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Pentagonal mounds, built by Creeks and Highland Mayas, were clocks!

Pentagonal mounds, built by Creeks and Highland Mayas, were clocks!


There are two regions in the world, where one can find five-sided, pyramidal mounds . . .  the Creek Motherland in Georgia, the eastern edge of Alabama and at two sites in western North Carolina, plus the Maya Highlands of Chiapas,  southern Guatemala and western Belize.   The pentagonal mounds can only be found in the ancient town sites of the Itza and Kekchi Mayas.  Other branches of the Mayas, associated with the large cities, did not build pentagonal pyramids.  That’s powerful evidence for close encounters of a third kind.

But why a pentagon?   Creek elders in Oklahoma could not answer that question.  In fact, the Muskogee-Creeks in Oklahoma had forgotten that their ancestors built five-sided mounds until a decade ago, when I started building large architectural models for the tribal government.  The truth was that I couldn’t answer the question either.   We knew that the shape probably had something to do with astronomy, but could find no relationship between a pentagon and the solar azimuth.  These mounds typically aligned to the Winter Solstice Sunset, when the Maya New Year begins, but that’s another matter.

The oldest known pentagonal mound is found, not in Mesoamerica, but in the Nacoochee Valley of the Northeast Georgia Mountains. It is the Kenimer Mound (above).  The pentagonal mounds in the Maya Highlands have been dated to the Late Classic Period (700 AD-900 AD) and early Post Classic Period (900 AD – 1200 AD).  All other pentagonal mounds in Georgia date from 1200 AD to 1600 AD.

The Kenimer Mound dates from at least 600 AD, because on the surface can be found Napier Style potsherds.  However, the Napier Style was introduced by Shipibo immigrants from Satipo Province, Peru . . . not the Highland Mayas.  The Itza Commoners made shell-tempered redware pottery like that found at Ocmulgee National Monument.

This hybrid Muskogean-Itza-Shipibo Culture that archaeologists call “Napier” dominated North Georgia from around 600 AD to 800 AD, but Napier motifs can still be seen today on the clothing and artistic pottery of Shipibo people in Peru.  Bands of their first cousins, the Conibo, began arriving at the Manville Site on the Lower Chattahoochee River around 100 AD.  We call their style of pottery,  Swift Creek.  Swift Creek motifs can still be seen on the clothing and artistic pottery of the Conibo in Peru.

So it is not clear, who built the Kenimer Mound and when they built it, but we do know that the Nacoochee Valley was the location of the nation’s first major gold rush.   The region between the Nacoochee Valley and Dahlonega, GA contains the purest gold in the world.  When French Huguenot explorers visited the region in 1564 and 1565, they stated that large gold nuggets literally lay on the surface of the lower slopes of the valley’s mountainous walls.  Between then and the late 1600s, the valley was heavily mined by European colonists . . . most of whom were probably Iberian Sephardic Jews.  Large gold nuggets could only be found on the surface in peripheral areas of the Georgia Gold Belt in the early 1800s,  particularly the region between Amicalola Falls and the Rich Mountains.  One was the size of a basketball

The Chestatee and Upper Chattahoochee River Valleys also abound in gold colored mica.  This was a commodity even more important to Mesoamerican civilizations than gold. Mica was used to reinforce stucco,  color murals and as cosmetics.  However, the most southerly commercial deposit of mica in Mexico is found at the foot of the Popocatépetl Volcano near Mexico City.   It would have been far easier for Maya traders to transport bulk quantities of mica down the Chattahoochee River and then by sea-going vessels to Yucatan than to transport small quantities of mica on the backs of slaves from the 12,000 feet high mica mines at the edge of the Valley of Mexico.  Those mines were almost 800 miles from Chichen Itza.

The greenstone also found in the region between the Nacoochee Valley and Amicalola Falls was prized all over North America for making axes and wedges.  The Sati-uriwa or High King of the Colonists, living at the mouth of the Satilla River in Georgia, told the commander of Fort Caroline, Captain René de Laudonnière, that greenstone was the most valuable commodity produced in the Appalachian Mountains.  He said that many wars had been fought over access to the greenstone and its shipment elsewhere.   Sati-uriwa is a Panoan word from Satipo Province, Peru.

Right now, my guess is that Highland Maya gold, copper and mica miners visited the Kenimer Mound (whatever it was called then) and were impressed.  They took the concept back with them to their homeland.  Then . . . around 1000 AD when Mayapan conquered Chichen Itza,  the commoners, living in the suburbs of Chichen Itza, fled northward, taking along their corner-door houses, shell-tempered pottery and pentagonal mounds with them.

There are other things unusual about the Nacoochee Valley.  It contains petroglyphs similar to those carved during the Early Bronze Age in southern Scandinavia.  At the opposite end of the trade path, connecting the headwaters of the Chattahoochee River in the Nacoochee Valley with the headwaters of the Savannah River near Toccoa, GA is the Tugaloo Stone.  This mysterious block of quarried stone is filled with Bronze Age navigation symbols and the outlines of three Bronze Age boats.

But there is more.   According to ancient Creek tradition,  the Nacoochee Valley was one of the locations where extremely tall, humanoid extraterrestrials frequented and eventually erected stargates.   The other locations were the Spiral Mound at Rembert Mounds near Elberton, GA . . . the Spiral Mound at Ocmulgee National Monument in Macon, GA  . . . and a large rectangular platform mound at the Singer-Moye site, southeast of Columbus, GA.

Indeed . . . during early March 2013, I accompanied a team of anthropologists and scientists from Latin America and Europe, who used high-tech equipment to analyze the Nacoochee Valley.  They found very unusual gravity waves and electromagnetic fields in the Valley.  You go figure?   Were the extraterrestrials mining gold?

The Bronze Age – pentagonal mound – gold connection

Yesterday,  pioneer astro-archaeologist Don MacMahon solved this mystery without any hesitation.  It was one of those “elementary my dear Watson” responses to my questions in a three hour telephone interview.  He stated, “Of course,  the five point cycle of Venus in the sky is so precise that it was used to calculate world time until the adoption of the atomic clock in 1951.   The pentagonal cycle of Venus was also used by Bronze Age mariners for navigation.  Your pentagonal mounds were very precise clocks!

I told him that his interpretation made even more sense because these pentagonal mounds were aligned to the Winter Solstice Sunset.  They also measured the day of the solar year!  The use of the principal mound in proto-Creek towns as astronomical observatories makes it highly likely that the residents of the large buildings on top were Keepers of the Day . . . scholars who specialized in the maintenance of the 365+ day Creek calendar.   The Great Sun or High King might have lived there also, but more likely he lived on the second largest mound.

I asked Don, what would have attracted Scandinavian Bronze Age mariners to Georgia?   He responded that Bronze Age civilizations rose and fell with the availability of gold and copper.   There are large copper and natural brass deposits between Dahlonega, GA and Copper Hill, Tennessee. Tin was formerly mined commercially in South Carolina.  Few people know this.

Don first reminded me that dark-skinned Australoids were master mariners, who struck out from the Lake Victoria region in northeastern Africa eons ago and reached Australia by 66,000 BC!  They were genetically different that modern Sub-Saharan Africans to start with and soon interbred with Neanderthal or Denisovan type peoples.  Sub-Saharan Africans today do not carry Neanderthal or Denisovan DNA markers, while Caucasians, Asians, Indigenous Americans and Australoids do.    By 30-20,000 BC,  Proto-Polynesians had settled in Mexico, while Micronesian (Australoids) had settled in the Amazon Basin.  These early pioneers were almost made extinct by later invasions of Amer-Indians from Asia, who apparently had superior weapon technology.  Then later on, “red haired peoples” from the southeastern tip of Iran settled in such diverse locations in the globe as Scandinavia,  New Zealand and Peru.

While we were talking on the phone, I googled “Scandinavia – gold mining.”   It said that there was no concrete evidence of gold mining in Scandinavia.   Several companies have found some gold-bearing rocks near the Arctic Circle, but no commercial mining has occurred.  No copper mining occurred in Scandinavia until around 900 AD during the Viking Age.  For about 1000 years,  the Falun Copper Mine supplied about 2/3 of all copper needs in Europe.  There are no tin deposits in Scandinavia.  In other words . . . Bronze Age Scandinavians developed a very advanced civilization, but had none of the minerals within their territory, which created wealth in their era.

There was copper and gold in Ireland, plus copper and tin in southwestern Britain.  Perhaps the price charged to Scandinavians was too steep or some other powerful civilization, such as the Minoans, had a monopoly on the mines of the British Isles.  Whatever the actual situation, apparently non-Germanic mariners, who were related to the Sami and Uchee, began sailing the rim of the North Atlantic in search of valuable minerals, perhaps around 3500-3000 BC.

Dr. Gordon Freeman at the University of Alberta has accumulated abundant proof that the first “Stonehenge” culture in the British Isles, originated in Canada around 3500 BC and then spread to northwestern Europe around 3000 BC.  There is a distinct possibility that indigenous mariners from Canada or the Northeastern United States discovered the almost pure copper deposits near Lake Michigan and then marketed it to Europe.   Freeman thinks that at that time the same hybrid Asiatic-Caucasian people lived on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, along its shores. 

The situation is different in Georgia.  Here we see abundant examples of Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age art that is typical of western Ireland and southern Scandinavia, but is rarely found in parts of North America outside the Georgia Mountains.  This seems to be a case of a Sami-type people, whose hybrid descendants are now called Uchee Indians, sailing to present day Savannah, GA then up the Savannah River to the Georgia Gold Belt.



Wouldn’t you like to have a time machine?

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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.



    Fascinating post Richard and yes I wish I had a time machine.


    Small pentagonal mounds are found occasionally in MA.


      where are these sites?
      Don McMahon


    Richard, Another interesting Article. I didn’t know anything of Venus being associated with a “Itza/Issa” pentagon shaped mounds. That is another clue about Washington DC that most people wouldn’t know…perhaps a Knights Templar connection with some of the Freemasons? The Phoenicians are believed to have control of the tin mines in Briton and noted as being called “Alba” on at least one ancient map of the Greeks. Phoenicians would place tall poles with a bird symbol or nest on top in those tin towns in Cornwall just like some Native Creek towns in Alabama /Georgia. They would have had the ships to make the crossing to Georgia and had a vast trade network that could have been trading with the “Black Irish” people and also the people of Denmark. Georgia appears to be a hub on that world trade map.


      details on how to decode mound designs are found in my book:
      A Seafarers Decoding of the Irish Symbols: the oldest testament 3200 BCE

      on Amazon

      Don McMahon


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