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Photo: Copper tools and weapons from the Lake Michigan Basin

Photo:  Copper tools and weapons from the Lake Michigan Basin


These copper artifacts are from North America folks.  Thousands of such items have been found in the Great Lakes Region, yet the indigenous peoples of that region, who greeted the first French explorers, had no clue how to work copper or gold. It is highly significant that the tools manufactured included sickles for harvesting wheat, oats and barley.  That is powerful evidence of a trans-Atlantic trade during the Nordic Copper and Bronze Ages.  Sweden did not have a source for copper until the late Renaissance, when a large copper deposit was discovered in Southern Lappland.

In contrast . . . according to the leaders at Fort Caroline, (1564-1565) the ancestors of the Creeks made extensive use of natural brass hatchets and wedges from the Dahlonega Area, plus the leaders wore copper breast plate armor in battle.  Captain René de Laudonnière, Commander of Fort Caroline, wrote that the Apalache (Creeks) living in the Dahlonega-Nacoochee Valley-Gainesville, GA area had grown quite wealthy from trading gold foil and chains to tribal leaders in other parts of North America.  My high school history books said that my ancestors only used stone tools and never learned how to work metals.  Hm-m-m-m

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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.



    For More examples of brass and bronze artifacts that have been found during TVA/WPA digs please visit the photo collection at University of Kentucky library. I have seen various implements,as well as bronze antlers and other shapes that were attached as part of a headdresses, and several 8-12 inch long slender brass rods(similar to a knitting needle) that had been placed on the tops of the heads of some found buried in a sitting position. Also loving the videos Mr. Richard. Thanks for your hard work and learning new equipment so may assist on the search for truths.



    This northern white boy is begging you to stop perpetuating the myth that all your ancestors did was hammer out objects from sheets of natural float or quarried copper lol! They did that already at the same time as the continental Laurentide ice sheet was still melting 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. Yes they melted and cast copper objects as well… of that there is no doubt. (As I said more to come)

    Here’s just a snack for the readers from the Etowah mounds site… interesting shape…

    Then compare with this… “At Hyrup, near Horsens you have found this copper axe weighing 1,5 kg from ~3400 BC”…

    Kinda close but perhaps that was just a one-off?… Danish National Museum (Danish Nationalmuseet Kobenhavn)–art-eras-the-danish.jpg

    Right. This is just getting silly… the British Museum already said it all.

    • That was very interesting. No wonder we don’t trust the history books! You can’t believe anything you read about indigenous Americans in the Gringo history books.


        Not all of the Gringos as you will see below Richard lol!

        I start reading this stuff and I can’t stop. One moment you are reading about the common use of red and yellow ochre in burial practices throughout meso/neolithic/copper/bronze age Europe and the next thing you know you are finding the same identical burial practices over here in NA. These guys while obvious professionals seemed afraid of completely finishing their thoughts on the matter however… probably had bills to pay lol!

        Enjoy and be sure to read through slowly twice.

        “It has already been noted that the Ontario mounds tend to be concentrated on points of land or on raised terraces and that they invariably overlook broad stretches of water. To the south, in the eastern United States, a similar situation prevails, for there, too, we find the same concern with visibility. “Nearly every major waterway of the Midwest was bordered by clusters of mounds” (Silverberg 1974:2). That this was not a purely local phenomenon becomes evident when we look farther afield. Jacquetta and Christopher Hawkes (1958:55), for example, comment on the conspicuous manner in which long barrows “cluster along the coasts and round inland waterways”. They noted, too, that along the Severn, a number of them were set “on jutting headlands, where they can command superbly the great spreading expanse of the valley”.

        We find the same situation in western Europe. Burial mounds, Glob tells us (1971:99), “are found in the coastal areas of Western Europe. ..not by any means everywhere, but arranged in groups around fjords or bays, or places further inland to which rivers give access”. We would expect, of course, that the burial mounds of post-mesolithic Europe, like those of northeastern North America, would be concentrated along the coast or in river valleys, for that, after all, is where the people were living. But within both these general areas,


        There is a tendency for the mounds to be placed in prominent positions. This is true not only of the Severn valley, mentioned earlier, but also of such distant places as Denmark, where Glob recorded the same phenomenon. “This situation on high ground with views over sea and fjord”, he tells us (1967:90),
        “is characteristic of many of our magnificent passage grave mounds. It is something they have in common with the Bronze Age mounds, with which they can therefore be easily confused at a distance.” As we have seen throughout this volume, the same thing is true of the Ontario burial mounds,
        particularly those along the Trent and Rainy River systems. ”



        Forget the European ‘clone axes’ for a moment… there are literally dozens of mounds up here in Ontario that contain exactly the same axe heads as found at the Etowah site. Same goes for the shell gorgets. Red ochre is also usually found at these burial sites as well as high status grave goods such as silver and copper panpipes.

        Problem is that up here they all date back to 2000 BC… and yet Etowah is only supposed to be 1,000 years old.

        Have a good look at these artifacts in order to be able to identify the bronze age burials that are waiting to be found at Etowah. (Page numbers given match the ones printed on “The Hind Site And The Glacial Kame Burial Complex In Ontario”)

        Various matching shell gorgets…
        Pages 20, 34, 47, 48, 49, 50, 54, 59, 68

        Various matching copper axes…
        Pages 39, 42, 47, 60, 67

        Etowah mounds copper axe again for reference…

        • Etula (Etowah) was a newcomer. The earliest mound in Georgia currently is dated at 3545 BC.


    Oh what the heck… perhaps a little desert courtesy of the Wisconsin State Historical Society…

    First one looks kind of like this typical copper age European adze to me…

    Or maybe it’s Otzi the Icemans axe… hmmmm…

    It gets really confusing early doesn’t it?

    Darn… here is another from the same period also made of copper that looks an awful lot like #4 lol!

    They have eyes but do not see… they have brains but can not think. But it’s not just archeologists that suffer from this affliction lol!



    This you will enjoy…

    You may want to keep an eye out for any of these 4,000 y.o. Bronze Age structures that are common in my area. Also in Bronze Age Ireland, North Atlantic and even Texas. (pictures in article)

    “An article from 2001 in Ontario Archeology (number 72, 2001) by David A. Robertson suggests that studies have “failed to reach a consensus as to their function.” It was observed that the mounds comprised of “burnt rocks” which indicated they were under the influence of fire and heat.

    Robertson then details similarities of the PEC mounds to burned rock middens in Texas and in Ireland where they are known as fulachata fiadh (“outdoor” or “wild cooking places”). Similar features can be found in ancient mounds in the Orkneys, and regions of Atlantic Europe. These mounds would almost always be found near marshy areas where a hole dug into the ground would quickly fill with water. These stone enclosures were filled with water and heated stones thrown in to create a pool of boiling water in which meat was cooked, or used for bathing, washing and dyeing of cloth, and leather working.

    The ancient Irish mounds date from Early Bronze Age (2,300-1,700 B.C.) with the majority dating to the second millennium B.C. with various explanations as to their use ranging from cooking ovens to wool production.

    Robertson outlines the lack of study of the Prince Edward County mounds, and states:

    “It is clear that the Quinte and Perch Lake burnt stone mounds bear close similarities with sites found in Texas and Atlantic Europe and undoubtedly elsewhere: namely the massive quantities of shattered, burnt rock enclosing a small area, the presence of hearths, deposits of ash and charcoal-rich soil, and a general dearth of associated artifacts. Some other parallels with the burnt mounds of Ireland and Britain are even more striking, although these must remain only subjective impressions until further research is devoted..”


    Was wondering if anyone new what this could be? My land has lots of churt no doubt mined by the native Americans…. found some other stuff to but what about this… like a Cloak clasp… underneath a 20ton Boulder… How do I add pictures


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