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Mesoamerica, Peru and the Southeastern USA . . . 100,000 BC to 0 AD

Mesoamerica, Peru and the Southeastern USA . . . 100,000 BC to 0 AD



Just because dramatic events or cultural changes occurred in several parts of the Americas simultaneously does not mean that the same peoples were involved.  In fact, the overwhelming evidence nowadays is that climatic changes were the driving force behind many cultural events in the Americas.  I have also included events on the eastern side of the Atlantic Ocean, which seemed to have resulted in movements of populations to eastern North America.  Events in Europe and/or the Mediterranean Basin are noted in blue text.  Key dates for pottery are noted in red text.

However, there are exceptions.  For example, around 990 AD either Toltec soldiers captured Chichen Itza or the Toltecs gained control of the city through political means.  Many of the Itza commoners fled to places unknown.  Suddenly new peoples appeared on the Ocmulgee, Etowah and Chattahoochee Rivers, building Itza chiki-style houses.  Very soon thereafter, what is commonly called the Southeastern Ceremonial Culture was sprouting up all over the place . . . building chiki’s with corner doors, platform mounds and stone box graves.  There must be a connection.

Part Seven will continue from 0 AD to 1717 AD

Early humans in the Americas

There is much that the public is not told about the early human occupation of the Americas.  Until very recently, journalists cooperated with “Old Guard” archaeologists to censor any information that conflicted with the now-debunked “Clovis First” theory.  The rise of the science of genetics made it impossible for some of that knowledge to be concealed any longer.  These facts include:

  • No Clovis points have been found in Alaska.
  • The earliest Clovis points were in South Carolina and Georgia. The greatest concentration of Clovis Points is in the eastern United States . . . in particular, central Tennessee.
  • Many animals originated in the Americas and then crossed over to Asia. These include horses and camels. Some animals, such as canines and felines, originated in the Old World and crossed over into the Americas.  Thus, there were earlier periods when two-way movement between these continents was easily accomplished and coincide when early humans or humanoids were hunting them.
  • The period when the land bridge was open is not corresponding with the radiocarbon dates for the earliest skeletons of people with genetic connections to certain tribes in extreme northeastern Siberia.
  • Both American Indians and their closest cousins in extreme northeastern Siberia are not closely related to the other indigenous peoples in eastern Siberia, but to a hybrid population on the western edge of Asia near the Ural Mountains, where proto-Europeans and western Asians mixed.
  • This leads to the extremely viable possibility that the ancestors of American Indians crossed directly from eastern Russia or Scandinavia to North America then evolved some more.  It seems highly significant that the Clovis Culture first appeared in a region south of the Glacial Ice Cap, where survival was possible throughout the Ice Age.  At that time, America and Europe were several hundred miles closer and the North Atlantic was dotted with islands that are now under water. Their few relatives in northeastern Siberia could have crossed the land bridge from Alaska to Siberia much later. After all it only took the Inuit a few hundred years to spread from Alaska to Greenland.
  • All Inuit tribes say that they came by canoe from Asia.
  • All Pacific Northwest tribes say that they directly crossed the Pacific in large canoes.
  • The Uchee say that they crossed the Atlantic in large boats from Europe.
  • Australoids could only have reached South America by crossing the Pacific in large canoes.
  • Mexican archaeologists still insist that their first inhabitants were Polynesians, who arrived around 22,000 years ago. The indigenous peoples of Baja California and the southern part of the State of California had Polynesian DNA, not American Indian.



c. 100,000 BC – 50,000 BC

  • In 1995, two underwater archaeologists, employed by the State of Georgia, found a Paleolithic camp site on the ocean floor, two miles from Sapelo Island, GA.  At this site, they discovered finished and partially-completed stone tools, made from flint mined far inland on the Savannah River, which were identical to European Neandertal artifacts from 100,000 to 50,000 years ago.  At the time, the Atlantic Coast along present day Georgia was 100 miles to the east of its current location.  After presenting their discovery to the Society for Georgia Archaeology, the archaeologists were forbidden by their bosses from continuing their research and essentially “driven” out of the state of Georgia.  The artifacts were made to “disappear” by “Old Guard” archaeologists in Georgia.
  • In 2004, South Carolina archeologists, working at the Topper Site on the Savannah River (a flint knapping camp) radiocarbon dated charcoal, associated with artifacts, identical to those created by Homo Erectus (Peking Man and Java Man) in Asia to date from 50,000 BC.   They have been ridiculed by many of the fellow archaeologists for making this discovery.

c. 16,500 BC

  • Archaeologists, working in a long-occupied Paleo-American cave community in Monte Verde, Chile, have recently radiocarbon dated its initial human occupation to have begun around 18,500 years ago.

c. 15,000 BC

  • People belonging to a Pre-Clovis culture are living along the Savannah River, followed by earliest known Clovis Culture.  No Paleo-American skeletons have been found in the Southeast.  Charcoal associated with the pre-Clovis artifacts at the Topper Site on the Savannah River was deposited 16,500 year ago.

c. 14,000 BC

  • People from Southeast Asia were living in the Yucatan Peninsula.  A woman’s skeleton, with typical Indonesian-Malaysian features was found in an underwater cave on the coast of Yucatan.

c. 13,000 BC

  • Australoids with the same genetic traits as the aborigines of Australia and New Guinea were living in the heart of the Amazon Basin. Their wall paintings and petroglyphs showed advanced cultural traits for that time in history, but also toward the end show a sudden shift to incessant warfare with invading American Indians from Siberia. Three Amazonian tribes . . . Suruí, Karitiana and Xavante . . . have more in common genetically with Australasians than any group in Siberia.

c. 11,000 BC

  • Oldest known skeleton of a human originating from Northeast Siberia was found in Montana in association with Clovis tools

c. 8000 BC

  • The domestication of wild squash and the bottle gourd began in Mexico.

c. 6000 BC

  • Domestication of several indigenous plants was occurring in several parts of the Andes and the Upper Amazon Basin.   Mummification was the standard form of preserving the dead on the Coastal Plain of Peru.  Like the Apalache in North Georgia 5,000 years later, the mummies were coated in clay and painted after being preserved.

c. 5000 BC

  • Permanent villages and massive shell middens were being constructed on the southern Gulf Coast of the Florida Peninsula and on the Atlantic Coast of Georgia between the Savannah and Altamaha Rivers.
  • The domestication of wild squash began in the Southeastern United States.
  • The domestication of maize began in Central Mexico.

c. 4000 BC

  • Permanent villages and towns were thriving in the Upper Amazon Basin and the Coastal Plain of Peru and Ecuador.  The earliest known pottery in the Americas was being created in the Upper Amazon Basin.

c. 3500 BC

  • Huaricanga is the earliest city of the Norte Chico civilization in Peru. It existed around 3500 BC and was the oldest city in the Americas and one of the earliest cities in the world.
  • Large towns with pyramidal mounds, plazas and recessed, round kiva type structures were thriving on the Coastal Plain of Peru.  There were also permanent towns being developed on man-made islands in the Upper Amazon Basin.
  • The earliest construction of the Bilbo Mound on a man-made island in a circular man-made port began on the Savannah River near present day Downtown Savannah (c. 3545 BC).
  • Domestication of indigenous plants such as squash, sunflowers, Jerusalem artichokes, etc. was occurring in the Southeast.
  • The Watson Brake Earthworks were constructed in Northeast Louisiana (3450 BC).
  • Massive stonehenges and sun circles were being constructed in southern Alberta and Ontario.

c. 2345-2325 BC

  • Torrential rains fell on Ireland and Britain for 20 years.  Irish archaeologists believe that Ireland was almost depopulated by the resulting floods and water-logged fields.

c. 2500 BC

  • The earliest known pottery in North America was being created along the Savannah River in Georgia and South Carolina around 2500 BC.  It was quite similar to the early pottery in the Amazon Basin.  Almost simultaneously, the earliest known shell rings in North America were being constructed near the mouth of the Altamaha River in Georgia.

c. 2300-2200 BC

  • Approximate date of the construction of a triangular temple, built of quarried stones next to the Nodoroc Mud Volcano in Northeast Metropolitan Atlanta.

c. 2000 BC

  • Petroglyphs were carved on a granite outcrop near present day Nyköping, Sweden, which also appear on several petroglyphic boulders in the North Georgia Mountains.

c. 1800 BC

  • The earliest known pottery in Peru dates to about 1800 AD and was created by the Wairahirca Culture.  This was 700 years after pottery appeared in the Savannah River Basin. By this time, farmers in Peru’s coastal plain were cultivating cotton, corn and a variety of plants indigenous to the region.

c. 1600 – 1540 BC

  • The Thera Volcano, near Crete, erupted with four times the violence of the Krakatoa Volcano (Indonesia) in 1883.  The tsunami, hot gasses and pumice destroyed a significant area of the Minoan Civilization.

c. 1600 BC

  • Massive earthworks were constructed in northeastern Louisiana, beginning at Poverty Point. One of the largest mounds in North America was constructed in less than a year.  Several more platform villages were constructed nearby in the following centuries.

c. 1500 BC

  • By this time, most of the shell rings on the coast of South Carolina and Georgia were abandoned.
  • Newcomers arrived on the coast of Vera Cruz from across the Gulf of Mexico in three large flotillas.  A distinct “proto-Olmec” culture appeared at certain villages on the coast of southern Vera Cruz and northern Tabasco, Mexico.  However, earthworks at the scale of Poverty Point would not be constructed for many more centuries. Unlike the Deptford Culture in Georgia, the people of Poverty Point did not make pottery.

c. 1400 BC

  • The cities of Cuicuilco and Copilco were founded in the Valley of Mexico . . .  today’s Mexico City.  Initially, they did not make pottery.

c. 1200 BC

  • A massive tsunami or hurricane swept over Denmark, leveling most of the trees and depositing a thick layer of mud over much of the region.
  • About that same time, several Bronze Age civilizations began collapsing in the Eastern Mediterranean region . . . reducing the demand for copper, tin, amber and other valuable trade items.

c. 1200-1000 BC

  • A cluster of mounds and middens immediately east of present day Downtown Savannah was the site of a large settlement, later remembered as the first permanent town and capital of North Georgia’s Apalache People, progenitors of the Creek Indians
  • The mound-building Deptford Culture that originated in Savannah, GA around 1200 BC then began spreading across the Lower Southeast around 1000 BC.  This culture was probably ancestral to the Uchee People. Its pottery and stone implements strongly resembled pottery and stone implements in western Ireland and southern Scandinavia – the Beaker Culture.
  • 1200 BC marked the earliest occupation of the future Olmec Civilization city of La Venta.  The Olmecs actually had nothing to do with the Olmec Civilization.
  • The construction of low platform mounds began at several proto-Maya/Zoque sites in Mesoamerica around 1000 BC.  Their earliest pottery dated from around 1000 BC to 900 BC.

c. 1000 – 800 BC

Numerous permanent Deptford Culture villages were established on the Upper Chattahoochee and Etowah Rivers in the Georgia Gold Belt.  Construction began of large truncated oval mounds on the Upper Chattahoochee River near present day Buford Dam, in the Nacoochee Valley and at the headwaters of the Chattahoochee near Unicoi State Park.   Oval pyramids would continue to be the signature architecture of the Apalache Culture in North Georgia.

  • The Adena Culture began developing distinctive traits in the Ohio Valley.
  • The Chavin and Paracase cultures began in western Peru.
  • La Venta became the most powerful Olmec Civilization town after San Lorenzo’s population collapsed.  Pottery making becomes common in the Olmec towns and villages.  This is over 1500 years after pottery was first made in Georgia.
  • The Paracas and Chavin Cultures of Peru quickly became highly skilled in ceramics and metallurgy.

700 BC

  • Chiapa de Corzo in Chiapas State, Mexico rose to prominence as a major regional Maya center.

c. 550 BC

  • Mound builders from the Southeast settled in western Cuba. They constructed large round houses on fieldstone bases that were later typical of the Apalache elite in North Georgia.
  • About the same time, a people from the eastern Antilles Islands established villages on the eastern tip of Cuba.
  • The great Maya city of “El Mirador” was founded.

c. 400 BC

  • A town was founded on the Lower Chattahoochee River that is now called the Mandeville Site. The location is near the attapulgite deposits in Georgia . . . the largest in the Americas.
  • A religious shrine was established at what would become Teotihuacan.
  • The Olmec Civilization city of La Venta was abandoned about this time.

c. 300 BC

  • Peoples living in central and southern Mexico began to cluster into towns rather than in dispersed villages.
  • A settlement was established at what would become the great Maya city of Tikal .in northern Guatemala – the Peten Jungle.

c. 250 BC

  • The first public building was constructed on the North Acropolis of Tikal.  Tikal would become one of the largest and most powerful Maya cities.

c. 200 BC

  • Colonists from the Mandeville Site established a colony on the Chattahoochee River at Buzzard Island and the confluence of Utoy Creek.  The location is now just downstream from the Six Flags Over Georgia amusement park and near the Owl Rock.
  • Large permanent villages began forming in the Etowah River Valley of Northwest Georgia.
  • Earliest appearance of cultural traits in the Ohio Valley of what would become the “Hopewell”  Cultural Tradition.
  • The earliest public buildings at Teotihuacan were constructed.
  • The Paracus People migrated or were driven out of the Nazca Plain in Peru and replaced by the Nazca People.

36 BC

  • The oldest known Maya Long Count calendar date was found on a stela at Chapa de Corzo, Chiapas.

c. 0 AD

  • Construction began on a massive mound, covering almost two acres near Ladds Mountain on the Etowah River.  This site is two miles downstream from the better-known Etowah Mounds.
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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.



    Richard, Thanks for this Great article. Why would the Universities and the political system not want us to know that people were living here 100,000-50,000 years ago? The Neanderthal brain was bigger than modern day man’s and they are known to have made boats. We are only a small difference in genes from the Neanderthal of only .12 %. Many advances originated on this landmass and crossed over the oceans with fishermen people to Europe in the ancient past. Around the same time that people built the first Gobekli stone pillars are found by geologist nano-diamonds on the Eastern seaboard (9000 BC) and the end of the Clovis period soon follows (perhaps Gobekli was made by decedents of an Ancient Kingdom destroyed by an asteroid strike?). Thousands of years later massive copper mining began (5500 BC) in the Great lakes area and that 99.7 pure copper is found with the “ice man” (3300 BC) of Europe matches the same copper of the Great Lakes. 5000 BC is the time when people in Peru invented the first written script and from what I have read built the first pyramids. There is plenty of evidence that fishermen / Sea merchants have been crossing the oceans for a long time.


    Wonderful timeline, Richard. Thanks, again, for doing the research to publish the facts.


    while walking the banks of the savannah river near field’s cut looking for ancient shark’s teeth, i came across a human tibia and still have it. if you are interested in examining it or carbon dating it, let me know where to send it. sincerely, dr. steve marlay.

    • Human bones should go to a forensic pathologist or a forensic anthropologist. Skeletal analysis is WAY out of my professional education. I am a historic preservation architect-planner. LOL Thanks for mentioning it though.


    What a great resource! Thank you!


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