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Original members of “Creek” Confederacy were enemies of the Muskogees!

Update on the analysis of lost colonial documents discovered within the Church of England Archives in April 2015

EVERYBODY had it all wrong on the early history of the Creek Confederacy. Research reports by our POOF members are less wrong, but any POOF report dating before the middle of 2015, should be assumed to be not completely factual. Very frankly, I am at the point of tossing all my previous papers on early Muskogean history in the trash can.

1. The original Creek Confederacy was dominated by the Cusseta (Kaushete). Members of the original People of One Fire or Creek Confederacy were:

Alibamu – Apika – Chickasaw – Cussetta (Kaushete)

This alliance controlled an arc-shaped band of territory, stretching southward from the confluence of the Hiwassee River and the Tennessee River, along the Middle Tennessee River to north-central Alabama and then southward to the Alabama River. All of the provinces in the Coosa River and Chattahoochee Rivers Valleys in Alabama plus all of western North Carolina, all of Georgia and all of South Carolina were enemies of this alliance. This alliance became the Upper Creeks.

2. None of the members of the original alliance spoke the Muskogee language. However, the word, Muskogee, did not appear in the colonial archives until just before the American Revolution. Mvskoke means “People who have herbs.”

The arch-enemies of the new alliance were provinces speaking Muskogee that lay immediately to the east of their lands. Apparently, the Cusseta had by this time, rebelled against their Kusa overlords, but were also at war with the Itsate Creeks of the Georgia Mountains, Ocmulgee River and Oconee River.

3. The Cusseta were originally vassals of Kusa, and not the same ethnic group as the Kusa people, who entered northwest Georgia around 1300 AD, eventually conquering Etula (Etowah Mounds.)

4. The Apika and Cusseta were probably the descendants of the Tekesta People, who lived on the eastern slopes of the Orizaba Volcano on the frontier between Vera Cruz and Michoacan States.

They were not originally Muskogeans and probably closely related to the extremely tall, non-Nahuatl peoples of Jalisco State and the equally tall, Karankawa People of the Texas Coast. Males ranging from 6”-3” to 6’-6” are common among the Coca Indians of Jalisco, Upper Creeks and Karankawa.

According to Aztec Codices, the Nahuatl People entered central Mexico from the Gulf Coast region around 900 AD. They drove out the “giant peoples” such as the Tekesta from eastern Puebla State and western Vera Cruz State between then and around 1150 AD.

The Tekesta of Mexico may or may not be the same ethnic group as the Tekesta of southwestern Florida. However, it is known that the sophisticated Wakata towns on Lake Okeechobee and Ocmulgee Mounds acropolis were abandoned around 1150 AD. The upper levels a cemetery under the waters of Lake Okeechobee contained “giant skeletons” such as what one might find in Cusseta burials. See the POOF article, “Forensics Reveal Supersized American Indians in South Florida.”

5. The founders of Kusa in Northwest Georgia were from the South Carolina Low County. Like their overlords, the Apalache of northeast Georgia, the Kusa were a hybrid people of mixed Peruvian and Itza Maya ancestry. Their first capital was where Savannah, GA is located today. Kofitvcheiki (Cofitachequi) means “Offspring of mixed (ethnic group) people.”

The Low Country origin of the Kusas would explain the circumferential route taken by the de Soto Expedition from Okvte Province in northeast Georgia to Kofitachiki to the North Carolina Mountains to Kusa. De Soto was bypassing the powerful Apalache Kingdom, whose standing army of over 7,000 warriors would have annihilated his little army, despite their firearms and armor. After visiting the capital of the Okvte, he stayed in lands under the control of the Kaushibo elite, who are now called the Cusabo.

6. The Uchee and Shawnee were NOT newcomers to the Savannah River Basin as stated in contemporary academic and Cherokee mythology. Until the late 1600s, they occupied the powerful kingdom of Ustanauli in the region later claimed by the Lower Cherokees and into North Carolina. Ustanauli was visited by La Roche Ferriere, an officer of Fort Caroline in 1564-65.

Usta is the Southern Shawnee word for Uchee. The Ustanagi of the Suwannee River Basin of Northern Florida were probably this same ethnic group. It would explain why Savano (Shawnee) and Hogeloge (Uchee) villages fled to the Suwannee (Shawnee) River in the early 1700s as the Cherokee territory expanded.

Tokakee Creeks and Shawnee villages in the North Carolina Mountains, north of Franklin, NC fled to the Tallapoosa River in 1716, when forced out by the Cherokees. Their new capital was Tuckabachee (Tvkvpasi.)

7. The real beginning of the modern Creek Confederacy was June of 1717 at a conference in what is now Ocmulgee National Monument. The town of Coweta organized the reconstitution of the old People of One Fire with the Cowetas as the dominant ethnic group, rather than the Cusseta. Coweta’s mikko became the High King of the new confederacy. He was called “the Emperor of the Upper and Lower Creeks” by the English, but again, the Creeks did not call themselves the Creeks at this time.   This coup d’etats set the stage for the Redstick War a little less than a century later.

As late as 1733, people that were called Lower Creeks by the English, called themselves Apalache or Palache, not Creeks or Muskogees. In 1715, Colonel John Barnwell of the South Carolina Militia called the Yamasee Uprising, the Apalachee War.

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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.



    What an interesting article and incredible new discovery of Creek history.


    Anyone know where the Natchez fit into this period and people?

    • That is a very good question. What we know about the Natchez is that they originally consisted of two distinct ethnic groups. The elite group lived in mound complexes. The commoners lived in simple villages. Anthropologists have often grouped them with the Muskogeans in the past, but there is not a whole lot of evidence of them being Muskogeans. For one thing, the Muskogeans did not practice human sacrifice and were led by a representative democracy in which the mikko essentially functioned as the Chairman of the County Board of Commissioners. LOL There also is very little Natchez literature surviving – only descriptions of them by the French, who were their enemies.


        There is a ” Natchu Town” on one of your maps , located around the northern part of the Pea River in South eastern alabama, I think the 1755 one ? Could that be a Natchez town?

        • It could be a Natchez town, but may also be one of the obscure tribes, such as the Chipola, which formerly occupied the region, but later joined the Creek Confederacy. These tribes did not speak Muskogee or Itsate.


    I’m going to be honest. I love this stuff. I know the tribal town I’m from. I love Creek history. I like to see it has been broken down. I can’t cite any of this information. It is useless as an academic source, because your an architect and not an anthropologist. I’ve read in another article that museums and universities have turned down a major discovery in this area and why? Your credentials. They do not take you seriously. I’m sorru if I have offended anyone, but really. Unfortunately, you need the right degree fpr any of this stuff to matter to academic folks. I get so mad, because I can’t use this stuffnin research papers.

    • Who are you and what are your credentials to make these statements? Which universities? Which museums? You can’t say because you were lying. You wrote the comment at 3 AM EST so you are probably located somewhere near the Pacific Coast.

      I was lecturing on Mesoamerican culture, architecture and planning at universities around the Southeast, probably long before you were born. A major source of income has been designing and building exhibits at museums. Since the mid-1990s the federal government has paid me for consulting work in the preservation and reconstruction of archaeological sites at the rate of a senior professor with a PhD. That is why former National Park Service director, Roger Kennedy, hired me to do research for his last book.

      One thing I am not, is a member of the occult. When is the last time that you attended a Christian wedding or funeral for a Southeastern anthropology professor?

      When the occultists in archaeology blocked me from speaking in public during the Track Rock controversy, a Christian professor in a related profession personally paid me to speak at her university. The auditorium was standing room only and the only negative comments at the end were exclamations of how stupid this generation of anthropology professors were. Nuff said.

      You need to look at my bio again.


    No, I’m located in Oklahoma and it was some document that came from England. It was really interesting. If you sincerely want to be on the map academically with your work taken seriously, do yourself a favor and get the proper degree so that people can cite your hard work. Theres no point getting mad. I’m sure your well aware many academics say you’re a joke. Do Creek people the favor and make your work legitimate


    I don’t know what you’re talking about with occult business and I don’t care. That’s not even the point. You don’t need to explain yourself to me. I’m just saying my teachers do not accept your stuff as a source, because you’re an architect and I don’t blame them. I think its a fascinating line of work. I love himanitoes and that is part of it as well, but that’s not really what this site is about, is it?


    Well, humanities, if I could spell this morning.


    You know what, nevermind. My apologies. I’m sure if I copy and paste your argument onto a research paper, that will make all your hard work legitimate to my professor. The time of day or night has nothing to do with where I live. I’m Creek and Euchee. Bear clan from Duck Creek tribal town. I’m from Sapulpa. My grandfather was aligator clan from Coweta people. He and I were very close. From their origin story, I knew in the very least that we came from the south and not from the West like the generally accepted creation story. Then I heard about your work and I believe you. I’m not disputing your work. I’m saying I can’t use it. It has confirmed my own research ten times over. You are aware that your work isn’t accepted everywhere. I don’t need your life story about it. I actually do respect what your doing and it is fascinating, but what good is it if I can’t use it? But whay do I know? I’m a liar. Look me up on facebook and that’ll show you a liar.

    • My work is based on historic maps, dictionaries, colonial archives and published eyewitness accounts available to anyone. I really don’t have any theories. I just follow the evidence where I find it. Why is that not usable? Anyone can quote these public documents without mentioning my name. That does not make sense.

      However, the bit about all universities and museums is absolutely not true. I am speaking at a museum next week and museums pay me for my virtual reality computer images. With so little construction going on, that is my main source of income. Auburn University paid me $450 to speak two hours.

      So what you are saying is that universities in Oklahoma won’t let you use it?

      I get occultists and wannabe Cherokees writing me all the time saying the same thing you did. I normally delete their comments. However, I am getting tired of it and wanted our 16,000+ readers to see it.


    There are french maps from the early 1700s that clearly show ” muscogee ” and creeks living in different areas, with the muscogee centered around South central Alabama. This is after the Chatot ( choctaw) and Chagosa ( chickasaw) of Desoto’s time moved northwest. Not speculation, fact.

    • Name me a specific French map before 1763, which has the word Muscogee on it.


        i might very well be wrong. i will search a bit more.


        I remember finding that at around the same time I was looking into old native names for my local creeks and rivers. There is one here named ” Sizemore Creek ” , and I found an old french map that had the location correct of the creek (east of the start of the perdido river , flowing straight east ) and it had the french words ” seis mois “. I can’t find that map now. ( our main Creek here is called Big Escambia Creek, I found a British map from about 1770 or so that is apparently about some treaty between. The upper and lower creeks , this map has this creek named as Wecoka River ). I am just trying to get someone interested in the archaeology of this area.

        • The Sizemores were a prominent Creek Indian family, who were originally Uchee living on the Lower Savannah River. You would be shocked at how many of the most prominent Creek families in Oklahooma, originally were Lower Savannah Uchee. The French called Lower Creek Indians, Cahuita and Upper Creek Indians, Cusate.


        Ok. Makes sense when you consider the original I habitats of much of Florida were arawak/tequesta/think. Just thinking here…the Pensacola , from navarez and the other few who saw them , were described as being much differe t than the other natives they met. Much like descriptions of the Arawak people. Could the reason. No one wants to explore the archaeology of South Alabama/ northwest Florida be that they might find some evidence to support this theory ?

        • Cola is a South American suffix, meaning “people or tribe.” It is not a theory. A glossary of late 18th century Toasee language from the Birmingham area is available online. Even at that late date, the language was a mixture of Arawak and Creek.


    Speaking of, that map has the native name of the perdido as ” cassaba”. You ha e any idea what language that could be ?

    • Yes, cassaba is Arawak. The word can either refer to a small sweet squash, still grown in the Caribbean or an alternate spelling of cassava, a root grown for its starch.


        Thanks for your reply. ( same Matt as on the other post ). What is an Arawak word doing describing a river along the north central gulf coast, over 1000 miles away from Arawak territory if they did not come here?

        • There were Arawaks all over the Southeast . . . especially in Alabama, Georgia and Florida. The Alabama Indian Tribe began as Muskogean elite over Arawak commoners. However, the area around Birmingham, eastward to the Coosa River was Arawak.


    First let me say I love your work but I understand what Sam is saying. I’ve shared with some and they will not consider due to the lack of an Archaeology degree. You are a professional, but I think sharing footnotes would help tremendously. It’s more work but it might be the trick. I am an artist/designer that worked in education using my skills throughout my career. I have lost trust in the educational institutions. I still love and support education but the institutions and academia can be very disrespectful, especially towards ones who choose to go their own way. They do not understand Holistic approaches and true intuition. Maybe it is more like the indigeneous way versus the systematic way. 🙂

    • My books have extensive footnotes. I don’t make one penny from this website and as soon as I master the technology required for posting quality videos on Youtube, will not be producing many articles. Not one of the members of the Georgia Society of Professional Archaeologists read my book, Itsapa, the Itza Mayas in North America, before or during their extensive speaking campaign in 2012 and 2013. The archaeologists today in the Lower Southeast are VERY different than the professional archaeologists I worked with in Mexico, Sweden, Virginia and in the National Park Service. They have only allowed students to receive postgraduate degrees, who are driven by a desire to be treated as “omniscient wizards” – which they are not. They really know nothing about the Creek’s cultural heritage and have no desire to learn. Very frankly, they are arrogant ignoramuses. The only way you deal with such egos is just to roll over them. That we are doing. With 1200+ views a day on this wordpress site, it really doesn’t matter what they say or think now. We will jump to many thousands a day on Youtube.


        If it is not Cherokee in Georgia , or situated near Montogmery / Birmingham/ Hunstville / Auburn in Alabama, then they want absolutley nothing to do with it. You can’t get them to come out of their ivory towers. , for instance, Rocky Mound near Century , FL. ( you are probably sick of hearing about it by now, Richard ) .

        If you look on a 3d satellite terrain view, you will see a stunning , possibly 5 sided , 90+ ft tall feature….. in an area where the average terrain height is 10-15 feet. Yet… one cares. At Flomaton , not far north , there is another 40 + ft tall feature , just outside the high school that if you travel down highway 31 towards Atmore , you can’t help but see it.

        Also , if you look north of Atmore , along highway 21 , just off the east of it, north of the coastal community college , you will see an area with rounded spots like one of those you found in your area of Georgia.

        But these will never be looked at by academia , because no one cares.

        • Matt, I have been wondering about that. A lot of Alabamans have told me that they have many more mounds, but these mounds are not even listed on the state registry. Appears to me that you have confirmed their statements.


            The same with other areas of academics. For instance , there is a very small crawfish , called the Alabama Least Crawfish , which they say only inhabits the area of southern Mobile county and Greene county , Mississippi. Yet I can go to Excel , Alabama, Brewton , Alabama , Atmore, Alabama and take pictures of the *exact * same creature.
            How can you know about something when you refuse to study it ?

          • It is the same thing with the Biltmore Apple. It is identical to the apples grown 4000 years ago in Europe, but has been classified as a variety of American Crabapple by biologists, who never saw one growing in the wild. Both its leaves and its fruit are entirely different than a crabapple.


    Richard I just started researching my Indian side being light skinned red hair and blue eyes living on Sand Mt Dekalb County Alabama my family on my dads side were from the area both sides Davis & Summerford are considered 7/8 Cherokee I always wondered about that 1/8 my mothers family was from 2 different places my grandmothers family were Weavers from Grant Al. My grandfather was a giant of stature about 6’6″ he was a rock mason and did all the rock work at Rock City on Lookout Mt close to where Eagles Nest , Ruby Falls my dad even worked in Ruby Falls Indians lived in Ruby Falls and Eagles Nest is Right around the road on the north end of the mountain but he came over from Ga with his brother and family. He brought a different kind of religion ” FREE HOLINESS” they believed in Spiritual healing, laying on of hands, praying , communion. Their belief was after the “Holy Ghost” they would be Baptized and then live a perfect spotless life free from sin.But I would like to converse by email


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