the larger category of Woodland adaptations. As may be seen from the Central Zone of the Lower Flint and the Ocmulgee Big Bend, however, this does not necessarily exclude it from consideration.

In addition to the Weeden Island materials, Trowell reported other ceramic types from the Okefenokee. On six of the twelve sites which Trowell discusses (1984) he reports finding either Irene or Lamar ceramics which are traditionally associated with Mississippian. Also, what he calls Savannah Cord Marked sherds are recorded from five of the sites. Actual sherd counts were not given, but relative frequencies running from rare to frequent were noted. While these statistics are not as precise as one would like, they are adequate to demonstrate that Mississippian ceramic types are much rarer than those of Weeden Island. This along with other work suggests to Trowell that there was a decline in aboriginal utilization of the paudian environment during the Mississippi Period (Trowell 1978, 1979, 1984). As discussed elsewhere, an alternative explanation is that the Woodland tradition persisted into the Mississippi Period within the Okefenokee Swamp.




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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.



    Richard, I think you are right on the money about the “big water” areas of the South East being connected with some of the so called “Maya” peoples Nobles. The sounds Ca-lusa, Para-cusa, and Tus-calusa seem to apply to 3 known names that connect with Giant sized peoples. Perhaps your Yuchi (first in Georgia) friends could provide more information as to when these people arrived in Georgia. The area of South West Florida has shell mounds that have been dated back to 5700 BC… most likely connected to the Calusa peoples.. “Escampaha” with the PA sound Native words seems to be a connection to (Para)Peru.


    First of all, great articles on the 7 feet tall people of theOkefenokee Swamp.

    A continuation of the discussion on “The indigenous faces of the Olmec Civilization” regarding the origins of the Peruvian redheads or Paracas Elite (Giants) and the redheads in New Zealand.

    From wikipedia Sargon of Akkad quotes:
    “Sargon of Akkad (/ˈsɑːrɡɒn/; Akkadian: Šarru-ukīn or Šarru-kēn, also known as Sargon the Great) was the first ruler of the Semitic-speaking Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC.”

    “He was the founder of the “Sargonic” or “Old Akkadian” dynasty, which ruled for about a century after his death, until the Gutian conquest of Sumer. The Sumerian king list makes him the cup-bearer to king Ur-Zababa of Kish. His empire is thought to have included most of Mesopotamia, parts of the Levant, besides incursions into Hurrite and Elamite territory, ruling from his (archaeologically as yet unidentified) capital, Akkad (also Agade).”

    From wikipedia Ur-Zababa quote:
    “Ur-Zababa is listed on the Sumerian King List as the second king of the 4th Dynasty of Kish. The king list also says Sargon of Akkad was a cup-bearer for Ur-Zababa before becoming ruler of Akkadian Empire.”

    From wikipedia Zababa quotes:
    “Zababa /ˈzɑːbɑːbɑː/ (Sumerian: 𒀭𒍝𒂷𒂷 dza-ba4-ba4) (also Zamama) is a war god who was the tutelary deity of the city of Kish in ancient Mesopotamia.”

    “Several ancient Mesopotamian kings were named in honor of Zababa, including Ur-Zababa of Kish (early patron of Sargon of Akkad, c. 2300 BCE) and Zababa-shuma-iddin (a 12th-century BCE Kassite king of Babylon).”

    From wikipedia Mušḫuššu quotes:
    “The form mušḫuššu is the Akkadian nominative of the Sumerian 𒈲𒄭𒄊 MUŠ.ḪUS, “reddish snake”, sometimes also translated as “fierce snake”

    “The mušḫuššu is the sacred animal of Marduk and his son Nabu during the Neo-Babylonian Empire. It was taken over by Marduk from Tishpak, the local god of Eshnunna.”

    From wikipedia Eshnunna quotes:
    “Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar in Diyala Province, Iraq) was an ancient Sumerian (and later Akkadian) city and city-state in central Mesopotamia. Although situated in the Diyala Valley north-east of Sumer proper, the city nonetheless belonged securely within the Sumerian cultural milieu.”

    “In a grave in Eshnunna, a pendant made of copal from Zanzibar was found. A small number of seals and beads from the Indus Valley Civilization were also found.”

    Eshnunna exsisted between circa 3000 BC – 1700 BC.

    From wikipedia Anshan (Persia) quotes:
    “Anshan (Sumerian: 𒀭𒍝𒀭 Anzan), modern Tall-i Malyan (Persian: تل ملیان‎), was an ancient city. The site is located 46 km north of Shiraz, in the Beyza/Ramjerd plain, in the province of Fars in the Zagros mountains, south-western Iran.”

    “It was one of the early capitals of Elam from the late 4th millennium BC. Later, in the 7th century BC, it became one of the early capitals of Persia.”

    “Malyan was occupied from the sixth millennium BC. During the Proto-Elamite period (late fourth millennium BC), this becomes one of the main cities of the Elamite region, thanks to its location on important trade routes.”

    “The Elamite city makes an appearance in the early Sumerian epic Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta as being en route between Uruk and the legendary Aratta, supposedly around the time writing was developed.”

    From wikipedia Zagros Mountains quote:
    “The Zagros Mountains (Persian: کوه‌های زاگرس‬‎; Kurdish: چیاکانی زاگرۆس‬‎) are a long mountain range in Iran, Iraq and southeastern Turkey. This mountain range has a total length of 1,600 km (990 mi).”

    “The Zagros mountain range begins in northwestern Iran and roughly follows Iran’s western border, while covering much of southeastern Turkey and northeastern Iraq. From this border region, the range roughly follows Iran’s coast on the Persian Gulf. It spans the whole length of the western and southwestern Iranian plateau, ending at the Strait of Hormuz.”

    The strait of Hormuz is a strait between the Persian Gulf to the west and the Gulf of Oman to the east. Further east of the Gulf of Oman is the Indian Ocean.

    From wikipedia Elam quotes:
    “Elam (/ˈiːləm/) (Elamite: 𒁹𒄬𒆷𒁶𒋾 haltamti, Sumerian: 𒉏𒈠𒆠 NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.”

    “In classical literature, Elam was also known as Susiana, which is a name derived from its capital, Susa.”

    “Elam was part of the early urbanization during the Chalcolithic period (Copper Age). The emergence of written records from around 3000 BC also parallels Sumerian history, where slightly earlier records have been found. In the Old Elamite period (Middle Bronze Age), Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands.”

    “Elamite is traditionally thought to be a language isolate, and completely unrelated to the neighbouring Semitic, Sumerian (also an isolate), and the later Indo-European Iranian languages that came to dominate the region.”

    “A minority of scholars have proposed that the Elamite language could be related to the Munda Language of India, some to Mon–Khmer of Cambodia and some to the Dravidian, in contrast to the majority who denote it as a language isolate.”

    From wikipedia Elamo-Dravidian languages quotes:
    “The Elamo-Dravidian language family is a hypothesised language family that links the Dravidian languages of India to the extinct Elamite language of ancient Elam (present-day southwestern Iran). Linguist David McAlpin has been a chief proponent of the Elamo-Dravidian hypothesis.”

    “According to McAlpin, the long-extinct Harappan language (the language or languages of the Indus Valley Civilization) might also have been part of this family.”

    “Apart from the linguistic similarities, the Elamo-Dravidian hypothesis rests on the claim that agriculture spread from the Near East to the Indus Valley region via Elam. This would suggest that agriculturalists brought a new language as well as farming from Elam.”

    “Supporting ethno-botanical data include the Near Eastern origin and name of wheat (D. Fuller). Later evidence of extensive trade between Elam and the Indus Valley Civilization suggests ongoing links between the two regions.”

    The quotes/info above links all the points from the Indus Valley Civilization to the various Civilizations in Mesopotamia (Sumeria, Babylonia, Akkadia etc.).
    It is interesting to learn and see that Ur-Zababa a name linked to Mesopotamia is very similar to Orizaba in MesoAmerica.
    When you follow the route from the Indus Valley through the Elam region which is southwestern Iran through the Zagros Mountains you will end up in northwestern Iran, southeastern Turkey and northeastern Iraq which is basically the land (Urartu; Ararat; Armenia?) directly south of the Caucasus with the Black Sea to the northwest and the Caspian sea to the east.
    This is most likely the location where the so-called red headed giants split off into two groups. One group red headed giants migrated further north into the Caucasus; the other group migrated further west crossing the mediterranean sea into the Atlantic Ocean from where they eventually reached the Americas.

    As you can see, the genetic tests of the Peruvian redheads which places its origins east of the Black Sea and the genetic tests of the New Zealand redheads have been traced to the southern tip of Iran makes a lot of sense now.
    The bearded elites depicted in MesoAmerican figures/statues are much taller than the indigenous Americans who also wear beards and mustaches. That was the point meant to be compared with the statues and depictions in Mesopotamia in the other article “The indigenous faces of the Olmec Civilization”.
    Giants from the Indus Valley Civilization were seemingly at one point in time the elites of many (genetically and culturally) related and unrelated indigenous tribes all over the globe (earth); from Asia to Middle East (Mesopotamia) to Europe to the Americas into the Pacific.



    Gilgamesh – Possible representation of Gilgamesh as Master of Animals, grasping a lion in his left arm and snake in his right hand, in an Assyrian palace relief, from Dur-Sharrukin, now held in the Louvre.

    Olmec Jade Figure 500 BCE – Archeo & Anthro Museum – Guatemala 2016 – Photograph by Aaron Fellmeth

    Sargon of Akkad






    Eshnunna Map

    Anshan (Persia)

    Zagros Mountains

    Zagros Mountains Map / Zagros Folded Zone

    Vase from the Jiroft region. A “two horned” figure wrestling with serpents. The Elamite artifact was discovered by Iran’s border police from Historical Heritage traffickers, en route to Turkey, and was confiscated. Style is determined to be from en:Jiroft culture.


    Elamo-Dravidian languages


      Hi, Urisahatu. Note this statement about Sargon’s Kingdom: “The same text mentions that Sargon crossed the Sea of the West (Mediterranean Sea) and ended up in Kuppara, which some authors have interpreted as the Akkadian word for Keftiu, an ancient locale usually associated with Crete or Cyprus.” Did you notice the Kup-Para could be a connection to the ancient name for Peru (Para) Para-KU-SA? There seems to be more connections with the Americas than we have been lead to understand everyday. If we follow the step pyramids from Mexico to the Azores they will lead us all the way to Egypt / UR. Also Notice the 1-2 combinations of both the Great pyramids of Mexico and Egypt.


        Hey Mark, Good find on your part. To be honest, didn’t focused on Kuppara and was more focused on the similarities between Mesopotamian statues – so-called Olmec figures/cave paintings which seem to depict large men (giants), Ur-Zababa – Orizaba and the Indus Valley Civilisation link with Elam (southwestern Iran) which was under incursion (invasion) by Mesopotamian kingdoms.

        There seems to have been a hunt on the red haired elite (red heads/giants) all over the globe. Perhaps those red haired elite were demanding ‘too’ much of the common (normal statured) people. These common people were not all genetically and culturally related yet their elite (chiefs/kings) were at one point in time the large red haired people.

        Hypothetically: The common people were under rule of the red haired elite who ruled most of the territory what is now the Middle East and (partially) South Asia. At some point the red haired elites demanded too much and the commoners revolted making the elite flee into various directions.
        Many red heads were slain and the survivors migrated out of the Middle East (and South Asia?); some found refuge in the mediterranean at first yet still hunted down which made them flee into the Atlantic Ocean.
        Once the red heads were in the Atlantic Ocean they perhaps sought refuge in the Isles off the coast of Europe including Scandinavia while others fled into the Americas.

        It is unclear if the red heads already had vassal states in the Atlantic Ocean and beyond before their downfall in the Middle East (and South Asia?).
        What is clear however is that many of the red heads did became the elite (chiefs/kings) of many indigenous people/tribes all over the world.

        Seemingly these red heads were also the demi-gods in many cultures. Perhaps there are red haired giants hiding in isolated places where ‘normal’ people don’t come (perhaps avoiding contact); waiting for the right time to rise again.

        If you (and other POOF readers) wasn’t eye-rolling already: Can you imagine the red heads being the demi-gods in Scandinavian legends and mythology? They could be the ones people (normal statured) will have to face in a ‘Ragnarök’-like confrontation. Red heads wanting to regain their elite position in the world. The giants vs the people.

        Regarding Kuppara: It is tempting to link “para” from Kuppara to “para-ku-sa” yet since much of the established (theorized) history is changing and replaced by factual information it is too early to come to a conclusion.
        Having said that; it is good to have people / POOF readers like yourself who aren’t afraid to give an opinion and are willing to share information.

        The north portal of the 12th-century Urnes stave church has been interpreted as containing depictions of snakes and dragons that represent Ragnarök.


          Yes I think you are right about a migration of the Giant peoples from the Middle East. The Para-kusa people seem to have stated they were “of the Sea” and from Peru but perhaps had made their way from the Black Sea area (elongated skulls area) and the middle East over to the America’s in the ancient days….then some moved to Para (Peru). “Kup-para” area was most likely the major lake city in the Okefenokee swamp that has not been well researched as of yet. That lake would have shortened the Azores’ trade route to Peru with access to rivers flowing into the Gulf…then to the Para-kusa / Olmecs Mexico crossing point to the Pacific Ocean down to Peru (Tin, Gold, silver).
          It appears the Giants were among the peoples of the Middle East / the Nordics/ and some Native peoples of the south till the 15th century (Tuska-lusa). Wi-lusa is the real name of ancient Troy. When Troy was sacked in (1250 BC)…copper mining stopped at the same time (1200 BC) around the Great lakes.


    I have known several VERY LARGE (south eastern regional) native women and have seen three generations of one family at a family reunion. These people are Big….. many women over 6 ft and men pushing 7 ft…… Not just tall but well built beautiful folks. Has any genetic testing been done? Are there markers to compare?


    when i was living in ohio i bought a book and gave to a friend about graves/bones of giants associated with the adena – hopewell mound building culture (which you have traced to virginia and the connections from there with georgia). – the author might have been ross hamilton; i’ll track it down


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