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Quick overview of Native American genetics

Quick overview of Native American genetics


(Painting Above) This famous and beautifully executed painting by William Verelst (1734) portrays the delegation from the Creek village of Yamakora (Yamacraw in English) visiting Westminster Palace.  Its mako (mikko in Mvskoke) Tamachichi (Tomochichi in English) had a pure Itza Maya name and looked like an Itza.  Although leader of the Itza-se (Descendants of the Itza) in Ocmulgee Bottoms until 1717,  he had since then made his living as a trader and slave catcher. After learning in 1732 that the English planned to establish a new colony on the south side of the mouth of Savannah River,  Tamachichi gathered together about 50 followers from several provinces of the Creeks and established a village next to some old mounds.  At the time, the region was almost uninhabited due to the 1696 smallpox plague, so he claimed the Province of Yama for himself . . . then waited for the English to arrive.  Upon their arrival, he negotiated the sale of the current site of Downtown Savannah, minus the land around his village.   The painting gives a hint at the genetic diversity of the Creeks in the early 1700s.  Tamachichi looks like a Highland Maya. There is a man and woman in the back ground with Classic Maya features.  In back of them is a tall Kaushete or Toltec-descendant. In the foreground is a relative of Tamachichi, who appears to have some African ancestry, mixed with Uchee.

The general public currently has many misconceptions concerning Native American genetics.  Lazy reporters, archaeological cliques and publicity-seeking geneticists are equally to blame.  The fact is that this aspect of the science of genetics is a book that has not even completed its introduction. Throw in the fact that most politicians these day are obsessed with “their team winning,” not scientific facts . . . and you really have a mess.

A person in North America today can be a legitimate descendant of a particular indigenous tribe or even legally a member of that tribe . . . yet not have a drop of “Native American” DNA in their bodies . . . whatever Native American DNA is . . . or else will never be officially recognized by the US Government as being an American Indian. Here are some reasons:

1. Never signed a treaty with the United States:  The federal government defines “Native American” politically as being a descendant of someone, who signed a treaty with the United States and were listed at one time or another on an official roll of that tribe, created by federal officials.  Thus,  there are probably hundreds of thousands of Saponi and Uchee descendants in the United States, who will never be a “federally-recognized” American Indian, because their ancestors never fought a war against the United States.

2.  Non-indigenous ancestors were members of the tribe: Until the BIA stepped into the situation, most tribes viewed membership in terms of social bonding, not skin color or the race of their parents.  Many of the most famous Cherokee leaders in the early and mid-1700s were born in other tribes.   Later Creek leaders such as Alexander McGillivray and William McIntosh were much more Scottish, Sephardic Jewish and French than they were Creek.  I have found some strong evidence that certain powerful Cherokee families were actually either Scottish Sephardic Jews or Europeans, who carefully remarried their own kind through the generations, even though both spouses were officially classified as American Indians.

3. Random gene exchanges through the generations:  Genetics is not nearly so predictable as some popular geneticist-authors would have you believe.  When one is the descendant of multiple mixing between ethnic groups or races,  sometimes the DNA associated with that Native ancestry was not passed on.   Once that happens, all subsequent generations will show no Native American ancestry, even though in reality, they are descendants of Native Americans.

4. No DNA test markers for a particular tribe:   Actually, there are currently (as far as I know) no DNA test markers for Native tribes, east of the Mississippi River.  Labs are using Algonquian DNA test markers from northern Quebec to define “Native Americans” east of the Mississippi.  It might be okay for the Algonquian tribes in the Northeast, but that is an extremely dangerous situation, when geneticists have even less a clue about the complex origins of the indigenous peoples of the Lower Southeast than do typical Gringo anthropologists.  

Repeated rumors have been spreading that when a few, apparently fullblood Uchee in Oklahoma had DNA tests, they showed up with very little “Native American DNA” as defined by available test markers.  As a result, the majority of Uchee are reluctant to be tested for fear that they will be labeled “not Native Americans.”  Well, what defines a fullblood Uchee?  It is an unexpected high level Sami, Finnish, pre-Gaelic Irish, Basque, western Asian, and Pre-Roman Iberian DNA test markers, mixed with Panoan from South American and Polynesian from the Pacific Basin.   That is because they came across the Atlantic during the Bronze Age, when the population of maritime Northwest Europe were Eurasians with dark hair, bronze skin and either brown or gray eyes.

There are numerous eyewitness accounts that the elite of the Apalache-te,  proto-Creeks and Panoan tribes along the coast of South Carolina and Georgia, were Paracusa-te . . .  the Paracus or Paracas People who created the field stone effigies in the Nazca Plain of Peru.   They called themselves Paracusa-te.  You will seet that stated in the memoir of Captain René de Laudonnière and the two chapters of the report basd on the journal of of Richard Briggstock to French ethnologist, Charles de Rochefort, 

An outstanding example of the prevailing deception being in published genetics journals occurred in 2017. A group of Canadian geologists announced that there was no land route through central Canada, when the Bering Strait land bridge was above water.  A group of university researchers announced to the world via a large number of popular magazines that they had “proof” that the ancestors of all Native Americans had the same ancestors and crossed the Bering Strait land bridge from Siberia in a matter of a century.  Mexican geneticists published the results of the genetic testing the oldest skeletons in Yucatan and Baja California.  They were determined to be either Proto-Polynesian or Southeast Asian.  Another group of professors and geneticists published the results of genetic analysis of an ancient tribe in the heart of Brazil and the indigenous people of Tierra del Fuego.   These people were found to be Australoids, who closest kin were the indigenous people of New Guinea and Australia. 

Note the reddish-brown hair. It was caused by a different gene than what causes red hair in Gaelic people.

The big surprise came from the genetic study of Paracus skeletons.  Several of the skeletons were determined to be hybrid Paracus-AmerIndian, but others were ethnically pure and belonged to the elite.  The shape of the Paracus elite skulls was inherited, not created by deformation.  Their skulls are different than most humans and originated in the region between the Black Sea and Caspian Sea around 3,000 BC.   The scientists theorized that forehead deformation began as an attempt by hybrids and AmerIndians to imitate the skulls of the Caspian peoples.

Unlike Native Americans, who have O+ blood,  the Paracus elite had A or AB blood.  They were extremely tall, had reddish brown hair and either hazel or gray eyes.  Archaeologists, studying the Paracus think that they were sensitive to sunlight and therefore lived underground.  The descendants of the original population in the Caspian Region intermarried with other ethnic groups and races.  This eliminated most of their genetic weaknesses, but also reduced the size of their skulls and brains. 

The hybrid Paracus eventually spread to several points on the globe, even reaching New Zealand. It is very probable that their arrival in Egypt kicked off the Egyptian Civilization.  Obviously, they reached the Southeast because, according to Richard Briggstock and Captain René de Laudonniére (Fort Caroline), the elite of the Apalache-te in North Georgia called themselves, Paracusa-te.

So as you can see . . . the current facts about Native American genetics depends entirely on whose article, you are reading.



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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.

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