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Implications of the discoveries around Tepoztlan, Mexico

Implications of the discoveries around Tepoztlan, Mexico


Most of the branches of the Creek Confederacy originated in Mexico, Guatemala or Belize.  They assimilated with Uchee, who had come across the Atlantic much earlier and Panoan peoples, who had arrived from Peru a little earlier.  I strongly suspect that the Choctaw and Chickasaw originated in Tamaulipas, Mexico.  It is highly relevant for Muskogean and Uchee peoples to understand what was going on in Mexico, prior to our ancestors’ departure.

Virtually all Mesoamerican cultures acknowledged Tepoztlan as the “location where a red-haired, fair skinned leader, named “Feathered Serpent,” introduced trade and civilization.” Several believed that at the end of the “Fifth Sun” Tepoztlan, would be the last place, where mankind survived.  The founder of the Toltec capital, now called Tula, Cē Ācatl Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl, was born in Tepoztlan around 895 AD, but he was named AFTER this deified red-haired leader. 

Tepoztlan started around 1500 AD as a copper ore mining center, yet a thousand years later none of the civilizations in Mesoamerica made copper tools and weapons or even knew how to smelt copper from ore.  Indigenous peoples in the Lake Michigan Basin and the Creek Motherland in the Lower Southeastern United States were always far more skilled at working copper than most Mesoamericans. The commander of Fort Caroline,  Captain René de Laudonnière stated that the elite in what is now the State of Georgia even wore copper breastplates in battle.   

Copper plate from Etowah Mounds

It was only the Purepeche, after their arrival in Michoacan around 900 AD, who developed skills in smelting and working copper.  The Purepeche entered the Bronze Age a few decades before the arrival of the Spanish. It was the Purepeche’s metal weapons, which enabled them to defeat the Aztecs, when their kingdom was attacked.   Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, Director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, told me that the copper art found at Etowah Mounds was vastly superior to the copper art produced by ANY of the indigenous civilizations in Mexico.

YET . . . the only archaeological museum in Tepoztlan, Museo de Arte Prehispánico Carlos Pellicer, barely mentions Quetzacoatl.  Nowhere are visitors to the city told that Tepoz means “copper” or that copper mining was the original economic base of the region. One is not told that the name of the God of Alcoholic Beverages worshiped at the Topozteco Shrine actually means “Copper God.” In POOF’s previous article on Tepoztlan, we included a video, which provided proof that government archaeologists were intentionally destroying and concealing the architectural evidence of a culture in Tepoztlan, which was different than other Mesoamerican societies in Central Mexico.  What is going on here?


Let’s look at the facts.

The newly “discovered” petroglyphs at Tepoztlan

These petroglyphs are identical to the Bronze Age petroglyphs in Northern Georgia, Ireland, Scotland and southern Scandinavia.  They particularly similar to the petroglyphs in a rock shelter, overlooking the Amicalola River in Dawson County, Georgia. 

These petroglyphs bear no resemblance to the petroglyphs created by the indigenous peoples of Central America, South America or the Caribbean basin.


  • The establishment of a shrine in the Tepoztepetli  (Copper Mountains) around 1200 BC corresponds to the high point of Bronze Age civilizations in Scandinavia, Ireland and the Mediterranean Basin, soon followed by a catastrophic collapse, due to natural disasters.
  • Public architecture, such as mounds, pyramids, plazas and ceremonial ponds existed in Amazonia, western Peru, Georgia and Louisiana 2,500 years or more before they appeared in Mexico around 1000 BC.  The “pyramids” constructed by the “Olmec” Civilization (actually the Zoque Civilization) were really earthen mounds, identical to those constructed earlier and later in the Southeastern United States.
  • Zoque or Soque means “civilized” in their language.  The Miccosukee Migration Legend states that they are the descendants of the “Olmec” Civilization and that they migrated from Tabasco to Georgia because of persecution by Nahuatl invaders.   The elite of the Soque in the Upper Savannah River Basin, were physically identical to the Miccosukee-Creeks and the Zoque of Mexico.  The Soque Commoners are even today, identical to the famous “Olmec Stone Heads” found in southern Mexico.  Most joined the Creek Confederacy and their descendants are now in the Thlopthlokko Tribal Town. Their descendants on the Snowbird Cherokee Reservation are called “Moon Faces” by the Qualla Band of Cherokees.
  • Pottery was being made in Amazonia, the Savannah River Basin and near Lake Okeechobee, Florida a thousand years before it appeared in Central Mexico.   The people of the “Olmec” Civilization did not make pottery until around 900 BC.
  • Copper ore was being mined at Tepoztlan at the same time that more advanced cultures began developing in southern Vera Cruz, Tabasco and Izapa, Chiapas.  YET . . . very, very few copper artifacts have been found in Mexico, dating from that era. Where was the copper going?   


Sections of the Nyköping petroglyhs ~ 2000 BC

Zoque and Maya writing systems

  • Several of the earliest Epi-Olmec and Maya glyphs in their writing systems can be found on the petroglyphic boulders at Nyköping, Sweden, which have been dated to 2000 BC.
  • The first Maya glyph to be translated by David Stuart, was the Great Sun or High King.  It is also found at Nyköping, plus many other petroglyphic sites in Scandinavia and northern Georgia. In fact, all but two of the petroglyphs at the Track Rock Gap site in the Georgia Mountains can also be seen at Nyköping.  There are several Great Sun glyphs on the Track Rock Gap boulders.
  • The Nyköping and Maya writing systems have the same format . . . rectangles with rounded corners.  It is obvious that the Maya writing system evolved from the Nyköping writing system.

Near visible light infrared image of Cerro Gordo, above Teotihuacan, showing hundreds of agricultural terraces

Terrace complexes

No professor at Georgia Tech or Georgia State University EVER discussed the terrace complexes in Mesoamerica or Georgia in my classes. About two minutes were spent on the agricultural terrace complexes in Peru during a Pre-Columbian architecture class.

Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan did not assign me to visit any terrace complexes and did not mention them in any of our conversations.  Therefore, when I encountered ancient terrace complexes in Chiapas and the Guatemalan Highlands, I gave them little attention, even though many were in active use.  I could tell, however, from the pattern of stone ruins, that these terrace complexes originally had houses and even some public buildings on them at one time.  Today, the farmers of terrace complexes live in villages and walk to their terraces.

After I climbed through what was is perhaps the largest terrace complex in the Americas . . . on the side of Cerro Gordo, overlooking Teotihuacan, I presented slides of them to a brown bag lunch composed of senior staff and graduate students at the Museo Nacional de Antropologia.  There was virtually no response from either the staff or the students.

Today, at least one archaeologist on the staff of INAH is interested in the agricultural terraces of the northern half of Mexico.   She has successfully gained “national heritage” status for at least one of these complexes.  However, aside from the TV documentary that she produced on that site, I have not come across any other articles or documentaries produced by INAH that discussed the hundreds of terrace complexes elsewhere in Mexico.

Ruins of stone steps and aqueduct on Cerro Gordo


It seems apparent that Mexican archaeologists are protecting their own orthodoxy . . . namely that Mesoamerican civilization developed independently without any contacts or influence from North America, South America or the Old World.  I suspect that the impetus for this orthodoxy is two-fold.  These activities are politically motivated.  The Mexican archaeologists are actualizing their cultural uniqueness from Europe.  There is also deep resentment in Latin America over the pervasive influence that the United States has over their countries. 

The driving force for Mesoamerican civilization was the abundance of its agriculture, whose genius was certainly indigenous in origin.    However, there is little doubt that peoples from other lands, even from Europe, visited and settled in Mexico during the Formative Period between 2500 BC and 200 AD.  These immigrants and visitors left behind small bits of their cultures, which enriched the indigenous cultures, but foreigners certain did not “invent” the indigenous architecture or play any significant role in agriculture. We will never truly understand the past in the Americas, until we look at all the evidence with an objective eye.

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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.



    Thank goodness Richard you have an objective eye for the details that others Do Not. As well as the ability to correlate the information that is out there. Thanks for being the Reallife Fox Mulder. The Truth is Out There and if anyone can find it it’s You. Excellent Investigating!!!

    • Thank you sir. You do realize that when a student in Mexico, I didn’t know diddlysquat . . . so if a professor didn’t think terraces were significant, I didn’t think terraces were significant.


    There is documented evidence of a copper casting being found at Menominee River in Michigan dating sometime between 1000 BC to 200 BC.

    A Documented case of Prehistoric America Copper Casting Technology by E.J. Neiburger, Waukegan, Illinois. Originally Published in the Central States Archaeological Journal, Vol.57, No.2, pg.76

    “Most Old Copper artifacts were hammered (hot or cold) from naturally appearing float copper. There are exceptions. One of the largest copper fragments (R666) found at the Riverside site was a trapezoidal shaped, wrought worked (hammered) lump of copper 4.5 X 6.0 X 0.75 cm in size (Figure H, L). This artifact is very special. It was found in Feature 64 (Refuse pit) and matched several other copper fragments in color and corrosion/patina formation. It was not an intrusive burial. Upon X-ray examination (Xeroradiography) this artifact showed the round radiolucencies (voids) typical of gas bubbles in cast metal (Figures I, K). This arti­fact was melted and cast. Metallurgical analysis ( at 100X magnification using a NHOH peroxide etch) shows a flow field (melting, large grains) abutted to a wrought worked (hammered) area which was heat annealed (twinning, small grain size); a situa­tion also indicating casting (Figure J).
    This is the first clearly documented and cul­turally identified site associated with an old copper artifact showing a melting process of manufacture.”

    Richard…. looks like you have some company out there lol!

    “The R666 copper fragment’s metallurgic and radiographic analysis overturns this erroneous be­lief that natives did not have the technology to cast copper). This fact has irritated quite a few profes­sional archaeologists who have created a unique form of fallout. I have experienced my scientific papers and presentations on this subject boycotted, editorially sabotaged and otherwise dismissed. The old copper expert Warren Wittry (now de­ceased) once threatened to “ruin” me if I published this data and set up academic ambushes, damaged specimens and worked actively to suppress any debate on the casting theory. As these old timers die off and are replaced by younger, more free­thinking scientists, opinions may change.”


    Richard, curiously both the Maya, Bronze age Sweden, and the cartouches of the Egyptians written script used “rectangles with rounded corners” around the script. I suspect a more ancient civilization in Mexico tracing back to at least 5000 BC has yet to be discovered. They just didn’t dig deep enough yet. Large cities began here with advanced agriculture to support mass populations was invented by the Native Americans. You should suspect any university history program of any country that tries to destroy evidence because of political factors. Different groups of peoples arrived here by boats based on non political Lore of the ancient Native Elders… mostly crossing the Atlantic.
    Curiously where did all that copper of the Great lakes and Mexico go? Iron age artifacts are found on the Eastern side of the U.S. Perhaps a Native America Kingdom had advanced to the iron age first and traded the copper with the city of Tarshish. Where was the main Sea port city of this Kingdom? Georgia perhaps as you know the Para-Ku-sha people did state that they did have access to a road all the way to Mexico, and a Sea port at Savanna doing back to 2800 BC.

    “Many prehistoric iron furnaces have been found in America, particularly in Ohio. They outlasted the tools and weapons that were smelted and forged there. The Etowah mounds of Georgia did contain iron relics. South America had advanced metallurgy, and they could have had the lost copper alloy, plus bronze, and they were very skilled artisans in gold and silver works. The walls of Puma Punko had sophisticated alloys holding the huge stones together. Tons of silver alloys were holding the blocks of Tiawanaku together, causing the Spaniards to destroy much in search of them. “
    “Mike White has proposed the following on the subject of ancient tools in America. “The ‘iron age’ is an elusive term. There is an excellent chance that the people of the golden age and the age of silver knew of iron, but rejected using it because they had better alloys. Mainstream scholars deny that there was a golden or age of silver, but they are mostly aware that in prehistoric times metallurgy was advanced to the degree that they had a copper alloy superior to iron in many ways. This technology has been lost. Iron rusts and corrodes away, so it should be no surprise that few iron artifacts from ancient times are found. “


      Also I should add on that there was a iron mine found in the Sinai that goes back before the Egyptian Kingdom… some peoples that had an advanced weapons? are noted to have entered into the Mediterranean Sea according to Egyptian lore and advanced all the way to Greece…Achaeans?…Amorites?…Hittites? or more likely the “Giants” sized people. (Found in Mexico were multi-story buildings) that goes back before the Mexica (Aztecs) arrived to Central Mexico.


    Richard, reviewing an article about the Yuchi who had many gray eyes people seem to be the same people that lived in the Bahamas in the 15th century called Yucayas (translated to Lucayans): “They differed from other aboriginal tribes, for many of them had gray eyes and their complexion was several shades lighter than the full-blooded members of other nations. The Yuchi description matches the Great swamp people told to William Bartram were the most ancient people of Georgia/ Florida at that time. Several groups of Native Americans wanted only Gray eyed medicine men…the Yuchi? They seem to have some connection to the “Yucatan” word. “In an ancient Spanish chronicle, the Lucayans of the Bahamas were called “Yucayas”, and the Indian name for the “Columbus Indians” was “Yuchi”. The city name “YU-PA-HA” may be a connection of 3 peoples from different locations: Yuchi (Europe) / Para kusha (Peru) / Itza/ Issa (Central America) (Ha sound means water to some of the Maya peoples)

    • Yupa means “horns or antlers” in Itza Maya and Itsate Creek, while haw can either be river in Itza and Itsate or a shortening of ahau, their word for “lord or nobility.”


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