Implications of the discoveries around Tepoztlan, Mexico
Most of the branches of the Creek Confederacy originated in Mexico, Guatemala or Belize. They assimilated with Uchee, who had come across the Atlantic much earlier and Panoan peoples, who had arrived from Peru a little earlier. I strongly suspect that the Choctaw and Chickasaw originated in Tamaulipas, Mexico. It is highly relevant for Muskogean and Uchee peoples to understand what was going on in Mexico, prior to our ancestors’ departure.
Virtually all Mesoamerican cultures acknowledged Tepoztlan as the “location where a red-haired, fair skinned leader, named “Feathered Serpent,” introduced trade and civilization.” Several believed that at the end of the “Fifth Sun” Tepoztlan, would be the last place, where mankind survived. The founder of the Toltec capital, now called Tula, Cē Ācatl Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl, was born in Tepoztlan around 895 AD, but he was named AFTER this deified red-haired leader.
Tepoztlan started around 1500 AD as a copper ore mining center, yet a thousand years later none of the civilizations in Mesoamerica made copper tools and weapons or even knew how to smelt copper from ore. Indigenous peoples in the Lake Michigan Basin and the Creek Motherland in the Lower Southeastern United States were always far more skilled at working copper than most Mesoamericans. The commander of Fort Caroline, Captain René de Laudonnière stated that the elite in what is now the State of Georgia even wore copper breastplates in battle.
It was only the Purepeche, after their arrival in Michoacan around 900 AD, who developed skills in smelting and working copper. The Purepeche entered the Bronze Age a few decades before the arrival of the Spanish. It was the Purepeche’s metal weapons, which enabled them to defeat the Aztecs, when their kingdom was attacked. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, Director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, told me that the copper art found at Etowah Mounds was vastly superior to the copper art produced by ANY of the indigenous civilizations in Mexico.
YET . . . the only archaeological museum in Tepoztlan, Museo de Arte Prehispánico Carlos Pellicer, barely mentions Quetzacoatl. Nowhere are visitors to the city told that Tepoz means “copper” or that copper mining was the original economic base of the region. One is not told that the name of the God of Alcoholic Beverages worshiped at the Topozteco Shrine actually means “Copper God.” In POOF’s previous article on Tepoztlan, we included a video, which provided proof that government archaeologists were intentionally destroying and concealing the architectural evidence of a culture in Tepoztlan, which was different than other Mesoamerican societies in Central Mexico. What is going on here?
Let’s look at the facts.
The newly “discovered” petroglyphs at Tepoztlan
These petroglyphs are identical to the Bronze Age petroglyphs in Northern Georgia, Ireland, Scotland and southern Scandinavia. They particularly similar to the petroglyphs in a rock shelter, overlooking the Amicalola River in Dawson County, Georgia.
These petroglyphs bear no resemblance to the petroglyphs created by the indigenous peoples of Central America, South America or the Caribbean basin.
- The establishment of a shrine in the Tepoztepetli (Copper Mountains) around 1200 BC corresponds to the high point of Bronze Age civilizations in Scandinavia, Ireland and the Mediterranean Basin, soon followed by a catastrophic collapse, due to natural disasters.
- Public architecture, such as mounds, pyramids, plazas and ceremonial ponds existed in Amazonia, western Peru, Georgia and Louisiana 2,500 years or more before they appeared in Mexico around 1000 BC. The “pyramids” constructed by the “Olmec” Civilization (actually the Zoque Civilization) were really earthen mounds, identical to those constructed earlier and later in the Southeastern United States.
- Zoque or Soque means “civilized” in their language. The Miccosukee Migration Legend states that they are the descendants of the “Olmec” Civilization and that they migrated from Tabasco to Georgia because of persecution by Nahuatl invaders. The elite of the Soque in the Upper Savannah River Basin, were physically identical to the Miccosukee-Creeks and the Zoque of Mexico. The Soque Commoners are even today, identical to the famous “Olmec Stone Heads” found in southern Mexico. Most joined the Creek Confederacy and their descendants are now in the Thlopthlokko Tribal Town. Their descendants on the Snowbird Cherokee Reservation are called “Moon Faces” by the Qualla Band of Cherokees.
- Pottery was being made in Amazonia, the Savannah River Basin and near Lake Okeechobee, Florida a thousand years before it appeared in Central Mexico. The people of the “Olmec” Civilization did not make pottery until around 900 BC.
- Copper ore was being mined at Tepoztlan at the same time that more advanced cultures began developing in southern Vera Cruz, Tabasco and Izapa, Chiapas. YET . . . very, very few copper artifacts have been found in Mexico, dating from that era. Where was the copper going?
Zoque and Maya writing systems
- Several of the earliest Epi-Olmec and Maya glyphs in their writing systems can be found on the petroglyphic boulders at Nyköping, Sweden, which have been dated to 2000 BC.
- The first Maya glyph to be translated by David Stuart, was the Great Sun or High King. It is also found at Nyköping, plus many other petroglyphic sites in Scandinavia and northern Georgia. In fact, all but two of the petroglyphs at the Track Rock Gap site in the Georgia Mountains can also be seen at Nyköping. There are several Great Sun glyphs on the Track Rock Gap boulders.
- The Nyköping and Maya writing systems have the same format . . . rectangles with rounded corners. It is obvious that the Maya writing system evolved from the Nyköping writing system.
No professor at Georgia Tech or Georgia State University EVER discussed the terrace complexes in Mesoamerica or Georgia in my classes. About two minutes were spent on the agricultural terrace complexes in Peru during a Pre-Columbian architecture class.
Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan did not assign me to visit any terrace complexes and did not mention them in any of our conversations. Therefore, when I encountered ancient terrace complexes in Chiapas and the Guatemalan Highlands, I gave them little attention, even though many were in active use. I could tell, however, from the pattern of stone ruins, that these terrace complexes originally had houses and even some public buildings on them at one time. Today, the farmers of terrace complexes live in villages and walk to their terraces.
After I climbed through what was is perhaps the largest terrace complex in the Americas . . . on the side of Cerro Gordo, overlooking Teotihuacan, I presented slides of them to a brown bag lunch composed of senior staff and graduate students at the Museo Nacional de Antropologia. There was virtually no response from either the staff or the students.
Today, at least one archaeologist on the staff of INAH is interested in the agricultural terraces of the northern half of Mexico. She has successfully gained “national heritage” status for at least one of these complexes. However, aside from the TV documentary that she produced on that site, I have not come across any other articles or documentaries produced by INAH that discussed the hundreds of terrace complexes elsewhere in Mexico.
It seems apparent that Mexican archaeologists are protecting their own orthodoxy . . . namely that Mesoamerican civilization developed independently without any contacts or influence from North America, South America or the Old World. I suspect that the impetus for this orthodoxy is two-fold. These activities are politically motivated. The Mexican archaeologists are actualizing their cultural uniqueness from Europe. There is also deep resentment in Latin America over the pervasive influence that the United States has over their countries.
The driving force for Mesoamerican civilization was the abundance of its agriculture, whose genius was certainly indigenous in origin. However, there is little doubt that peoples from other lands, even from Europe, visited and settled in Mexico during the Formative Period between 2500 BC and 200 AD. These immigrants and visitors left behind small bits of their cultures, which enriched the indigenous cultures, but foreigners certain did not “invent” the indigenous architecture or play any significant role in agriculture. We will never truly understand the past in the Americas, until we look at all the evidence with an objective eye.
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