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Footnote: Second Pardo expedition definitely went to the north of Santa Elena

Footnote:  Second Pardo expedition definitely went to the north of Santa Elena

Juan Pardo went on several expeditions.  Neither the Wikipedia articles or the TV documentaries tell people this.   After returning to Santa Elena in early 1568,  the governor asked him to make a sweep through all the major Native American provinces in the region in order to obtain donations of food.  Santa Elena was starving, because Spaniards didn’t believe in manual labor.  It is a prevailing story wherever one goes in Latin America.  When neophyte Spanish colonies were starving, they would beg for food from nearby indigenous peoples.  As soon as the Spaniards were well fed, they treated those indigenous peoples with extreme arrogance and brutality.

The chronicles of the Pardo Expeditions list a series of town leaders, who Pardo met with to beg for food.  The are initially from provinces in northeastern South Carolina like Ilape then shift to ethnic groups such as Issa (Catabaw) and Catapa (Muskogeans) who were still in that region 150 years later.  The mother province of Catapa was in GEORGIA, between present day Atlanta and Gainesville.  They were Creeks. Look on old maps for the word Kataapa in that location.

The Spaniards ultimately visited Otari.   This is interesting, because a hundred years later, Otari was the capital of the Rickohockens and located on the Otter River near present day Bedford, Virginia.   So Pardo may have gone much farther north than the “approved” versions of history tell you.  Pardo established a small mission at Otari and left behind a few soldiers to guard it.  One does not hear about the mission again.

North Carolina academicians and many of their residents tend to view North Carolina as the center of the world.  The tribal bureaucrats at the Eastern Band of Cherokees picked up that bad habit from their white neighbors.  SO . . .  what their academicians, including UNC-Chapel Hill graduate Charles Hudson, did was put most of the villages visited by Pardo in a line going through North Carolina, even though the names came from several distinct journeys.  Like all other anthropologists and historians in the Southeast, who specialize in Native American cultures, they didn’t have a clue what the village names meant, so it was quite east to ignore geography.  

Then to cover up for provincial attitudes and sloppy research, these people form a choir.  The choir sings songs about their intellectual superiority and scientific methods to cover up for something just the opposite. 

Think about it.  The Pardo Chronicles have been around for 430 years.  The word “orata” appears repeatedly in these chronicles as the title of town and village chiefs in South Carolina and Southeast Georgia . . . but not in Florida.  I was the first person in the world, who had the intellectual curiosity to search the etymology of orata.  It is the Panoan word for “town or village chief” in Satipo Province, Peru.  Son-of-a-gun!  Juan Pardo visited a town named Satipo, which was in the mountains west of Chiaha.  There was also a province on the Georgia coast named Satipo.  It’s king was named Sati-uriwa.   Uriwa is the Panoan word for king.


It’s an academic jungle out there!

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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.



    The hits just keep coming, these are exciting times.

    Has anyone compiled a list of the historical discoveries/corrections published on POOF?

    Thank you for your hard work!


    Richard, I have not seen many words that are spelled starting with the “UR” (Ur-I-wa) but there it is in a title for King in the land of Para (Peru). The Sumerians script has been found in at least 1 bowl in ancient Peru so I have to consider that someone had to bring that over the Atlantic Southern route from a stopping port of Africa in the time period of 3200-2500 BC. Have your found any Native words that would give some meaning for the biblical word “Opir”?

    P.s. From the coastline of South Carolina to just North of Greenville S.C. is around the distance to Joara given in the Pardo document. 280 miles- 300 miles. Also, Why no mention of the city “Cofitahchi” (1540) by Pardo?


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