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Notice . . . the next article is a must read for all Arawaks, Shawnees, Uchees, Creeks, Cherokees and Catawbas

Notice . . . the next article is a must read for all Arawaks, Shawnees, Uchees, Creeks, Cherokees and Catawbas


The article, which will be published later this morning is possibly the most important that I have ever written.  It completely changes the orthodox understanding of the peopling of North America, Caribbean Basin and northern South America.  It relies on linguistics, but there is no way that the same key words could have existed on both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean without being carried by humans in large numbers.  These words are all shared between the indigenous peoples of eastern North America and the Early Bronze Age peoples of northwestern Europe . . . not from the Minoans, Phoenicians, Sumerians, Chinese, Egyptians, Romans or North Africans.  This information also changes the understanding of the Beaker Cordware (Ireland and Scandinavia), Deptford, Adena and Hopewell (Eastern North America) Cultures.

The Uchee stated that there were no humans living in the Lower Southeast, when they arrived, but the Algonquians were already well-established to the north of them.   However, the Uchee could see numerous shell rings and mounds, built by an unknown people, who had lived there before them.  This places the Uchee arrival after the abandonment of the shell rings around 1500 BC.


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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.



    Richard T.,
    Have you ever read “The Yuchi Language Primer; a Brief, Introductory Grammar” (by Woktela / David Hackett)?
    Since you are part Uchee, can you check the Uchee word list for any errors?
    Although it is not certain if the Uchee words in this particular word list are correct the following is a word comparison of nine words between the Uchee (Yuchi), Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian and Oceanic) and Sami/Saami languages.

    Word Comparison:
    Yuchi/Uchee – tse
    Austronesian – tasi (sea)
    Sami/Saami – cháhci
    English – water

    Yuchi/Uchee – ah gah
    Austronesian – qadaw; adaw; aho; ao
    Sami/Saami – beaivi
    English – day

    Yuchi/Uchee – tcala; tza-la
    Austronesian – m-talah (red); tsala; shala; darah = blood
    Sami/Saami – rukses; ruoksat
    English – red

    Yuchi/Uchee – yash-kah
    Austronesian – ma-putiq; puti
    Sami/Saami – chæs’ka-
    English – white

    Yuchi/Uchee – ish-pi; ees-pee
    Austronesian – hitam; qetseŋel
    Sami/Saami – cháhppes
    English – black

    Yuchi/Uchee – hi-tzo; hee-tzo
    Austronesian – hijo; ijo; hijaw (green)
    Sami/Saami – alit (blue); ruoná (green)
    English – blue (also green and purple)

    Yuchi/Uchee – hit’é; heet’e
    Austronesian – ise; iteh; haiten; hiji; siji
    Sami/Saami – okta (oktii = one time)
    English – one

    Yuchi/Uchee – nõwe; no wen
    Austronesian – nua (nuwa?); luwa/lua; ruwa/rua; duwa/dua
    Sami/Saami – guokte (doai = you (plural), you two)
    English – two

    Yuchi/Uchee – nõká; no kah
    Austronesian – tiga; tonuga
    Sami/Saami – golbma
    English – three

    After comparing nine words with eachother there seems to be a greater similarity between the Uchee and Austronesian languages than there is between the Uchee and the Sami language.
    When you put the results into percentages there is about 77,77% similarty with Austronesian languages and 33,33% similarity with the Sami language. The similarities between some Uchee words and Austronesian words are unexpected.
    Three Uchee words “yash-kah” (white), “ish-pi”/”ees-pee” (black) and “tse” (water) with the Sami equivalents “chæs’ka-“, “cháhppes” and “cháhci” come nearest in similarity through word comparison with “yash-kah” and “chæs’ka-” being practically identical which is expected since the Uchee and Sami/Saami are related.
    For seven Uchee words in this comparison it is more of a mystery. If the given Uchee words are correct it will be a bigger surprise than it already is since the question will arise when, where and from whom the Uchee borrowed Austronesian and Oceanic words.
    Even the Sami words for water “cháhci” and two “guokte”/”doai” seem to have Austronesian affinity.

    Is there a possibility that there was an Austronesian or Oceanic migration from west to east from Oceania (Pacific) via the Americas towards and into Northern Europe?
    Perhaps the Austronesian and Oceanic words entered the Uchee vocabulary via a possible Lapita Culture related people (“Olmec”?) who migrated from MesoAmerica (Mexico) into Southeast North America.

    To POOF members/readers; I am not saying the Uchee are genetically related to Austronesians (Malayo-Polynesian or Oceanic people). Having said that, I am observing an as of yet unexplained Austronesian and Oceanic word similarities in the Uchee language.

    – For Austronesian I have included Malayo-Polynesian and Oceanic words for comparison.

    The Yuchi Language Primer; a Brief, Introductory Grammar – Woktela (David Hackett) for 9/2007

    Sami/Saami – English online dictionary

    Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

    • That is amazing. Where did you find the Uchee glossary?


        Richard T., The Uchee words / word list can be found in the provided link to a pdf file from
        The document seems to be posted in the year 2007 that would means it is older than a decade (10 years) and a certain David Hackett (Woktela?) seems to be the author and provider for the Uchee words.
        It is unclear if the Uchee words are correct; that’s why someone like you who’s knowledgable in the Uchee history and language can take a look at it and check the provided Uchee words for errors.

        If the Uchee words are found to be correct there will be a new mystery and chapter added to the Uchee history.
        The amount of similarities between Austronesian, Oceanic and Uchee words come as a surprise and is very unexpected.
        It’s because I have been doing regular research on Austronesian, Oceanic languages and societies for some time that I was/am able to notice these word similarities.
        For now everyone needs to be skeptical to some point until further (conclusive?) research has been done.

        To be clear to POOF members/readers; I am NOT a linguist and NOT a geneticist.

        • That may or may not be accurate. He lives in eastern Tennessee and one day decided that he had Yuchi, not Cherokee ancestry, but he doesn’t look like a Yuchi. I thought what you found was from the Euchee Language Project in Oklahoma. Their work is 100% reliable because they are real Uchees-Euchees-Yuchi’s.


            Thank you for your reply.

            Is the word list from the Euchee Language Project in Oklahoma available to the public?

            Can you perhaps provide the right Uchee words for water; day; red; white; black; blue (green and purple); one; two and three?

            It will be interesting to see how accurate the Uchee words are from David Hackett’s Uchee word list.

            Once the words have been (double) checked on the accuracy further research can be done on how similar the Uchee and Austronesian and Oceanic words really are. Who knows maybe there will be even more similarities once the Euchee Language Project in Oklahoma provides their word list for comparison.

          • A group of University of Oklahoma Professors were paid $600,000 about 15 years ago to produce a complete Uchee dictionary. They have not. NOW, there is something you should know. The Euchee word list from Oklahoma merely reflects the words now spoken by a handful of Euchee elders there. There were several branches of the Uchee. The largest was on the Ogeechee and Lower Savannah Rivers. They probably spoke different words. I know that the Itsate Creek words for animals and plants that my grandparents told me are quite different that those of the Muskogee Creeks in Oklahoma.


    Richard T.,

    The following is from “Sam Noble Museum Oklahoma’s Museum of Natural History – Euchee Language”.
    One of the links provided on their website which is linked to the University of Oklahoma is about the Yuchi Grammar published in the year 1938 by Günter, Wagner which can be found and read on – Internet Archive Bookreader.
    I have posted the links below.

    Quote from the Introductory Note on the Yuchi Grammar (Wagner, Günter – May 1934):
    “The material on which this grammatical sketch of the Yuchi Language is based has been collected during several field trips to the Yuchi Indians of Central Oklahoma which were undertaken during the summer of 1928 and in the winter of 1929, covering in all a period of about five months.”
    Word list from Günter Wagner’s 1930’s Yuchi Grammar for comparison with the Uchee (Yuchi) word list from David Hackett from 2007.

    Wagner’s Uchee – English Gloss – Hackett’s Uchee:

    tsε – water – tse

    a’ga – day – ah gah

    tsya’l’a – red – tcala; tza-la

    yaxka; ka’xka – white – yash-kah

    ipsi’ – black – ish-pi; ees-pee

    hidzo’ – green, blue – hi-tzo; hee-tzo

    hit’ε’ – one – hit’é; heet’e

    no’wε – two – nõwe; no wen

    noka’ – three – nõká; no kah

    As you can see the 1930’s Günter Wagner’s Yuchi Grammar must have been the source for David Hackett’s Uchee word list.
    The fact that Wagner’s Yuchi Grammer is listed as source material for the Uchee/Euchee/Yuchi language on the Oklahoma Museum website which is linked to the University of Oklahoma and even has a link to the Euchee Language Project gives more weight to the accuracy of the Uchee words.
    Now that the accuracy (correctness) of the Uchee words have been confirmed the similarities between Austronesian, Oceanic and Uchee words can be considered as possible indirect proof of language contact (word borrowing) perhaps through trade.

    Further more, there are more words in Wagner’s Yuchi Grammar which could also be of Austronesian or Oceanic origin.

    Uchee/Yuchi – goha’
    Austronesian – tua; tuha; tugha; toa; toha; tuwa
    English – old

    Uchee/Yuchi – iłε’
    Austronesian – ela; ila; hila’a; silai; tele
    English – big

    When putting the results from the 11 (eleven) word comparison list in percentages there is about 81,81% word similarity between the Uchee and the Austronesian and Oceanic and 27,27% word similarity between the Uchee and Sami/ Saami.
    Again, I am not saying the Uchee are related to the Austronesian or Oceanic people yet observing unexplained word similarities between these geographical distant language groups.

    – Austronesian and Oceanic words for old person; parent is “matua”; “ma-uwa”/”ma-ua”; “matoa”; “makua”. The Uchee word “goha” is closer to the Hawai’ian word “makua”.
    – In some Oceanic languages words for ripe; full-grown; mature is “matuha”.
    – Austronesian words ela; ila; hila’a and silai meaning “big” are from Central Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages.
    – Oceanic word tele meaning “big” is from the Samoan language.

    Sam Noble Museum Oklahoma’s Museum of Natural History – Euchee Language

    Wagner, Guënter. 1938. Yuchi Grammar. In Boas, Franz (ed.) Handbook of American Indian Languages. 300–374. New York: Columbia University Press.

    Handbook Of American Indian Languages page 316 (Monosyllabic stems)

    Handbook Of American Indian Languages page 345 (Bisyllabic stems; adjectival)

    Handbook of American Indian Languages page 346 (Numerals)

    Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

    Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database

    • Fantastic, well-researched comment! A article in itself.


        Richard T.,

        Thank you for the replies on both comments.

        It is good and interesting to know that the Euchee word list from Oklahoma merely reflects the words now spoken by a handful of Euchee elders there and that there are or were in fact several branches of the Uchee.
        With that knowledge in mind some questions arise like:
        – Did an Austronesian or Oceanic people truly inhabited (lived in) some parts of Southeast North America? If so, When (what timeline) did they enter Southeast North America; was it prior or after the Uchee migration into Southeast North America?
        – Is it possible that an Austronesian and or Oceanic people were actually remnants of the so-called “Olmec” culture and civilization or more directly linked to the Lapita culture and civilization who were living in Southeast North America prior to the so-called “Olmec” civilization?

        It will be interesting to find out and to see if an Austronesian or Oceanic people was a separate group or tribe living near or in Uchee territory who kept to themselfs for the most part yet trough trade exchanged words which is language contact resulting in Austronesian and or Oceanic word borrowing into the Uchee vocabulary.
        A possiblity comes to mind that the shell ring complex builders were actually of Austronesian or Oceanic origin who lived in the region which would become Uchee territory.

        The following is some information which could give validation (confirmation) that this particular possibility or theory could be true.

        ‘Island Builders’: Landscape and Historicity Among The LangaLanga Solomon Islands’ – by Pei-yi Guo

        – “A unique feature of Malaita are [sic] the artificial islands of Langalanga and Lau lagoons, built laboriously by the saltwater people. These islands of coral rock, constructed over centuries to escape the frequent raids by headhunters, are also the traditional home of the manufacture of shell money.”

        – “The emergence of the Langalanga is a result of multiple waves of migration.”

        – “Some Langalanga people attribute the introduction of shell money manufacture as the prime reason for such movement, because materials for shell money production are more accessible by the sea. Others consider reasons such as refuge-seeking as possible motives for the adoption of specific residential form.”

        – “Langalanga artificial islands are built on reefs and shallow places in the sea, with man-made foundations.”

        – “And for the Langalanga, ‘We are where we live (and lived).’ Landscape is a ‘dominant symbol’ in Langalanga: ‘it occures frequently, or its presence, both itself and iconic representations, is quite conspicuous’ and ‘it serves as a “window”, revealing something important about the culture (Ohnuki-Tierney 1993: 5).”

        – “The reason that artificial islands become their cultural marker is strongly connected to the way they view them as the representation of ‘tradition’ and ‘the past’.”

        – “Although many Langalanga abandoned the artificial islands and moved onshore, in their memory and discourse about the past, the special landscape of the artificial islands, which they built with their own labour and experience as the core of living space in the past, is constantly used as the metaphore of the past, their preceding ancestors and their activities.”

        – “Thus landscape, its form constructed from natural and artificial features, became a culturally meaningful resource through its routine occupancy’ (cited by Knapp and Ashmore 1999: 6-7).”

        – “People make use of some features of the landscape as boundry markers that separate people into different groups.”

        – “In addition, features of landscape are also imployed as labels to categorise different kinds of people – the most significant of these is the contrast between the bush people (ioi i tolo gi) and the saltwater people (ioi i asi gi).”

        – “There are two major dimensions in the relationships between landscape and history in Langalanga. First, landscape features are markers of the past. For example, the Langalanga distinguish the artificial islets that were inhabited (faluaua tolea) from the artificial islets which were once occupied but have been abandoned (faurara) by the time the conversation takes place (Guo 2001b).”

        – “Some artificial islets are left with nothing but islet foundations.”

        – “Landmarks or signs on the landscape are sometimes seen as the symbols of the ancestral past; they can be seen as the codes of memory presented in myths or legends. Some features of landscape are evidence of ancestral activities. These are called tafurae, signs left by the ancestors, including stone walls, houses, trees and sacrificial stones.”

        – “Ancestral actions (discovering the piece of land, using the water in the river, and naming the place) and their transformations of the landscape (by planting trees, making gardens, and building houses and sacrificial grounds) empower their descendants, giving them the right to the land.”

        – “A given area and its landscape can be cut off from the people, and may no longer provide their daily needs, but it is still the result of human actions in the past. Through the transformations of landscape, humans (especially ancestors) became part of the landscape, and the landscape becomes a symbol for the humans. Therefore, people are classified as ‘bush people’ and ‘saltwater people’, and artificial islands become the cultural representation of the Langalanga.”

        When taking these quotes and information into account, the shell ring complexes could be representations of (artificial) islets/islands where a possible Austronesian and or Oceanic people once lived and for whatever reason abandoned it before the territory where these shell ring complexes are situated was taken over by the Uchee.
        Surely remaining Austronesian and or Oceanic descendants would communicate with the Uchee (most likely through trade) exchanging words if not adopted as a tribe into the Uchee or other ‘native’ American tribe.

        Perhaps the Uchee, Itsate-Creek and Muskogee-Creek were in contact with the same Lapita cultured people and in some cases borrowed Austronesian and or Oceanic words into their vocabularies and even intermarried (concensual or not) leaving Polynesian (mtDNA B4a1a1…?) genetic markers in their descendants.

        – The island builders built artificial islands for centuries in the Solomon Islands (Melanesia) which is within the Lapita Culture Complex which could be indirect evidence that the unknown shell ring complex builders could be related to a Lapita Cultured people.

        ‘Island Builders’: Landscape and Historicity Among The LangaLanga Solomon Islands’ – by Pei-yi Guo

        • Heck, all I know is that my mother’s family are 2% Polynesian. The latest DNA tests are specifically saying Maori. You go figure?


    Richard T.,

    It’s interesting that 2% of the DNA in your mother’s family show up as Polynesian.
    With the Polynesian DNA being specifically Maori it rules out the Malagasy (people from Madagascar) as a possible source or origin.

    To rule out other possibilities you need to delve into your family history which you should do in private of course. Did any of your (mother’s) family members serve for the country during WWII or perhaps right after WWII ended?
    North America does have relatively many Pacific Islands in their possesion especially after WWII; examples: Hawaiian Islands, Guam, American Samoa etc. Also during WWII there were Maori service men (probably women too) inlisted for New Zealand.

    It is not to say that those are the only options for your Polynesian – Maori DNA to show up in your mother’s family yet one has to be careful not to take hasty conclusions especially now that you have a big following on POOF.
    The point being with only one known family which is your mother’s family to have 2% Polynesian – Maori DNA is not enough to say there was a Polynesian (Maori?) population living in Southeastern North America in pre-Columbian times.
    More DNA testing of Southeastern Native North Americans would give a clearer picture on how rare or commen the Polynesian DNA is in native Americans of that particular area.

    Having said that, Personally I do think at least some Austronesian, Oceanic including Polynesian people once lived in Southeastern North America. These Austronesian or Oceanic people must have been Lapita cultured people who migrated to Southeastern North America probably via MesoAmerica.
    Although there is no evidence as of yet; the Maori DNA marker (Maori motif) or better yet proto-Maori must have emerged (came into existance) in MesoAmerica.

    Why the proto-Maori emerged in MesoAmerica? The Maori migrated from east to west into New Zealand bringing the sweet potato or Kumara (Kumar) from the American mainland.
    It could mean that the Polynesian Maori DNA in your mother’s family is actually related to proto-Maori; either direct ancestors to the Maori or at least close relatives to the direct ancestors of the Maori.

    Possible (partial-)migration history:
    1. A group of Lapita people (most likely males) migrated into MesoAmerica.
    2. After a territory in MesoAmerica was obtained and it was safe enough to settle, the Lapita people brought over the “Polynesian motif mtDNA B4a1a1” women and colonized parts of MesoAmerica. The so-called male first women later colonization strategy was also applied by western colonists in Columbian times.
    3. Descendants of the Lapita people evolved into the proto-Maori and spread out through some parts of the Americas; one group migrated into Southeastern North America while another group migrated into South America from where they took the Kumara (Kumar) before sailing out into the Pacific Ocean migrating from east to west via Rapa Nui into New Zealand.

    To be clear, The above is a theory NOT fact.

    In the meantime I have found more Uchee words with similarities to Austronesian and or Oceanic words.

    Uchee – English gloss – Austronesian or Oceanic (- English)

    bili’ – to turn – wili; vili (return, come back); balik (to turn)

    hapa’ – flat – sapiq; hapiq; hápi (flattened)

    holo’ – deep – huluR (lower or let down, as on a rope); húlug (drop, fall freely); olog (fall, drop, abort)

    pado’ – dark (night) – pango; mangu (black)

    – The words “pango” and “mangu” are Maori words meaning “black”. It is interesting to note that other Austronesian and Oceanic languages and dialects have very different words for “black” such as “meten”, “hitam”, “uli”/”uri”. This could mean that the Maori words “pango” and “mangu” is a Maori inovation which hypothetically could have evolved in the Americas if not borrowed from an unknown native American source.

    • Our family only intermarried with other people of Creek or Uchee descent until after World War II. One of my cousins, who is a PhD from UT is focusing on our Uchee heritage. It could also be that the Maori were offspring of the Aparasi or Apalache. The Apalache were in Georgia much earlier than when the Maori arrived in New Zealand.


        That’s an interesting thought.
        Proto-Polynesian mtDNA is linked to Taiwanese mtDNA B4. The Polynesian motif is B4a1a1 which emerged/came into existance somewhere in the Bismarck Archipelago in the western Lapita culture complex area boundries.
        Both the Malagasy (people from Madagascar) and the Maori (people from New Zealand) are linked to the Polynesian motif mtDNA B4a1a1.
        If the Maori are descendants of the Aparasi or Apalache it would mean that the males were from the Aparasi or Apalache and the female were probably from a Lapita related people.

        It would be in line with the theory that the proto-Maori emerged/came into existance somewhere in the Americas. Keep in mind that the Maori migrated from east to west bringing the sweet potato or Kumara (Kumar) from South America to New Zealand.
        Like said in the earlier comment. Your mother’s family could be related to a/the proto-Maori which means your mother’s family are not descendants of the Maori but the Maori are descendants of the proto-Maori which your mother’s family could be related to.

        Regarding the word similarities between Uchee and Austronesian, Oceanic words; The Austronesian language family is at least 5,000 – 6,000 years old. There are at least 13 Uchee words which could be Austronesian or Oceanic in origin.
        Since your cousin is focusing on your Uchee heritage perhaps your cousin can take a look at it and discus the matter with linguists who can determine if the word similarities are chance resemblances or in fact related to eachother.


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