Seeking our Native American Heritage
From the moment that European powers made contact with the Indigenous peoples of the Americas, their original societies began to change and be misinterpreted. Apocalyptic plagues swept through the Americas between 1498 and 1770 that reduced the native population by about 95%. Somewhere between 20 and 100 million people died – estimates by demographers vary widely. Beginning in the mid-1600s the English colonies sponsored slave raids that depopulated vast stretches of aboriginal territory. Entire ethnic groups in many locations, especially in Eastern North America and the Caribbean Basin, were exterminated.
The annihilation of the town dwellers and intelligentsia of the Southeast drastically altered the cultures of the peoples who had lived there for thousands of years. This holocaust was so extensive that few, if any, Southeastern tribes even remember it. The cultural impact of mass deaths and slave raids was to wipe their collective memory banks bare of the accumulation of generations of knowledge. The survivors no longer knew how to weave cloth or work metals. They initially devolved into simpler lifestyles comparable to a thousand years before, but soon became addicted to European trade goods. In a matter of a few decades, the forests were swept of most fur and hide-bearing animals. It only took about 25 years for the entire bison and elk populations of the new Colony of Georgia to be exterminated.
In the aftermath of the colonial wars, the winner, Great Britain, took all. However, the British also fabricated a history that put its imperial agenda in the most positive light. Native allies who served Britain’s enemies were marginalized or erased. British historians conveniently forgot the chronicles or early Spanish and French explorers; the former presence of Spanish Sephardic gold miners in the Southern Highlands; and Spanish missions in the Deep South.
The American Revolution had an effect on Anglo-American understanding of Native American culture equivalent to the “Erase and Reboot” commands on a computer. Most North Americans, including professional anthropologists, have concept of the Southeastern indigenous peoples that is rooted in the period immediately after the Revolution. Official National Park Service maps show the locations of ethnic groups as they were in 1793. Many politically important tribes are not even mentioned on NPS maps because their surviving members had been forced to merge with other tribes by that time. The territorial boundaries of Southeastern tribes changed radically between 1763 and 1793, yet the collective perspective of historians is transfixed on the territorial boundaries of 1793.
- The Paracus, Taino and Calusa Peoples of Georgia & South Carolina
- Three Experiments in Muskogean Agricultural Techniques
- Native Edible Plants for the East Coast Garden
- The Early History of the Chickasaw People
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