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OMG! . . . There was a Polynesian tribe in the Lower Southeast

OMG! . . . There was a Polynesian tribe in the Lower Southeast


It is probable that the Bilbo Mound in Savannah (c. 3545 BC) was built by a mysterious, proto-Polynesian people.

In the previous article on the status of my Bronze Age research, I dropped a linguistic bombshell, which actually occurred yesterday. For a decade, I have been trying to figure out the etymologies of Wassaw Island, Georgia and of the Southern Highland Native town in North Carolina, which was spelled variously Guaxule, Guasule, Guaxali and Guaxile by the chroniclers of the Hernando de Soto Expedition.  Late 20th century anthropologists had decreed that Wassaw was a Creek word and that Guaxule was the ancient capital of the Great Cherokee Nation . . . but its Cherokee meaning had been lost.  The anthropology professors from the Universities of Georgia and North Carolina, who visited my office in Asheville, NC while promoting their route for De Soto, pronounced the word, Gwak-silly.   Somehow . . . I didn’t think so.

Wassaw Island is located at the mouth of the Ogeechee River, south of Savannah, GA.

I learned enough Muskogee, while working on projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation to know how to convert Europeanized words to their original indigenous form.   Wassaw and Guaxule were written in the Creek alphabet as Wasv and Wasv-li.  Wasv-li means  Wasaw People, but what did Wasaw mean?  It was definitely NOT a Creek language word, but rather a proper noun, created by the Creeks.   It would take a long, long time to figure out the meaning.  I eventually figured out that the South Carolina tribe and place name, Waxhaw, was also related to this ethnic group.  The original word was Wasa-haw, with haw being the Itza Maya and Creek word for river.  The haw part merely sent me on a fruitless “wild goose” chase.  There was no word like Wasa in the Itza language . . . at least the Itza spoken today.

It should be explained that in Muskogee grammar, a “aw” suffix, spelled “V”, is attached to the end of an ethnic name to indicate a tribe.  Thus, the people of Kusa were called the Kusaw.  Itsate-Creek more typically added a “se” suffix, which was pronounced either like “she” or “che”, to indicate a tribe.

The famous Moon River separates Wassaw and Skidaway Islands from the mainland.

I was particularly interested in translating the Native American place names around Savannah because my grandmother said that the Savannah area and the Nacoochee Valley in Northeast Georgia was where our “Indian” mother towns were.  According to family tradition, we had direct ancestors, who were living in Palachicola, when the Rev. John Wesley preached there.  Wesley later founded the Methodist Church.

Ossabaw Island was a no-brainer.   It was a major center of Yaupon Holly cultivation.  The original word was Ase-bo, which is Panoan (Peru) for Yaupon Holly – Place of.  The same could not be said of Wassaw.  When working on research projects associated with the South Atlantic Coast, I would sporadically search indigenous language dictionaries of the Americas, trying to find a word like Wasa . . . which made sense.   None appeared.

Fact!  The petroglyphs, created by the aboriginal “red-haired” people of New Zealand are identical to many petroglyphs found in western Peru, the North Georgia Gold Belt,  southwestern Ireland,  eastern Scotland and southern Scandinavia.

A genetic clue

Long long ago, in a land faraway, known as America before the Great Recession,  I took a DNA test.  It was primitive by today’s standards, but surprisingly matches much more precise tests being done by my cousins.   Back then, I thought that all real Indians looked like Iron Eyes Cody and so was surprised when I showed up with a rather high percentage of Native American DNA.  Turns out that Iron Eyes Cody was a fraud.  He was a first generation Lebanese-American.   However, the test said that the combination of O+ blood and Haplo Group C DNA meant that all of my indigenous DNA was from Mesoamerica or South America and seemed similar to Maya genetic profiles.  That was a shocker.   Most everything else was either Scandinavian or Gaelic . . . no wonder I was able to pronounce Swedish so easily.  Most Scandinavians and all the Sami I met, thought I was a Sami, not an America! LOL  However, there was another surprise.  I carried some Polynesian DNA.  Where in the world did that come from?

Last year, my cousin Ray carried out a much more sophisticated DNA test on himself.   He had DNA test markers associated with two types of Scandinavians – Sami and post-Bronze Age Scandinavians.  He also carried Basque and Maori DNA test markers . . . Maori?  Well, the Maori are considered Polynesians, so maybe that’s what my test found.   But where in the world did this Polynesian DNA come from.

Initially yesterday, I tried to find a meaning of Wasa among the Nordic languages which include Dutch, Anglo-Saxon, Friesian, Plat Deutsche, Danish, Skansk, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Sami and Finnish.   Sami and Finnish are Turko-Uralic languages, but are geographically grouped with the other Germanic languages.  Nada!   Vasa meant an elk or reindeer calf in Sami and Finnish.   That didn’t make sense.   The middle and southern German word for water is Wasser.   It was derived from the Bronze Age Celtic word for water and ocean in the Austrian Alps.  It seemed to have no connection to Wassaw, but then at the end of this article, you will see it does.

In desperation, I reverse-engineered the word, using Google search and was astonished to see that Wasa was the ancient Pan-Oceanic word for ocean.  The Pan-Oceanic language was spoken by a maritime people, who in very ancient times spread all over the Pacific and Indian Oceans . . . perhaps much farther.   Wasa is the archaic  Maori, Samoan, Fiji and Hawaiian word for ocean.   These Polynesian peoples today typically use the word wai for ocean, but they will understand wasa

Uchee is the Muskogee-nization and Anglicization of the Irish Gaelic word for water, uisce.  The Itsate-Creeks called the Uchee on the Savannah and Oconee Rivers, the Okvte or Water People.  De Soto’s chroniclers wrote the word down as Ocute.   The Itsate Creeks labeled the Uchee on the Ogeechee River, Okeshi, which means “Descendants from the Ocean.”    Wassaw Island is at the mouth of the Ogeechee River. It all makes perfect sense . . . except how did proto-Polynesians reach the mouth of the Ogeechee River?   That is a whole lot of sailing . . . unless there is a whole lot that we don’t understand about mankind’s ancient past.

That leads us to another mystery.   The true Celts lived in the Austrian and Bavarian Alps.  Although the Irish, Scots and Welsh will often call themselves Celtic, geneticists have discovered that they absorbed Celtic cultural practices, but were not genetically, Celts.   Wasser is obviously related to the Pan-Oceanic words for water and ocean.   How in the heck did Proto-Polynesians get into the Austrian Alps? 

The Truth Is Out There Somewhere!




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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.



    WOW what a teaser. But you figured it out. Brilliant Richard !!!

    • Well Ms. Rita, I don’t know quit what it means. The anthropological and architectural research that I am doing is light years ahead of the state of archaeological practice in this region. None of the archaeologists are even asking questions. At least there will be a record on POOF of this, so someone else can pick up the ball and run again with it. LOL . . . as in rugby.


    Hey Richard T., Great and very interesting new post. It could fit the following theory.

    Eventhough it’s still a theory I think it’s plausible that east Asians mixed with Australoids / Australo-Melanesians (about 40,000 years ago) migrated through Central Asia, Siberia and mainland Europe ;mixing with other people along the way; reaching northwest European shores and set sail towards the west to the isles of Britain (England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland) before sailing further westwards to the eastern shores of the Americas (north America).
    The theory that dark- / black skinned Europeans are partially Australoid (Tianyuan Man) could be true since the ancient 35,000 year old European from Goyet Caves in Belgium shares DNA with Tianyuan Man who inherited DNA from Papuans and Aboriginal Australians (proto-Australoids?).

    Additional info:

    From wikipedia page on the Australoid race:
    “The Australioid racial group was introduced by Thomas Huxley in an essay ‘On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind’ (1870), in which he divided humanity into four principal groups (Xanthochroic, Mongoloid, Negroid, and Australioid).[4] Huxley further classified the Melanochroi (Peoples of the Mediterranean race) as a mixture of the Xanthochroi (northern Europeans) and Australioids.[5] Later writers dropped the first “i” in Australioid, establishing Australoid as the standard spelling.”

    “According to the Archaeologist Peter Bellwood, “many of the present Southern Mongoloid populations of Indonesia and Malaysia also have a high degree of Australo-Melanesian genetic heritage.”

    From wikipedia page on the Mediterranean race:
    Quote from ‘On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind’ (1870) by Thomas Huxley:
    “On the south and west this type comes into contact and mixes with the “Melanochroi,” or “dark whites”…In these regions are found, more or less mixed with Xanthochroi and Mongoloids, and extending to a greater or less distance into the conterminous Xanthochroic, Mongoloid, Negroid and Australioid areas, the men whom I have termed Melanochroi, or dark whites. Under its best form this type is exhibited by many Irishmen, Welshmen and Bretons, by Spaniards, South Italians, Greeks, Armenians, Arabs and high-caste Brahmins…I am much disposed to think that the Melanochroi are the result of an intermixture between the Xanthochroi and the Australoids. It is to the Xanthochroi and Melanochroi, taken together, that the absurd denomination of “Caucasian” is usually applied.”

    Source: On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind, Journal of the Ethnological Society of London (1870)


    • That is what I am thinking too. American archaeologists have traditionally defined the 6000 year long Archaic Period by a relative handful of stone points and in Georgia/South Carolina, the appearance of pottery. They assumed that all the people in North America came over the Beringia Land Bridge. It appears that the story is much more complex.


        The peopling of the Americas is much more complex indeed.

        Do you think that the Wasa (Wassaw; Guasvli) and Wataree (Watagi; Wataugi) could be related and maybe even the same people only in later migration stages perhaps?
        Note that the 35,000 year old ancient European from Goyet Caves in Belgium who shares DNA with Tianyuan Man from China lived in same region now occupied by the Netherlands, Friesland etc.
        It could mean that the European based Wata-re (Water People) tribe either inherited (some) Australoid / Australo-Melanesian DNA, certain proto-oceanic (proto-polynesian?) words and cultural traits via the ancient European ‘Belgian-Tianyuan’ Man or only adopted / absorbed its cultural practices.
        Whatever may be the case, it could explain the migration from Europe across the Atlantic ocean into the Americas (north America) and the similar tribe names Guasvli (Wasali or Wasaree?) and Wataree found in Southeast North America and the identical word ‘wasa’ meaning ‘ocean’ in proto-Oceanic / proto-Polynesian (Austronesian-) language.

        • Water-re was literally the name of the people living on the southern coast of the North Sea, who became the Dutch, Friesians, Angels, Jutes and English.


      Now you smoking! But you must check back, when Florida was connected to Central America, they walked down to Florida! We don’t say up!

      • Cuban archaeologists have discovered that Cuba was initially populated from Florida. The Taino came from the eastern Antilles, but all the older tribes seem to related to those in central Florida.


    Proto-Polynesian could also be termed “Nusantao.” There’s been some great research pointing to this by Wilhelm, Oppenheimer(Eden in the East), and a book by Paul Kekai Manansala called “Quests of the Dragon and Bird Clan.” Earlier dates for Bronze in SE Asia, and a much earlier proto-Polynesian expansion “Out of Sunda” predating “Out of Taiwan” by 5000 years.
    A recent Georgia archie told me Bilbo pottery shared characteristics with that of Venezuala and an Island in Japan. The Nusantao Maritime Trading network and related Hoabinhian built artificial islands with stilt houses similar to Bilbo.
    Even wilder, the only known descendants of Ur, the first Sumerian proto-city, all bear Y Haplogroup Q….now the predominant male haplogroup among Native Americans. The earliest layers of Ur bear marks of the Nusantao described in-depth by Oppenheimer and Manansala. Among these midden mounds, stilt houses, female figurines, hooks and weight sinkers, use of fish poison, cranial elongation as a priestly practice. Manansala showed more evidence of these traits in early Mesoamerican sites, but I don’t think he knew about Bilbo.
    Bilbo’s skeletons were deteriorated badly, so not sure if cranial deformation was a thing. But the other traits seem present, and evidence of cranial elongation exists elsewhere in S. Georgia according to that famous first episode of America Unearthed!

    • I missed that program! It was blacked out in North Georgia and no TV stations or newspapers mentioned that a TV program, filmed in Georgia, was airing on prime time Saturday night. Was the program any good?


        Excellent show! Led me to this site! Luckily us Georgians can get it on Youtube if we’re in-the-know:

        • Actually, I did not see the program until the History Channel sent me a DVD. I was not kidding. It was blacked-out in most sections north of Macon.

          The times are a-changing. The Georgia archaeologists claimed exclusive domain over the culture of my ancestors . . . being that there is a noticeable lack of culture in the mainstream media and politics of the nation, Native Americans are claiming domain over all mainstream culture. LOL Well, “Breakfast at Tiffany’s” was a magnificent movie.


            I didn’t see it until about a year later, but I remember my friends father jumped in his jeep and took off to N. Georgia in 2012 after he read an article about the Track Rock find. They didn’t let him in either.

            Oppenheimer shows that between 7500 B.C. and 3500 B.C.. global sea levels lowered 30 meters, then rose higher than today, and finally settled to present levels around 3600 B.C.
            Is it a coincidence that Bilbo, Ur, and most other early “agricultural civilizations” spring up around 3,600 B.C. with the same cultural traits? The Sumerian record is telling, because we get a false start around 7500 B.C. with early Uruk, and then no more evidence until 3,600 B.C.
            3000 years of civilization was wiped away all over the world, because it only existed on coasts that are now submerged or were wiped clean previous to 3600 years ago.
            I would bet the proto-Polynesians reached the Savannah area well before 3500 B.C. It was built in a mangrove estuary like the Nusantao often chose, and a suitable mangrove estuary would have been 20 miles off the Savannah coast before 3,600 B.C.

          • That is very interesting information. I didn’t realize that the ocean rose and fell during that period and that Georgia ever had mangrove trees.


    Supposedly all of downtown Savannah was underwater when Bilbo was built according to local historians, and this matches with Oppenheimer’s third major sea level rise and fall after the ice age. The Georgia colonists were surprised to see a mound built in the middle of a lake…little did they know it was actually built in the middle of an estuary, and the lake was left when the sea levels dropped again.
    And guess what these people were there for? Rectangular storage pits in the mound held blue clay, kinda like the clay that TV program found in Mexico and the Savannah River.
    Guess who else makes artificial islands for their stilt houses in estuaries and sea-swamps? Yep, the Nusantao and the Sea Dayaks, whose culture is probably closest to theirs. Dayaks share a striking resemblance with some Mayan and indigenous Amazonians. Plus there is evidence of introgression of a Pacific “ghost population” whose nuclear DNA is shared by Japanese, Micronesians, Papua New Guineans, and Amazonians.

    English history doesn’t speak much about Native Americans having string instruments, even falsely assuming that the “Apache Fiddle” was made in imitation of the violin. The truth is the instrument is much more like a Chinese Erhu or African Goje, both of which predate the violin. The Amazonians have a 5 string zither that few ever mention. It looks just like an early Chinese guqin, an Ainu tonkori, a Siberian Lyre, or a certain African zither I forget the name of. They all have exactly 5 strings, making a pentatonic scale. Coincidence?

    My working model has neanderthals in America by 120k, as per the recent finds out west. Australoids must have gotten here by 20k ago, hence Luzia. The early Austronesians likely arrived by 10k ago, hence Kennewick Man, then the Nusantao by 4000 at the latest. Y Haplogroups T and L among South and Central Americans shows another immigration, likely from Europe and probably slightly later than the Nusantao (Uchee migration legend?). T and L are usually associated with megaliths and the “sea peoples” of Bronze Age European culture.

    The only group that may actually come across the Berring Straight might be that little bit of pre-Colonial Y Haplogroup R found in parts of Washington and Oregon.

    So it seems that the two greatest sea fairing cultures of the Neolithic world met one another in Savannah after each circumvented the entire globe from opposite sides.

    • Very, very interesting sir. Have any of the more recent archaeological digs at the Bilbo Mound been published? You have access to information that the public does not know. The earliest manifestations of public architecture in Northwestern Europe and in the Celtic Heartland of Austria involve the construction of man made islands in the middle of ponds and lankes.


    Joseph/Joe L. and Richard T., Very interesting discussion and info.

    The Chumash tribe on the west coast of North America (California – Channel Islands) could be related ;at least cultural; to the early Austronesians or Nusantao. Terry L. Jones and Kathryn A. Klar have suggested there was prehistoric contact between Chumash and Polynesians which resulted in the similar canoe construction and Polynesian related words.
    In the 19th century various people working at the missions and some researchers were of the opinion that the Chumash were more Australoid than Mongoloid. This was perhaps the result of the introgression of a Pacific ‘ghost population’ as you call it.
    Unfortunately since the major population drop ;from estimate 10,000 to little over a 100; because of various European diseases there are only a few photographs of full blood Chumash to compare their (true?) facial features with Australoids, Austronesians and Polynesians. Some have theorized Chumash are related to the Ainu (Hokkaido, Japan).
    In old photos some of the Ainu do indeed have an Australoid appearance. One of the best photos showing Australoid features of an Ainu can be found in the book ‘The Evolution and Progress of Mankind’ – picture 101 – page 285 – by Hermann Klaatsch; edited by Adolf Heilborn; translated by Joseph McCabe.
    The distinction of Austronesian and Polynesian would be their migration route. Austronesians seemingly entered the Pacific ocean from the west either from Southern China or Taiwan while Polynesians seemingly (re-)entered from the east meaning mainland America introducing the Kumara (sweet potato) in Polynesia.
    Wether the Chumash are related to Australoids, Austronesians, Polynesians ;perhaps including Ainu; or not is up for debate. Extensive DNA research on old bones could give some conclusion.

    Additional info:

    (Original booktitle) Der Werdegang der Menschheit und die Entstehung der Kultur – 1920 – by Hermann Klaatsch; Adolf Heilborn

    (Journal Article; Anthropological Linguistics; Vol. 47, No. 4, pp. 369-400) Linguistic Evidence for a Prehistoric Polynesia-Southern California Contact Event – 2005 – by Kathryn A Klar; Terry L. Jones


      No….My ancestors the Chumash were not Australoid, Polynesian, Or Austronesian or Ainu!! The newest full genome studies on 91 California Channel islanders and Northern Algonquin individuals all descend from an ancestral native American population. No othet outside blood. The new study is by prof. Christine Sheib et al. In science magazine.

      • No one has ever said that the Chumash were Polynesians. According to a recent National Geographic documentary, the Polynesians lived south of the Chumash. The Chumash were concentrated in the Santa Barbara Channel NORTH of the Los Angeles-Channel Islands region. The people of Baja California were definitely Polynesians. My guess is that the aboriginal Polynesians were pushed southward by the ancestors of the Chumash.


        That may be. However, there is definite evidence of introgression from a ghost population of extinct homo sapiens present in Papua New Guineans, Ainu, and Surui Native Americans. This is not in the mtDNA nor in the Y DNA, so it will not show up in or 32 and Me. It is only in the nuclear DNA. It is from a population that is theorized to have lived somewhere in or near the Pacific.

        I also have a recent paper on Native Americans from Patagonia who have a presence of Y Haplogroup DE. This is one of the rarest Y Haplogroups in the world and is usually expressed as Y Hap E (almost exclusively found in Africa) and Y Haplogroup D (Ainu, Tibetans, and Andaman Islanders). There is virtually no way that DE could have gotten to Patagonia via Western Colonists without also bringing a lot of normal European Y Haplogroups with it. It’s virtually unknown in Europe as DE, and only present there as E in the extreme minority.


    Richard, You are light years ahead of them. Ogee and Okee are sounds connected to the Sea fairing peoples. Notice the Og beginning of the name the Greeks used for the Azores? “One “Giant” leap for mankind” as stated on the moon in 1969. Thanks for your articles.

    • Mark, you are amazing! I didn’t know that. I had not been able to figure out the origin of Oka for water. It is all falling together.


    Mark and Richard T., The following could be interesting for your research on the word Oka meaning water.

    There is a website called ASJP – Automated Similarity Judgment Program. It’s a language database.

    When you visit the website; click the tab ‘Meanings’ choose and click ‘water’. Now type a word for water in the ‘word’ search field.
    The following words ‘ogo’, ‘oko’ and ‘oke’ means water.
    When you take a closer look at the origin of the languages/dialects of these wordlists you will notice that most are found in Island Southeast Asia, Papua New Guinea and even Australia.
    Others include countries in north- and south America such as Colombia, Peru and Ecuador.

    Examples for similar words like Oka meaning water in Island Southeast Asia, Papua New Guinea, north- and South America:


    ogo – Australia (Kunjen – Pama Nyungan), Papua New Guinea (Waruna), Sulawesi (Boano)
    ogo’na – Sulawesi (Boano)
    ogo dan – New Ireland (Oceanic)
    dh~eth~ogana – Australia (Yorta Yorta – Pama Nyungan)


    oko – Peru (Orejon – Tucanoan), Ecuador (Secoya – Tucanoan)
    okoa – Papua New Guinea (Are), Colombia (Tanimuca; Yahuna – Tucanoan)
    hokoa – Colombia (Yahuna – Tucanoan)
    Yokowa – Papua New Guinea (Ghayavi)


    oke – Moluccas (Galela), Southeast North America (Mobilian Jargon Mississippi Valley – Choctaw / Muskogean)
    okere – Moluccas (Loda)

    Links: (Meaning water)

    • That’s incredible. I am going to copy your email and make it a POOF article!


        Richard T., You can use any info from comments that I post that’s useful/helpful to your research in the peopling of Southeastern North America and the Americas as a whole.

        • Thank you sir. You produce a lot of interesting research!


    Ooops and sorry. White boy senior’s moment lol! (It’s 55 up here)

    Forgot to mention why everyone is so perplexed. Seems that these ancient filipinos must have been excellent swimmers, unless they had already learned how to build sea-worthy boats 700,000 years ago. But that is impossible they say.

    Heads are popping.

    “The find pushes back the earliest evidence for human occupation of the Philippines by more than 600,000 years, and it has archaeologists wondering who exactly these ancient humans were—and how they crossed the deep seas that surrounded that island and others in Southeast Asia.”


    Richard T., Do you know if there were any Malagasy slaves who mixed with native Americans in southeastern north America?

    Malagasy people are from Madagascar an island on the east coast off Africa.

    If you and or other POOF readers didn’t know yet; Madagascar was peopled by Austronesians from Island Southeast Asia about 1200 – 1500 years ago. They have mixed with later migrants from east Africa.
    The Malagasy people have inherited DNA from the Austronesians.

    In a 2010 study the DNA showed a variant of the Polynesian motif also known as B4a1a1 which became B4a1a1a2 in Madagascar now known as the Malagasy motif.

    There seems to be limited information on the Madagascar slavetrade into the Americas yet one placename of importance did show up; ‘Charles Town’ (Charleston) South Carolina.
    The question now is; Is the Polynesian motif (DNA) in ‘some’ native southeastern north Americans a result of mixing with Austronesians in early pre-Columbian or late post Columbian times?
    To make things clear; I’m NOT a geneticist.

    Do you know any geneticist who is able to determine how old the Polynesian DNA is which you and your cousin have inherited?
    It would be interesting to see if the Polyensian DNA you and your cousin inherited is older and also if it’s not a mutation or the same ;or variant of; as the Polynesian DNA found in the Malagasy people (Malagasy motif).

    • You are about the only person with the intellectual curiosity to ask that question!


        Richard T., Researchers like to promote their personal opinions, theories and often want their theory to be the only correct one; yet a ‘good’ researcher will always question their own theory and put it to the test.
        In all actuality a researcher is nothing more than a truthseeker. That’s why researchers should accept the outcome wherever it leads them. The ones who keep believing in untruthful things will get stuck and stay stuck.
        ‘Truth’ will set you free.

        I have tried to get more recent info on the peopling of Madagascar (island on the east coast off Africa) by Austronesian people and found something interesting for you and POOF members to read.

        The American Journal of Human Genetics – Volume 102, page 58-68, January 4, 2018

        The Comoros Show the Earliest Austronesian Gene Flow into the Swahili Corridor

        by Nicolas Brucato, Veronica Fernandes, Stephane Mazieres, Francois Ricaut etc.

        The article in short concludes that the earliest Austronesian DNA admixture in African (Bantu) people took place on the Comoro islands (Comoros) in roughly 821 CE/AD (CE = Current Era; AD = Anno Domini) which is couple hundred years earlier than the peopling of Madagascar by Austronesian people which is 1142 CE.
        Note that the article is only about the periodes of possible admixture not about the actual peopling of the Comoro islands and Madagascar. There is much debate on Who actually peopled the islands first. Who knows how long ‘unmixed’ Austronesian people have lived on the islands.


        If there is in fact pre-Columbian Polynesian DNA (Polynesian motif = mtDNA B4a1a1) found in the native people of southeast north America it would probably have came from a west to east migration via Yucatan / MesoAmerica or Central America region.
        If the Polynesian DNA is post-Columbian, the Malagasy slaves from Madagascar (including the Comoro islands?) would be the source (Malagasy motif = B4a1a1a2).

        Another way to determine if Malagasy slaves mixed with native people of southeast north America is to look for and at certain words which could be Austronesian in origin. When Austronesian-like words have been identified one should compare it to the Malagasy language which is Austronesian based. A linguist can determine how closely related the Austronesian words are.


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