Select Page

So your family is from Alabama, Georgia or South Carolina and think you are Cherokee?

So your family is from Alabama, Georgia or South Carolina and think you are Cherokee?

As commercial DNA labs are becoming more skilled in mass testing genetic samples, a lot of folks in the Southeast, whose great-grandmother was a Cherokee Princess, are finding out that she was more likely a daughter of Zion or the descendants of Spanish grandees.   There is an answer in history . . . at least in the factual history that POOF researchers are developing.

The drawing above portrays a Sephardic Jewish or Spanish gold mining village on Dukes Creek in White County, GA, which was discovered in 1828, mentioned in the first archaeological book on the Southeast in 1873, then erased from Georgia’s history books.

This past Thursday, a lovely lady with jet black hair stalked me for awhile then approached me at the cheese counter of the Dahlonega, GA Walmart.  She whispered,  “Excuse me sir.” 

I was not accustomed to having attractive female strangers speak to me. I looked around to see if she was actually talking to someone else.   She smiled directly at me  . . . “Are you the guy on the History Channel program about the Mayas?” 

Still surprised, I answered, “Yep, that’s me.  You are one of the few people in Dahlonega, I’ve met that even knew about the program.  For some reason,  everybody at the Fresh ‘N Frugal Supermarket watched it, though.

She smiled, “Wow, that’s weird.  I thought you were famous.  I just subscribed to y’all’s newsletter, The People of One Fire. It’s great!  What are you doing in Dahlonega ?  Have you found a Maya city here?”

I answered, “Oh, I live here.  The premier of “America Unearthed” was filmed here.  For reasons, I still can’t figure out,  the Dahlonega Nugget (local newspaper)  decided to censure out anything to do with the film crew being here, the Mayas in Georgia program on the History Channel, the Creek Indians or me individually.  

She laughed and said, “I’d believe that.  Unless you have a kid playing sports at Lumpkin High School, there is not a whole lot in the Nugget these days, but ads.

Hey, I’m glad I ran into you, because I have been wanting to write y’all.  Both my mama’s and my daddy’s family always thought that they were Cherokees.  In fact, they were members of a Cherokee Tribe when I was little, but I am not sure if it still exists.”

I sent off DNA samples of me and my kids to “23 and Me” in hope that we could be made members of the Cherokee Tribe in North Carolina.  The tests came back that we were Jewish, Scottish . . . uh-h-h . . . Iberian, North African and  uh-h-h . . . Northern Germanic.  We had absolutely no Indian blood.  So my great-great-great-grandmother that we always said was a full-blooded Cherokee princess who married a gold miner, wasn’t a Cherokee at all.”

What’s really weird is that back in the 1990s, one of my best friends was a gal here in Dahlonega, whose family was from Nazareth in Israel.  They were Christian Palestinians and could have been descended from Jesus.  She is really pretty and almost looks oriental.”

“Boy did she tell a different story than what the newspapers and Muslims are saying.  She said that most of the people calling themselves Palestinians today are Arabs.  The real Palestinians are either Christians or Jewish.  First, the Muslim Arabs stole their land in the 1800s and then after Israel became a separate country, the European Jews stole their businesses.

Well, anyway . . . everyone always said that she and I could be twin sisters.   We do look alike.  I always joked that maybe the Mormons were right.  The Ten Tribes of Israel did settle here and become Cherokee Indians.  But then, after I read your article about New Jerusalem, it all made sense.  We could have been twin sisters . . . well, distant cousins.  Why don’t my kids’ history textbooks talk about that?”

The only answer that I could give her was, “I don’t know”, but added, “Hey, this will blow your mind.  You know the (censored) Museum down on (censored) Street?    (Censored)  is a Creek word, not Cherokee.  It is still the official title of the Speaker of the Muscogee-Creek National Council.”

*On February 10, 2016. a white couple, living about a mile to the northwest and wearing Indian “thangs” drove up to my house in a jeep, festooned with Injun thangs.  The man delivered a letter from a lawyer in Gainesville, GA  that said if I mentioned name of their tribe or the name of the museum in this article they would sue me for libel.  We removed the words, but they have a big surprise coming.  As the white man wearing the bear claws drove away from my cabin, he announced, “We know who we are. Do you know what you are?”   He displayed a demonic smile and walked back to his jeep. I didn’t even know the name of the tribe, until they threatened to sue me.  That’s why I never mentioned the name of a local Cherokee tribe in the article.  Even the lady, who talked to me, didn’t know it still existed.

She looked dumbfounded.  “You’re kidding.  My children’s father and I  gave money to that museum in honor of my Cherokee ancestor, who we now know was not even Cherokee!”

Yep . . . welcome to the world of Southeastern non-history.

Native descendants in Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina

There were definitely hundreds or thousands of people from the Old World living in the Southern Highlands in the 1600s.  Where they went or what happened to their descendants has always been an enigma.  Maybe they never left the Southeast.

There is a gross misconception of where the Cherokees lived in South Carolina and Georgia.  Cherokee villages were never located anywhere but in the extreme northwestern tip of South Carolina.  Their maximum population was about 1200, but declined steadily to a handful by 1776.  Yet half the white people in Piedmont and Up Country of South Carolina claim to be the descendant of a Cherokee Princess.

In recent years, several Chambers of Commerce in North Georgia have adopted the motto, “Home of the Cherokee Indians for at least 10,000 years.”  Of course, the $1000 a year that they get from the North Carolina Cherokees encourages that belief.  The first Cherokee village appeared in what is now Georgia in the 1720s. However, until the American Revolution, the Cherokees were never located anywhere in Georgia, but the extreme northeastern tip.  In 1776, the British government estimated the entire Cherokee population of Georgia to be about 100 persons.

The boundary line between the Creeks and the Cherokees ran through the middle of Stephens, Habersham and White Counties.  Clarkesville, GA originated as a trading post that mainly served the Georgia Creeks in the southern half of the county and the Soque from South Carolina, who had been settled in the northern half of the county.  The Soque were NOT Cherokees, but a Muskogean people assigned to Cherokee territory.   You can check the official history of Habersham County, if you don’t believe me.

All of the village and stream names in the Nacoochee Valley of White County are Creek words.   Mt. Yonah had a Creek name of Nocasee until after the Indians were gone. The Chickasaw were the aboriginal occupants of the Nacoochee Valley and continued to live in the southern half of White County, plus parts of Banks County, as members of the Creek Confederacy. These days White County is one of those counties that call themselves the home of the Cherokee Indians for 10,000 years.

Let’s just tell like it is.  The State of Georgia did a far more efficient job of a  “Final Solution” for the Cherokees than the Gestapo’s rounding up of the Jews during World War II.  Between 1828 and 1832, every square foot of Cherokee territory was surveyed. The surveys included every building, every fruit tree and every Cherokee located on that farm.

By the time of the Trail of Tears, Georgia officials also knew the names of virtually every Cherokee, who had earlier moved west, or  were from the wealthy Cherokee slave-owning class, that had sold their property and moved to Tennessee.  All Cherokees and Free Blacks in Georgia were required to have the equivalent of passports to travel through the state, outside the boundaries of the Cherokee Nation.

Creeks, Uchees and Caucasians inside the Cherokee Nation were not usually listed in the surveys.  In fact, over 3,000 Creeks were living in the Cherokee Nation, when the roundup began in 1838.   About 800 were seized by federal troops anyway, but the majority hid out in the rugged Cohutta, Brasstown and Nantahala Mountain Ranges to avoid capture. With them were a few hundred Cherokees, who became the nucleus of the Qualla Cherokees in North Carolina.  Most Towns County, GA Indians were living at such remote locations that they avoided detection.  The mountain Creeks just became invisible and assimilated with the arriving white settlers.

A vast area of northern Alabama was first settled in the 1700s by people of Sephardic Jewish ancestry or mixed Jewish, Northern European and indigenous ancestry, who had been driven out of eastern Tennessee by the invading Cherokees.  In the hill country around Jasper, Alabama, the local families acknowledge their Jewish ancestry.  However, to the north, in an area of Northwest Alabama that was always Chickasaw, quite a few of these Sephardic descendants have organized “Cherokee” tribes and given themselves Cherokee names and Cherokee clan membership.  They can’t understand why their DNA tests show up with “zip” or only minuscule Asiatic ancestry.

Native America descendants in  North Georgia

The only location in North Georgia where authentic Cherokee ancestry can easily be documented is Bartow and Gordon Counties.  This area is where wealthy members of the Vann, Ross, Hicks, Thomas, Saunders, Adair, Ralston and Hughes families resettled from Tennessee after the troops had left.

The only other locations of legitimate Cherokee ancestry would be a Cherokee woman, who was married to a white man.   Such families were allowed to stay in Georgia, but not at the same location as where they lived in the Cherokee Nation.  The chance of any of you having a “full blooded Cherokee” female ancestor is almost zero.  White men by the late 1700s preferred light skinned mixed bloods to insure that they were not part African.  At any rate,  the term, full blood, is an oxymoron when applied to Cherokees.  Almost none of the important leaders of the Cherokees were ethnic Cherokees in the 1700s and early 1800s.  They were either from some other tribe or of predominantly European ancestry.

Most of the Native American descendants in Murray, Fannin, western Gilmer and Union Counties call themselves Cherokees.  However, many wonder why their physical appearance is of tall, gracile eagle-like people, and very different than the Cherokees up in North Carolina.

These raptor-like people are the descendants of the aboriginal Kusa Creeks and Uchee.   in the late 1780s, the  Overhill Cherokees were not particularly interested in locating within rugged mountains and so let the indigenous peoples remain, if they submitted to Cherokee authority.  That is why the Creek place names of Coosa and Nottely, plus the Uchee place name of Choestoe still exist in Union County.

Choestoe is the Anglicization for the Uchee word for their Rabbit Clan.  There were originally a chain of villages with that name along the Hiwassee River in Georgia, North Carolina and Tennessee.

If your  “Native ancestry” is from White, Stephens, Habersham, Banks, Jackson, Hart or Elbert Counties in Georgia, plus all points south, your Native ancestry is most likely either Creek, Chickasaw, Uchee, Sephardic Jewish or Middle Eastern . . . no matter what your family tradition says you are.

Very few of the Native American place names in North Georgia are actually Cherokee words.  Most that are Cherokee words were added after the Cherokees left.    The general assumption among most North Georgians is that if it is an Indian word, it must be Cherokee.   The creator of the premier web site for translating Cherokee place names gave himself a Cherokee name.  It was a mountain in his county.  He has always been frustrated, though, because he couldn’t translate his official Cherokee name with a Cherokee dictionary.  Good reason, the mountain’s name is straight out of a modern Muskogee-Creek dictionary.

If your “Native Ancestry” is from Gwinnett, Lumpkin, Dawson, Pickens or Gilmer County Counties in Georgia,  it is most likely a mixture of Spanish, Sephardic Jewish, Dutch and Middle Eastern. For example,  the Perry Family of Ellijay-Gilmer County are considered scions of Georgia Cherokees.  However, they look like people of Spanish-British ancestry.  There is a good reason.  Their original name was Perez.

The ethnic origins of the Mestizo peoples of Northern Alabama and Northern Georgia will have to remain in the realm of speculation, until there is comprehensive genetic study on the scale of those being done in the British Isles and Scandinavia to determine ethnic history.   My guess is, however, that the geneticists will find a much higher percentage of ancestry from the Iberian Peninsula, North Africa and Middle East among these “Native American descendants” than anyone has ever thought possible.

The following two tabs change content below.
Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.

212 Comments

  1. tetawon@gmail.com'

    Being Tsoyaha Yuchi (Euchee) from Creek County Oklahoma, I am weary of the “Cherokee Princess Replacement Theology of Caucasian Indians!” Spanish expeditions well document us long before any so-called Cherokee Nation supposedly dominated the Southeast.

    Reply
    • lamar007@windstream.net'

      My great great great grandmother was said to be a Creek Indian princess by the name of Shasheen. She married a white by the name of John Anderson. Have never been able to prove it.

      Reply
      • jacobcarpenter1@outlook.com'

        I stumbled upon this page today, so please forgive me if the belated timing is awkward. My late maternal grandmother claimed to have had Cherokee ancestry through her father; her mother was purportedly part Creek. The woman joined the Fire Clan chapter of the American Cherokee Confederacy, Incorporated many years ago, still attending in the early 2000s. She died of a brain-stem stroke in 2011.

        My great-grandfather had dark, curling hair, a swarthy complexion, and a tall stature. We have not a photograph of him, but his paternal grandfather is rumored to have been half-Cherokee. An image does exist of the latter; however, it is not in my family’s possession. The line might stand true, though I am unable to document that.

        Great-great grandmother looked like a Native American facially, yet, had Venetian blonde hair and hazel eyes. She was a very short lady born in 1885. One ancestress, she said came from the Creek nation. I have no idea who her parents were, so it may well be correct. Herbal knowledge was handed down via her to Grandma.

        Even if I am part-Creek, I would be proud of it–not as a man seeking monetary gain. I simply want to maintain solidly proven lineages for genealogical sake. Mother says my high cheek bones signify the oral tradition, but who knows. I am aware I have no Jewish blood. This article is an intriguing read.

        Reply
        • Where did your family live? That is one of the biggest determinants. Lower Creek women tended to be short, while the men were tall. In general, Creeks have smaller ears and noses than Cherokees. We look more oriental . . . say like tall Indonesians. Both Upper Creek men and women tend to be extremely tall. The women can be six feet tall.

          Nevertheless, it is difficult to generalize about Creek appearance because it was alliance of several ethnic groups, with different physical features. There are many Creek families from Western Georgia, who are part Jewish. Mikko William McIntosh’s grandfather was a Jewish merchant in Coweta County, GA.

          Reply
          • jacobcarpenter1@outlook.com'

            Martha Ruth “Minnie” (Baker) Caldwell (April 18, 1885-January 29, 1966) was my great-great grandmother, from whom the tradition of Creek ancestry came. She may have been born in Marshall County, Alabama according to her voter’s registration, but my aunt mentioned it in passing over a phone conversation with Mother a few years ago. Her marriage certificate says the (half?)-Creek ancestress was present at her wedding, par her marriage certificate.

            The family worked in the Alabama cotton industry, laboring in the Talladega County, Alabama Cotton Factory in Sylacauga. They also dwelt in Tallapoosa County, prior to “Minnie” forced to leave for Columbus, Georgia after years of domestic abuse. My great-grandfather, Frederick David Carroll, was a Sylacauga native. His own mother might have been part-Choctaw. Presently, I will only truly know if Aunt can unearth the documents she spoke about.

            Momma managed to scan photographs of my ancestresses, which I tried comparing to one of [Chief] Sitting Bull in a side-by-side comparison via Adobe Photoshop. There are Native American skeletal features in Missus Caldwell’s face–the woman’s pride and joy. Granddad Pierce’s spousal membership card to the American Cherokee Confederacy, Incorporated is now on the internet, though I do not think he was anything Cherokee himself. The Pierces were tall, nigh elf-eared folk which sported blond hair and blue eyes. Blood tests showed just English.

          • The Talledega – Sylacuage Area is in the heart of Upper Creek Country. It is quite likely that someone from there, would be at least partially Creek.

          • jacobcarpenter1@outlook.com'

            Dialoguing with Mother, ‘Granny’ Caldwell was one-fourth Creek Indian via a fully Native American grandmother. Such was why the woman had her particular facial structure, and was why she was so knowledgeable about herbal drinks, foods, and medicines. That solves what degree of Creek ancestry I purportedly have. It is just unearthing who Caldwell’s parents were now.

          • Jacob, do you live in Georgia or an adjacent state? We are reforming the Creek Confederacy and will incorporate it in Georgia.

          • jacobcarpenter1@outlook.com'

            Due to physical disabilities, I live at home with my parents and twin sister in southeast Tennessee. Our mother is from Georgia, but her maternal grandparents were from Alabama. Grandmother was part of a fraudulent organization called ‘The American Cherokee Confederacy’ during life; Grandfather joined under spousal membership. I have the latter’s identification card on my computer; however, the former’s genealogical paperwork is apparently gone. The head’s accent was/is quite thick, so I had a difficult time grasping his words.

            Granny’s online memorial was created by me here on Find a Grave: http://findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi/http%22//%3C/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=37361961

    • rhondadavishagood@gmail.com'

      Wow my family is from demest..toccoa area..so creek instead of Cherokee?

      Reply
    • brentcox39@gmail.com'

      You know my ancestor was run off from Duke’s Creek in 1828 by gold miners. I know a lot about that area and the heritage of my ancestor there. Its sad that she had to flee but her life was in jeopardy. Its weird that 1828 is the year you mention. She was not a Cherokee princess nor was she of foreign heritage. I understand your article and I appreciate your approach but why did you specifically mention Duke’s Creek? I think I know why and it is expected.

      Reply
    • al@senaa.org'

      Bull! The Euchee lived within Tsalagi (Cherokee) borders, and for a very simple reason: They were a small tribe compared to the surrounding tribal nations. Fearing being overrun by other, more powerful nations, they entered into an arrangement with the Tsalagi for protection, similar to the arrangement between Hopi and Dine’ (Navajo) before European contact. The Euchee later moved form the area due to the immoral acts of a white trader. He raped a young Euchee girl, the father and other warriors caught up with the trader, beat him severely, and partially scalped him to mark him. The trader had a Tsalagi chief friend, and he went straight to him and demanded “justice. He omitted the part where he had raped the girl, and implied that the Euchee warriors had attacked him for no good reason. A runner was sent to the Euchee village, warning of the impending attack on the Tsalagi. Fearing the wrath of the Tsalagi, some committed suicide after killing their families to keep them from falling into Tsalagi hands. The rest fled and settled elsewhere.

      The Euchee were not here first.

      In fact, there is so much wrong with your entire article that it would take two articles twice the length to set the record straight. Virtually every wild speculation that you’ve made is incorrect and skewed.

      As for the artist’s rendition of the village at the head of the article, it looks suspiciously like the dwellings, granaries, and other structures common to the Tsalagi prior to European contact, istead of a “Sephardic Jewish or Spanish gold mining village”. I have seen several Tsalagi archaeological sites that predate white settlement, and the artist’s rendition of the village published here looks like one of those. That is the most likely reason why the notion that it was a “Sephardic Jewish or Spanish gold mining village” was “erased from Georgia’s history books”.

      Pseudo-archaeologists, and even seasoned archaeologists are very good, I have discovered, at wild speculation, even going so far as to create entire scenarios based on sparse evidence and the logic that would say, “There was a wreck today involving a blue Ford F350 pickup. Therefore blue Ford F150 pickup trucks are prone to wrecking and are dangerous to drive.” I was at an archaeological site in Tennessee and witnessed the same sort of wild speculation by archaeologists. Virtually every speculation that they voiced was dead wrong. Too much imagination and bias, based on too little evidence.

      If you want to know Tsalagi history, ask a Tsalagi. A visit to the Cherokee Museum in Cherokee, N.C. might be enlightening.

      Reply
      • al@senaa.org'

        Typo correction: “Therefore blue Ford F150 pickup trucks …” should read “Therefore, blue Ford F350 pickup trucks…”

        Reply
  2. bwilkes@tuscanyglobal.com'

    Fascinating, as always, Richard. As DNA databases expand, the story of the Southeast becomes at once more specific and more varied. In my own case, the DNA led me to document my lineage, which led me back to Palestine. I have found the burial sites of several of my ancestors there. I can only conjecture how they came to be in the Carolinas, Georgia, Florida, and Alabama.

    Keep up the good fight!

    Reply
    • sanolde@mindspring.com'

      My family legend was that one of my Carter ancestors was married to a Cherokee Indian woman, and my grandfather and especially my dad and his sister had some traits that looked Native American. So before my father passed away I had his DNA sent off, and would you believe that the very FIRST match was to a Native American out West. I emailed him and requested his tribal information. He wrote back that his father was an Apache ( I think) but that his Mother was Eastern Band Cherokee! Bingo! There was no way my dad could have had a match to him unless he had the Cherokee Indian DNA. The Carters were here before the Revolutionary War and we think the link was before that. I would love to find out more about this. There were no written records handed down.

      Reply
      • bb122982@hotmail.com'

        Sylvia, I have always been told that my great grandmother was full blooded Cherokee. She lived here in Tennessee and raised her children here. I have been told that she was offered land, a place to live in Oklahoma, (whenever, I do not know), but chose to stay here with her children. How do I find out if I in fact am partial Cherokee?

        Reply
        • sanolde@mindspring.com'

          I don’t know, Brenda, unless you get a DNA test like I did on my father. It was quite a surprise to find out that the legend was most likely true.

          Reply
      • sanolde@mindspring.com'

        Richard, I am Regent of the Fayette-Starr’s Mill Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution in Peachtree City GA,, and we have an American Indians Committee and support Indian schools. We celebrate American Indian Heritage Month in November, My question is, do you ever give talks on this interesting subject, and if so, would you be interested in speaking to our chapter? What requirements/charges do you have for doing so? Thank you for responding. Sincerely, Sylvia Nolde

        Reply
        • pittypat01@gmail.com'

          Sylvia,
          If you have a daughter named Trish, the I KNOW YOU!! I was a bridesmaid at her first wedding, and was friends with her in college!! Small world!! I didn’t know you had Native ancestry!

          Reply
          • sanolde@mindspring.com'

            Yes, I have a wonderful daughter named Trish. I remember you coming to the wedding…that was awhile ago. She is now very happily remarried to a wonderful man that we love so very much. If you haven’t been in touch with her lately I am sure she would love to get back in contact.

          • pittypat01@gmail.com'

            We are in contact thru Facebook and I LOVE her new baby daughter! I am glad she is finally happy!!

          • sanolde@mindspring.com'

            Wonderful! We are soooo in love with that baby! Such a bright spot in our heaven.

      • solanacrystal@hotmail.com'

        Sylvia, I’m a Carter too, the branch that slowly migrated south to Florida, we probably branched off well before the Cherokee ancestor in your line, as I have only minimal traces according to the various GEDMatch utilities. But we were here before the Revolutionary War too, descended from a Captain.

        Reply
      • sYuxtun007@gmail.com'

        It’s probable that the “Apache” man also had some European colonist ancestry. And that’s why your father had some relationship to the ” Apache ” man.

        Reply
  3. samhil2@aol.com'

    My husband is of Melungeon descent; he has a very Native American appearance – tall (6’3″), thin, straight black hair, long narrow straight nose and skin that darkens with a red undertone in the summer. His paternal grandmother was 3/4 Melungeon – her father was 100% and her mother 50%. We have always understood that Melungeons are/were a triracial isolate culture – Negro, Native American and Caucasian. We had his DNA tested and the results showed absolutely no Native American DNA. I understand about inheriting percentages of DNA and that those percentages become less and less the further removed from your 100% ancestor, but at only 2 generations removed from a proven 75% Melungeon ancestor, I feel that some Native American trace at least should have shown up. What his results did show was 97% northwestern European with trace amounts of Iberian, Southeastern African, Caucasus and East Asian. My question to you is do you believe the reputed Native American aspect in the Melungeon mix might actually be an admixture from the Old World settlers you mentioned that may have never left the Southeast?

    Reply
    • skayherrera@aol.com'

      I have never paid much attention to skin color or anything else that would identify a person as belonging to a particular race. In my family, there is a whole spectrum of skin colors from very dark to very light. I was always curious about this fact so I had my DNA tested. The results were: 30% American Indian, 21% Irish, 20% English and 7% African. The rest were traces of Iberian Peninsula, the Caucasus, Sephardic Jews and a plethora of others. When I started doing genealogy I saw that my grandfather, and great-grandfather were listed as “Mu”. I figured out that “Mu” meant Mulatto. I was intrigued. As you can see by my DNA results, I am at least tri-racial and probably could be considered a Melungeon. I have identified ancestors as Chippewa, Choctaw, Cherokee and Atakapa. However, there is one ancestor who was documented as Native American but I do not know her tribe. I have reason to believe that she was a Biloxi. How could I determine whether she was Biloxi or not? Also, aren’t the Atakapa a part of the Muskogean people?

      Reply
      • allbettz@att.com'

        Where are you from, Sandra? Your test showed you were American Indian so I’m curious to know where you live and by what company your DNA was done. Mr Thorton quoted an expert that there was no markers for the Southeastern Tribes. I was told My grandmother was a full blooded Cherokee. My DNA from Ancestry said no! I had great grandparents who lived in “Indian Territory” in Alabama, with the Creek Indians. My test makes me believe, as one man called them, they were “Intruders”. White people living with Indians. My DNA was 97% European with traces of other.

        Reply
      • Thepaperlady@aol.com'

        Please, who did your testing.

        Reply
    • southernbelle154@yahoo.com'

      I was just about to reply the same thing you just said. No one can test to see if they are Cherokee until they find out who the Cherokee are and where they came from. It may never be possible because there is not enough …if any full blood Cherokee to test to get a control sample from.
      I will say that every person with oral history and alot documented have came back with Middle Eastern markers from the DNA testing

      Reply
    • Dwwmc@mac.com'

      Is there a good DNA testing to be done? My grandmother was a Vann. Her ancestry was some Cherokee, but mostly Shawnee. We are able to trace back to Chief Powhatan. In my family on my grandmother and grandfather’s side, the married into many nations. Creek, Shawnee (I am registered with AST), Chickasaw, Powhatan and Cherokee. It is possible that Cherokee could have been when Cherokee chief adopted Shawnee children that were orphaned when their parents were murdered. That is where the Vanns came from.
      I did a DNA test with AncestryDNA. The results were what I expected with a few surprises. Keep in mind that my family has done genealogy research for many decades. The results have me descendent from Iberia, Germany, Scottish, Eastern European , a trace of Italian, Middle East and South Asia.
      When I Submitted my markers to other sites, they match me to Native Americans and even Central America.
      Later I was told that AncestryDNA was faulty.
      I would love to dig into this further. Suggestions?

      Reply
      • Dwwmc@mac.com'

        I forgot to add. There is not any record of Spanish or what could be Iberia (that I know off) in my tree. I have gone back to about 1600s.

        Reply
      • Well, have I got a surprise for you David. Right after this article came out, I was contacted by a card-carrying citizen of the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma, who is a direct descendant of James Vann . . . and she thought . . . very little non-Native American ancestry. She submitted DNA samples to three reputable labs. All said that she had NO Native American ancestry. She was a mixture of all the Mediterranean DNA test markers, typical of Sephardic Jews, plus those typical of Scotland (Gaelic,Northern Germanic and Scandinavian)! In other words, the famous Vann family was never Native American and in the 180 years since the Trail of Tears, have mostly married people, who were Sephardic Jews like themselves. History backs this up. John Calvin and John Knox, the founders of the Presbyterian Church, interpreted the Bible to say that it was the duty of Christians to protect and give sanctuary to all righteous Jews. Thousands of victims of the Inquisition were invited to Scotland. Many of those immigrants then moved to North America and were highly likely to become Indian traders. It is also quite obvious that James Adair was an Ulster Jew. He openly admitted that his wife was half Jewish and half Chickasaw. Now you know!

        Reply
  4. dollysgrl3@aol.com'

    Our family lore said my mother’s grandfather was a “renegade Indian” from the mountains of Tennessee. Her sister (my aunt) remembers him telling her he had some Indian blood.
    My DNA shows no trace of that.

    Reply
    • revcdp@gmail.com'

      My McGhee ancestors lived next to Red Clay. They arrived there in 1809. When did the Cherokee?

      Reply
  5. 234stewart@gmail.com'

    Please quit spewing information that is not correct. African Mende Script has similar writing systems to American Native Cherokee Scripts. Cherokee Script (1832-33) is an Indigenous Script in North America connected with Sub-Saharan Africa Scripts of Liberia and Sierra Leonne. Also included is a relatively modern script in Liberia which may have Cherokee influence. (Cherokee & West Africa: Examining the Origin of the VAI Script by Konrad Tuchscherer, Vol 29 2002, P. 427 to 486.) Also, be reminded that the Moors ruled Spain, Italy, and Portugal for 700 years from 700 – 1492 AD.

    Reply
    • lolapratt@hotmail.com'

      Good for you on this comment. History has taught us this if one was inclined to read and reason. I am enjoying your discussions on the tribes of the Southeast. My maiden name is Perry. My ancestors came through Franklin, Tn to Alabama. Don’t ‘think’ we are of the Perez family. Interesting new thoughts being introduced to me on my search.

      Reply
    • syuxtun007@gmail.coM'

      Native Americans are neither Sub-Saharan Africans, White Europeans, Muslim Arabs, nor Hebrew Israelites. You both are Afrocentric and Eurocentric in trying to make Native American into something they are not!!! Native Americans Do not have East Asian ancestry, they are descended from a Small group of Proto-Native Americans and are their OWN race. They are Ancient and from Alaska to Tierra Del Fuego, they are a homogenous people. The Cherokee and the Yuchi in ancient times were the same as the West Coast Native Americans that differentiated over the years. Now their bloodlines are contaminated by African and European DNA, the western Natives are the representatives of purer bloodlines. You and the Afrocentric are two sides of the same coin , and both are wrong. They haven’t tested the east coast Tribes because the are now genetically different from their ancestors, but all Ancient remains are of Native American Mtdna Haplogroups A, B, C, D, And X and Ydna C and Q, these go back to 14,600 years. The only people that try and change the genetic ancestry of the Ancestral Native Americans are people who don’t have Native DNA, and have some strange mixture if DNA and try to project it back to the Ancestors. You have a Identity issue going on here, and you are not Native American, because The ancestral Native Americans were not Jews, Arabs, Africans, or Europeans, but their own ancient race. They Natives are the ONLY American race, they are the true Americans, and their descendants are the only ones who don’t have to take a DNA test or rely on vague family stories to tell them they are Native Americans.

      Reply
  6. urisahatu@yahoo.com'

    Great article.

    The Cherokee are a heavily admixed tribe / people.

    Here is something interesting I found which could
    help (POOF-)researchers on the Cherokee origin.

    Dictionary of Indian Tribes of the Americas, Volume 1
    by Jan Onofrio (Onofrio-Grimm)

    Pages: 260 – 264

    (Eastern band Cherokee)

    Pages: 263 – 264

    Quote: “In 1902 there were officially reported 28,016
    persons of Cherokee blood, including all degrees of
    admixture, in the Cherokee Nation in the Territory,
    but this includes several thousand individuals
    formerly repudiated by the tribal courts.
    There were also living in the nation about 3,000
    adopted black freedmen, more that 2,000 adopted
    whites, and about 1,700 adopted Delaware, Shawnee,
    and other Indians. The tribe has a larger proportion of
    white admixture than any other of the Five Civilized
    Tribes.”
    ———

    I personally believe the original Cherokee are pre-
    dominantly of Middle Eastern, North African (Jews and
    Arab) descent.

    One of the original disperal points (location) in my
    opinion could be the area around the Chorokhi river
    in the now known Autonomous Province of Ajaria
    (Ajara) in Georgia (Eurasia / Caucasus) on the Black
    Sea.

    Here a link to an aerial picture/photo of the Chorokhi
    Delta, the point of view from bottom to top is East to
    West.
    This could be the disperal point and perhaps one
    of the original Cherokee homelands.
    http://www.dutchwatersector.com/uploads/2015/01/dws-deltares-batumi-chorokhi-delta-aerial-750px.jpg

    In the article from Januari 13, 2016

    “Was Sequoyah The Son Of An African Slave Or A
    Mustee War Captive?”
    http://peopleofonefire.com/was-sequoyah-the-son-of-an-african-slave-or-a-mustee-war-captive.html

    You can read my comments, discoveries and theories
    on the Chorokhi – Cherokee connection.

    Another interesting thing I would like to point out
    is that the Cherokee word/prefix “ANI” meaning
    “Nation” or “People” is similar to the words (prefix)
    Beni, Bene, Banu, Bani.

    “Bani” is Arabic meaning “the children of” or
    “descendants of”.

    Here you can clearly see the link between the Arabic
    “Bani”, the Anatolian (Turkey) and Cherokee “Ani”.

    Reply
    • wakefieldrising@gmail.com'

      Don’t forget that Sir Frances Drake abandoned a group of mutinous Turkish sailors on the coast of what is now North Carolina. I’m sure their blood line still survive today in the S/E as DNA has shown.
      \

      Reply
    • oc3tec@gmail.com'

      Richard Thornton The Moors traveled to America 500 to 800 years prior to Columbus. Prior to that it was the Sudanese and the Angolians who landed in Mexico. If you want more proof look up the Olmec statues in Mexico that will be all the proof you’ll need.

      Reply
      • I have spent extensive periods of time in Mexico. My fellowship coordinator in Mexico wrote THE BOOK on the Olmec Civilization. The Olmec heads were carved around 1200-1000 BC. The Olmec civilization ended around 500 BC. The people that carved them, look just like the heads. They still live in Mexico and don’t have drop of Middle Eastern or African DNA. I assume that you are African-American. It astounds me that anyone would have anything to do with the Muslim Cult. Muslims started the African slave trade within 10 years after Mohamed was with his master in hell.

        Reply
  7. jvjnprince@gmail.com'

    Interesting, especially since my father’s family claims Cherokee and he had the “native American look”. Reddish dark skin, high cheek bones, etc. My husband’s family also claims Cherokee. No princesses though. I am curious now about mine and my daughters DNA, after reading your comments about the testing how accurate would it be?

    Reply
  8. patc2@windstream.net'

    Rabun County not mentioned. Cherokee village sites?

    Reply
    • patc2@windstream.net'

      Thank you

      Reply
  9. keenergap@gmail.com'

    I wonder if someone here would be willing to shed some new light on one of my puzzles? If you would rather email it to me, my address is Keenergap@gmail.com.

    My ancestor, Robert Carr, was born in 1740 and built a fort on Beaverdam Creek in Wilkes County, GA. This was a stockade type fort, with cabins inside. I do believe that there is a current attempt to unearth any archaeological evidences at the location site. At any rate, there were several Indian attacks at this fort and all are written in history as being Creek Indian attacks. Finally in March of 1779 a Creek Indian attack slaughtered most of the inhabitants, including Robert Carr. My particular ancestors from this family (through son William Carr who married Elizabeth Tate) kept a leather skull cap used by him after he was scalped in this attack, and left for dead. William was young child and did recover and married Elizabeth Tate. Their son, Elijah Crawford Carr, is my third great grandfather AND CAN BE FOUND ON CREEK INDIAN enrollments. His daughter, Selecia Letitia Queen Carr, married William Monroe Humphries and made no bones about being Creek Indian to anyone who would listen to stories of the slaughter. My grandmother, daughter of Selecia Letitia Queen Carr, grew up under her care and as a child I loved to hear the stories about the Carrs and how they were attacked by the Creeks…………Now, I have located no where at all any evidence of there being Indian in this Carr line other than those of our family who were enrolled as such in the Creek nation. This seems peculiar to me, that Creek Indians would attack a fort where there were residing people KNOWN to be in some part Creek Indian………..Even as my grandmother was a little girl in the 1880’s her parents would take in orphaned Creek Indian children and rear them and in fact, my brother and cousins (who are older than me) all remember them………WHY would Creek Indians attack a fort which housed some of their own tribe?

    Reply
    • larasanders67@gmail.com'

      Wow! I’m glad to learn this info! I was always told I was Cherokee but I now realize my ancestors were probably itsate Creek! (My native part of the DNA shows 3 parts, South American, mesoamerican and north am!). My grandmother Dot told me the ‘cherokee’ we’re on both sides of the revolutionary war..but I found the ‘Cherokee’ listed as mostly being on the British side and it always puzzled me why I had a revolutionary war soldier married to a ‘Cherokee’ -most likely itsate Creek woman. They lived in the northeast Georgia! Habersham co.

      Reply
    • jmcgilvary@mac.com'

      I believe the actual spelling is MacGillivray…

      Reply
      • jmcgilvary@mac.com'

        There is a large collection of his writings (he was quite the Statesman, according to some 🙂 in a State Park in the Panhandle of Florida, St. Marks, which was a Spanish Fort area.
        He is said to have signed the Treaty of New York, in 1790, with Geo. Washington, but I have yet to find proof of that.
        He was also alleged to have signed a treaty with Spain about the same time…playing both sides against the middle.
        There is an interesting book Alexandar McGillivray of The Creeks, so I will assume you have it correct.
        His Father, Lachlan, spelled in MacGillivray, so I am not sure when it changed.
        Great page, and thanks for your writing.
        I enjoyed reading the story, and even the comments after.

        Reply
  10. Tjsoundman@msn.com'

    I just want to say I find this very interesting. Thank you. My grandfather and great grandfather were from the town of Alapaha in Berrien county, Georgia. Any info on that area ?

    Reply
    • Tjsoundman@msn.com'

      thank you…..

      Reply
    • jerrellhutson@hotmail.com'

      My great great great grandmother was supposedly Cherokee. She died in 1860. Her Indian name was Squelocquemos. According to family lore, She was orphaned and reared by a white family. She may have been born in South Carolina and later moved to Mississippi. At some point she married my grt grt grt grandfather, a Simmons. She is buried, I believe in Perry Co. Mississippi. I have a picture of her, and her complexion is dark, with an angular face, thin lips, and thin nose. Any help identifing her as a Cherokee? Would one of the DNA tests help?

      .

      Reply
      • Dwwmc@mac.com'

        You kind of just described my grandfather. ????

        Reply
    • ctturnip@gmail.com'

      Hillabee were also in Alabama. Not only was there the notable complex dating back to at least the late 17th century in Tallapoosa County, but there is in south Montgomery County a Hillabee Road and, it seems, a smattering of other Hillabee name places in the same general vicinity. I’m guessing these might have moved from Georgia?

      Reply
    • brentcox39@gmail.com'

      You know a lot Sir. But we have talked before. Lol I shared your post and caused a stir. Do you really know about reservation #91 on Duke’s Creek and who lived there until 1828? If you’ve read certain books you might get the wrong assumption. That was a real person that lived there until 1828 and her husband died at Horseshoe Bend. I know who she was.

      Reply
      • brentcox39@gmail.com'

        Hello,
        I understand your position well. Its just that you specifically mentioned Duke’s Creek. My ancestor lived there and her husband served under Gideon Morgan and was among the Cherokee at Horseshoe Bend. He was killed in battle. In 1817 his wife was allotted Reservation #91 on Duke’s Creek and was given a small pension for his service. She fled that property in 1828 due to discovery of gold and the pressure being put on her family by Georgia. Im not disputing that that was originally Creek land as I mentioned that a relative was a trader to the Ocoee (deposition 1754). My question would be why is Duke’s Creek specifically mentioned? I want to know more about this as my ancestor was there in 1828. She was of the 1200 Lower Cherokee you mention however we do not know why she located at Duke’s Creek after the War of 1812 and her husband’s death. We do know that her son went there in 1828 and took his mother and seven others away from that land due to the discovery of gold. I understand who claimed what land and that my ancestor was over the extreme boundary of the Cherokee claims given by a govt that could not be trusted. I just want to clarify that a real person lived there and gold led to her demise in 1828. This is all on record. Her husband is listed among the Cherokee at Horseshoe Bend and was listed as “Killed.” I realize the area she was living is within the boundaries of what was considered Creek. I am asking you why you specifically mentioned Duke’s Creek for she lost her life over gold. I have not heard of the settlement you mentioned however I am open to any discussion. I am not surprised by anything I read for I realize white society controlled the flow of documents. Most information we receive is either incorrect or skewed in favor of assimilation and those forcing it upon Indians. I think I should tell you more for I know who my ancestor was and what nation she came from but as you know there are many unknown factors as to this time period you are referring to and most don’t understand. In some ways, your article reminds me of Adair’s attempt to prove Jewish kinship in that region but I do realize you have more info than Adair had. Im just asking for a complete report of Reservation #91 on Duke’s Creek 1817 and why my ancestor had to leave in 1828. Im not trying to prove who I am nor do I care too. I want to know more about Duke’s Creek. I realize that most Cherokee towns other than the Middle and Out settlements were named after Creek words. Ive known that for years and I know that Savannah town was on the Little Tenn River on Kitchins map as well. I realize there are many unanswered questions. I know the story of the Seven Sisters as well. I can usually judge a person by what they know about that as to whether they are traditional or not. I have found two schools of thought in this case. Many hate the Cherokee and lie about facts surrounding their actual migrations and time periods. Others go to the opposite extreme and do not understand the migrations. Your points lie within one of these two groups. Im not being disrespectful but I think one has to do a thorough study and realize the migration past Tennessee to the north and back to understand the Cherokee periods near Tennessee. I just want to get a full understanding of Duke’s Creek and if archaeological evidence proves what your article showed. If it does, then could these records fail to show 1817-1828? Yes it is highly possible that there would be little evidence of that short time span unless a person objectively sifted through all artifacts with a totally objective approach. Mvto

        Reply
  11. kwhite75@att.net'

    Please don’t forget to make sure all those people from Virginia and Kentucky don’t forget their ancestors were Cherokee. Lol. I do Cherokee research and to date I have found 9 Cherokee descent ants who are fully documented but not eligible to join one of the 3 Cherokee Nation’s. I know there are more I would estimate about 150 of them. Well shy of the thousands who feel it in their heart and other places. I agree we didn’t have to hide at all.

    Reply
  12. debsblueuniverse@hotmail.com'

    I have two specific questions generated by this awesome article: Can you point me in a direction to research the Sephardim of Alabama and how they got there, and if my ancestor hailed from Marengo county, Alabama, and was allegedly Cherokee, what other demographic possibilities might be more likely? Please keep up the good work.

    Reply
    • bettnorris@gmail.com'

      I too have have ancestors on both sides from Marengo County AL, going back to the early 19th century. My mother told me a story of having a grandmother who was “Indian.” I believe Choctaw were in the Marengo County area. My mother’s parents were both dark skinned, and my grandmother and her sister look remarkably like the photos I found in
      a book written by Jacqueline Anderson Matte, They Say the Wind is Red, http://www.amazon.com/They-Say-Wind-Red-Choctaw-Lost/dp/1588380793/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1454935699&sr=8-1&keywords=They+say+the+wind+is+red

      about the Alabama Choctaw and particularly the Mo Wa Band.
      This book is very helpful in understanding the mixed heritage of the Southeastern Native American.

      Reply
      • mnowell81@gmail.com'

        My great great grandfather was Hiram Pardue. He is in the index section.

        Reply
      • debsblueuniverse@hotmail.com'

        Thanks for the recommendation. If your Marengo folks are affiliated with the Lucy or Luckie family, I would like to have a discussion.

        Reply
    • adia_11@excite.com'

      Do you have more info on the people from or near Jasper. I was adopted, but met my birth family in the last few years and have learned the were both of German and supposed Indian heritage. My brother and I had DNA done, but showed no native, mostly Mediterranean, middle and far Eastern descent.

      Reply
      • debsblueuniverse@hotmail.com'

        My problem is that my great-great-great grandmother, whose mother allegedly came from Georgia, is completely undocumented. My own suspicion is that she was illegitimate, or possibly a slave and not the daughter of an affluent white southern widow. So I have a last name–Lucy–but no evidence to confirm it was her identity.

        Reply
      • Dwwmc@mac.com'

        I have a similar DNA experience.

        Reply
      • syuxtun007@gmail.com'

        “Polynesians were in Mexico before the American Indians”
        Now that is just ridiculous! Polynesians weren’t even their own people when Mexico was populated by Native Americans. Polynesia was not even populated until 3,000 years ago at the most and I’m being generous! The oldest Native American remains found in Yucatan,Mexico are of a 15 years old girl, that scientists named Naia. That were dated at 13,000 thousand years ago, found in a pit with Extinct animal bones. She is of the founding haplogroup D1, very common in modern day Mexico. There were no Polynesians for thousands of years when Mexico and the rest of the Americas were first peopled. Polynesians are from South East Asian and have nothing to do with the Americas or Mexico or Native Americans. Native Americans are their own isolated breeding population and have been in the Americas far longer that what some scientists give them credit for they were in the Americas when the supposed Ice Free Corridor opened up. The were in the Monte Verde site in South America 30,000 years ago, they were in Oregon 14,666 years ago. They were at the topper site 18,000 years ago. Native American languages and Isolates are the most diverse in the world, it would have taken at least 35,000 years ago, some linguist say 50,000 years or as long as New Guinea or Australia. everyone wants to be Native Americans because they are the most bad ass people in the world who in complete isolation had everything other races had, if not more. They domesticated crops, they genetically engineered Maize, they had monumental architecture, the had aquaducts and canals, they invented rubber vulcanization, they were sculptures and artists, they had higher learning institution and writing. They had metalworking with copper, gold , silver and Iron. They invented chocolate! This was the brilliance of the Native Americans and their ancestors. There were no Jews, Arabs, Africans, Asians or Europeans before the illegal invasions of Europeans and Africans in 1492.

        Reply
  13. evonw@earthlink.net'

    Fascinating article Mr. Thornton. I like many others have always believed and were told by family records that some of our descendants were Cherokee. My family history is all from Virginia, South Carolina, North Carolina and North Georgia. We currently live in Bartow County near the “Etowah Indian Mounds”. At the turn of the century several of my ancestors in Floyd County had applied for Cherokee Status, but were denied. I also had my DNA test through a popular genealogy site. I was mostly Celtic and Scandinavian decent, but 5% from the Caucasus region and 1% Iberian peninsula, which was a complete mystery. Can you tell me what this might mean? My wife’s family have been in Mississippi for over 150 years. She appears to be predominantly french ancestry, but family records stated a possibility of Choctaw ancestry as well. Her DNA included Iberia and North Africa, which is also a big mystery. This is all very confusing. What exactly is POOF, and why have we not heard of this before?

    Reply
    • evonw@earthlink.net'

      Thanks for answering. I’m sure all of that is very possible. Thank you for the information.

      Reply
  14. gvn_roberson@yahoo.com'

    Hi Richard, my family has been in GA since the mid to late 1700’s. They migrated down from VA, through the Carolinas. They settled on the NE side of the Okefenokee in historic Wayne County which is Brantley, Charlton Counties now and in NE Florida. From our research, we know that we are descendants of the Catawba, Saponi and Creek. There is also possible Uchee. I’ve had DNA test and the results show European and Native American. Some of our surnames from both sides of the family are Johns, Crews, Kaney, Herrin, Hobbs, Raulerson, Sheffield, Ammons, Rowell, Davis and Dowling. All these names are very prominent around the Okefenokee region.

    Reply
    • gvn_roberson@yahoo.com'

      Yes sir. I too was born in Waycross. Many families in SE Ga and NE Fl that date back to early 1800’s have Creek ancestors. You hear some try to claim Cherokee but I try to inform them that it’s more likely Creek or Uchee. One thing I wanted to ask is from most of the historic maps and early land records it makes reference to the Tallasee Country which bordered historic Wayne Co. From research I’ve seen , we know that the Tallasee come from the North Ga/Tenn border. Are these ancestors of the Creek families around the Okefenokee too? We know that some of our ancestors came from the Savannah river area in SC and GA, the Ogeechee River and Altamaha river.

      Reply
      • gvn_roberson@yahoo.com'

        Richard, I wanted to see if you may can give us some insight on the name Ocief. This is one of my ancestors that we know lived along the Savannah river area around Silver Bluff/Augusta. She married my 4th grt grandfather John Red whom was an Indian Trader from SC which lived in historic Barnwell Co. They are both listed in an old Kaney family bible and beside her name it just states “Indian”. She was born we think around 1795-1800. If you can give us any idea on this, it would be appreciated. I know that this was Creek lands but other tribes were along the Savannah too and we are looking for a possible origin of her name. Thanks.

        Reply
      • gvn_roberson@yahoo.com'

        Richard, I wanted to see if you may can give us some insight on the name Ocief. This is one of my ancestors that we know lived along the Savannah river area around Silver Bluff/Augusta. She married my 4th grt grandfather John Red whom was an Indian Trader from SC which lived in historic Barnwell Co. They are both listed in an old Kaney family bible and beside her name it just states “Indian”. She was born we think around 1795-1800. If you can give us any idea on this, it would be appreciated. I know that this was Creek lands but other tribes were along the Savannah too and we are looking for a possible origin of her name. Thanks.

        Reply
  15. wanda30@windstream.net'

    Thank you so much for this article. I have been tracing my family genealogy for 20 years and I still fight the battle of our supposed Cherokee blood. People want to believe they are Cherokee for some reason. My 4th great grandparents were Jacob an Anna Whitehead who were supposedly the first white settlers in this area. (Toccoa, Georgia) They made friends with the NA’s located around Toccoa Falls. Would these have been Creek or Uchee?

    Reply
    • wanda30@windstream.net'

      Thank you! I am excited to learn this. Hownam I able to keep up with your research?

      Reply
  16. larasanders67@gmail.com'

    Richard, I’m curious, who were the moon eyed people?

    Reply
    • debsblueuniverse@hotmail.com'

      When my husband and I visited “the lost colony of Roanoke” in Virginia, we heard that one theory was that some of the colonists went away and joined a native tribe (forget which one). From the early 17th century to the middle 18th century, European colonists reported encounters with gray-eyed American Indians who claimed descent from the colonists.

      Reply
  17. shadrian@aol.com'

    Hello Richard,
    Well I just did the 23and me, for medical reasons, but the other information will be nice to have, I was born in Walker County Georgia as were my parents, two grandparents from the Carolina’s. So it’s anyone’s guess what will turn up. I guess my question is what tribes were in and around Walker County.
    Thank you,
    Sue

    Reply
  18. mnowell81@gmail.com'

    Very informative article. My folks come from the Perry Co., Mississippi and Washington/McIntosh County, Alabama areas with most settling in Baldwin County. I suppose we would technically be a part of the MOWA Choctaw. However, when I tested my DNA, I came up .1% Native American and almost 5% Sub-Saharan African. My mom is listed as being 5.6% Native American and I can’t remember the portion attributed to African. We are both listed as haplogroup A2, which supposedly comes from the Americas, Siberia, and East Asia. I am just really confused. I would contact the MOWA, but having another persons with a very genealogical link being listed as African certainly would not assist their claim of legitimacy. I feel like 23andme is missing a lot of information.

    Reply
  19. looneybinboss@gmail.com'

    Richard, my grandmother’s family was from Colquit County, Ga. She was definitely of Native heritage, but I cannot find proof. She was born a Davis. What do you know of SW Ga, SE Ala, and NW Fla? Both sides settled in that area, or nearby, since early 19th century.

    Reply
  20. marycwilson@mac.com'

    This is a fascinating string! Thank you! My maternal families Echols, Callaway, Lunceford & Poss were all from Wilkes Co., Ga. But my father’s families, Wilson & Strother, were from NC/SC. They all had dark, reddish skin, grey ice-blue eyes and curly black hair. Mulengeon, I’m thinking?

    Reply
    • wakefieldrising@gmail.com'

      Welch supposedly landed in Mobile, Alabama 1300’s Gray/Blue eyes. Fully armored Knights found in Tn documented by letter from Governor sent to Washington. Forget time period. old age old timers ect.

      Reply
  21. jerrywalkingthetrail@gmail.com'

    I’m happy to have discovered this site today and find all the comments captivating. I’m intrigued to read more articles here, and commend your research and knowledge. Some of my NA ancestors, documented, first appear in NC in 1660. I was born and raised in Fort Payne, Alabama, aka Willstown, where Sequoyah and some of the Ross family had once lived. My NA family was living here in 1837. Twenty-six years ago, rising from a deep need to raise awareness of Cherokee history, I became the first person in the modern world to walk the 900 mile route of the Cherokee Trail of Tears. I did the walk in reverse and was taken under a wing of the Cherokee in Tahlequah for several days before I started my life-altering trek. I mostly slept in woods and fields along the Trail, and my journey was blessed. My resulting book, first published in 1991 by Random House–Walking the Trail, One Man’s Journey Along the Cherokee Trail of Tears–was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize and a National Book Award. Over the years, I have been blessed to speak in Asia, Africa, Europe, and throughout the USA about the Cherokee and my walk along the Trail. The book is required reading in some American schools. My book, Cherokee History for Indian Lovers, with many historic photos, has also been well received. Thank you for all your hard work to help shed light on the Indians of the SE. I also find respectable and insightful the work of Dr. Donald Yates. In the years to come, as DNA results are better documented and paper trails are uncovered, perhaps we will gain new and important information about American and NA history.

    Reply
  22. dolfyn88@gmail.com'

    I found this article a very interesting read. My whole life I’ve always been told that my grandfather was a “full-blooded Cherokee”, but now I’m starting to second guess everyone. My grandfather wasn’t my family’s favorite person, he had a drinking problem and often became violent, so they don’t talk about him much. He died when I was 1 and he is buried in Tennessee. His last name was Haga and in photos I’ve seen he was of average height, thick dark hair, had a darker complexion, but never struck me as “looking” like a Native American. He looked more spanish or middle eastern to me. Most of my family hails from North Florida, Georgia, the Carolinas, and VA. After reading about the Creek Indians you mentioned, I can honestly say that my grandfather had very similar physical features of those descendants.

    Reply
    • archerla5@gmail.com'

      That article, that’s mentioned above (the link to livescience.com), is from the year 2007 (eight years ago), DNA testing has greatly
      improved since then!!!

      Reply
      • debsblueuniverse@hotmail.com'

        However, most of the publicly available DNA tests, such as the one from Ancestry, are not pinpoint accurate. Ancestry does not hide this by any means. They explain their method of obtaining exemplars, which is basically the same as has been discussed on this thread. They only use exemplars which they can confirm as accurate, and their collection will not encompass all of anybody’s DNA.

        Reply
  23. janea1us@yahoo.com'

    Can you tell me the Origin of the word Chechero? Thanks!

    Reply
  24. missyh321@gmail.com'

    I was born in young Harris in the north Georgia mountains. The valley was named enotah or enchanted valley also I believe hiawassee was also from hiawatha an Indian princess. We found a lot of Indian pottery and spearheads in our fields. What tribe would have really been in this area? My great great grandmother was named qmi and was supposedly Cherokee her descendants were Carter’s on my mother’s side from mosquitoes hayesville n.c. loved the article very informative!!! My dad brother and grandpa all look Indian to me by the way big noses dark skin prominent features. me? Fair skin blue eyes but I do have prominent cheeks chin and large lips (like that latter’s lol). Thanks for any information.

    Reply
  25. missyh321@gmail.com'

    Hayesville Not mosquitoes. Stupid auto correct!

    Reply
    • janea1us@yahoo.com'

      Thank you so much! We live in N.E. Ga Mountains and our area is called Chechero. There must have been Native Americans living on our farm because of all of the arrow heads and neighbors have found pottery pieces in the three creeks on the property. This is my Mom’s home place and I can remember her telling me that when she was young she found a blue clay pipe. Any idea which tribe might have lived here? Thanks again! I have asked everywhere for a translation and was told it was a “lost” word. Wow!

      Reply
  26. nastasia74@yahoo.com'

    Hello. I was wondering if you knew of anyone who does research on NA’s from the Pacific Northwest area. My gr gr grandmother came from the Yakima reservation but all records were lost in a fire. She could be from any number of the tribes as that’s where they put everyone and I just have not had any luck in locating any information on her other than her first name and even that is just a guess from talking with my mother. Would those DNA tests be helpful or would I be waistin money, because to me it sounds as if it is a waste. Thank you.

    Reply
  27. delicateflower_kk@yahoo.com'

    My husband’s great-grandfather was supposedly “full blooded” Cherokee. His name was Melvin Hart and he was either born in Wilkes Co, NC or Kentucky. Certainly he looked Indian, as do his descendants and he identified as Indian. So, imagine my surprise when my husband’s Ancestry DNA and 23 and Me came back 98% European. There was about 8% Iberian Peninsula that I couldn’t account for (most of his ancestry lines are well documented back many generations). He recently did a test with dnaconsultants.com, who claim to have a large Cherokee data base, and he came back as Cherokee, according to them. But they are saying what you’ve said here, that Cherokees are not Asiatic but are, instead, Middle Eastern. What do you know about who these Middle Easterners were, when they came here and why?

    Reply
  28. jannaranaldi@yahoo.com'

    You could have at least spelled Clarkesville right. However I know for a fact my great grandma was full blooded Cherokee and my papa was 50% his father was German and I think he has some Irish in them somewhere along there. We had a blood test done on my Papa to check his ancestry and it pulled up 50% Cherokee Indian.

    Reply
    • nomad1392@hotmail.com'

      Richard, I had my DNA done and found out that I was only 90% homo sapien, what`s that all about, lol.

      Reply
      • nomad1392@hotmail.com'

        Richard great artical, and some good responses. I think some of us are extraterrestrial and no one is getting my DNA, or blood, LOL.

        Reply
  29. melly1955@yahoo.com'

    Hello,

    One of my ancestors is a Vann (female) and was supposedly Indian, although I don’t know which tribe. My question relates to my DNA test. It came back as 100% European, with over 80% Irish and Scots. The remaining parts were all north European. How did I get results with 0% Indian, Jewish, African, or Middle Eastern with an ancestor that is supposed to be Indian?

    Thanks!

    Reply
    • melly1955@yahoo.com'

      I have not visited the Vann House. I live in the North Alabama area, which is where my ancestors, Obedience Vann married James Stephenson/Stevenson. I know that some of the Vanns also lived around Rome, GA, but I don’t know if my Vann is connected to those.

      It’ s all so confusing!

      Reply
      • Dwwmc@mac.com'

        Keep in mind that only 50% of your DNA of each parent gets passed down. That could mean that the native markers could get dropped.
        I am also descended from Vann through my grandmother. I have 12% Iberian, Scottish (my 3rd great grandfather was from Scotland), some German, Soutg Asia, Middle East (my mothers side not any native connection). A Vann married into a Shawnee (Moytoy or Cornstalk. Both are in my tree). Depending on what part of the Vann that you are descended from and who else you are connected to, would also determine what DNA you carry. According to Ancestry, you could Cary the traits and not the DNA.
        I am still digging into this.

        Reply
    • tristan.vann@gmail.com'

      Vann is originally a Welsh name (still genetically British though), from the Middle English “Fane”. The first Vanns were descended from Howel ap Vane, pre-William the Conqueror, and lived in Wales. After that, they spread to Scotland, England, Ireland, and other places. Where are you getting that the Cherokee Vanns were Sephardic Jews? I’ve never heard or read that from any reputable source before.

      Reply
      • From a direct descendant of James Vann in Oklahoma, who is on the rolls of the Cherokee Nation.

        Reply
  30. melissalove_09@yahoo.com'

    Thoroughly enjoyed your article. I am 56 yrs old my mom and dad were killed when I was 8. I have done some research on Ancestry but hit a road block. I am the baby of 8 children and my mom had 12 brothers and sisters. Her grandmothers name was Prarie Hawk. We have always been told she was full blooded Indian. I have heard Creek and I have heard Cherokee. I am very interested in tracing my heritage. She is buried in the Pendergrass area where she moved later in life. I have looked at census records and only her name appears. Is it true that if they did not want to be found they did not register with state or was on the census and of course no birth certificate . Would she be on an Indian roll somewhere ? Not sure where to look, hoping you can direct me. Thank you, I now have a bit of hope.

    Reply
  31. shkidd245@gmail.com'

    This is a fascinating article, Mr. Thornton! I have ancestors that were “supposed” to be indians, but we were never sure which tribe. We too had a sort of princess story, but not. The story goes that my great, great, great, grandmother was raped by an indian chief during a raid. The product of that incident was a baby girl born circa 1860 and named Cassadine or (on the 1880 census) Casendine. I have a large picture of her that hung on my grandmother’s wall. She does look indian, but could very well be from some other bloodline. I have tried to find out about her for years with sites like Ancestry.com, but have never found anything except her married name on that 1880 census. No maiden name, no parents listed…ugh! I do know some of the family was from Oconee or Pickens Counties in South Carolina, as well as a lot of talk of Center, SC. and Andersonville, SC. You have inspired me to try again. Thanks!

    Reply
    • shkidd245@gmail.com'

      Yes, I used to live there and a lot of my family came from there. Andersonville was it’s own separate town at one time though, it is now mostly buried below Hartwell Lake. I was wrong about the location on the census for Cassadine though. It was Center, SC, which the best I can guess, is around Oakway, SC. Do you know anything about any of the following surnames from the area….Ayers, Compton, Busby, or King? The indian blood was supposed to have came from a marriage to a J. Willis King. Sadly, the other side of my mother’s bloodline is the one I hit a total roadblock on. The Ayers side. There are Ayers in the area, but no one seems to be related to his family. His dad had no known relatives and was buried in Oakway with his wife’s family (the Comptons). I find it odd that my grandfather had the name R. Vandiver Ayers , and there is a lady who was wrote some books about the history of the family and area was Louise Ayer Vandiver. She was known as the “The Historian of Anderson County” back in the 1920s-1930s. I feel there must be some hidden connection…lol I digress, but thank you so much for the great info. I would love to send you a copy of Cassadine’s portrait in an email and see if you think she looks like she could have Creek heritage though.

      Reply
    • shkidd245@gmail.com'

      Oh, and I have always been skeptical of the rape story as well. I believe it was probably fabricated to cover up the true connection. I am also skeptical as to which relative the portrait is actually was. I’m sure she was named Cassadine/Casendine, but on the only record I can find of her (the 1880 census) she is listed as white. Would she have been listed as white if she were a half indian married to a white man? The next census was supposedly destroyed by a fire in 1921 and the 1900 has her husband remarried. I have no idea if they were divorced or she passed away though. They only had one child and that was my mother’s grandfather, Samuel. Thanks again for all of your research and the article. I love history!

      Reply
      • lulubluewho@gmail.com'

        My great grandfather’s (Willis Melzer King, son of Samuel) grandmother would have been Casadine. If you have any more info on her please let me know! Indianness or otherwise. I can only find the vaguest information for this “W Casendine”, not even a full name.

        Reply
  32. kkakins@gmail.com'

    My goodness this was a popular post! I just have to add my .02. I was always told growing up that I had Native American ancestry. And just as your article explained, my DNA came back without a drop. It did however come back with North African, Middle Eastern, Hebrew, several oriental races, Germanic and Celt. However, my people don’t come from Georgia as far as I know. Just though it was fascinating that I had the same admixture of others and told the same story as your post. It all boils down to us being of one race, the human race, anyway. But it sure is fascinating to think about how far my ancestors traveled to get where I am today.

    Reply
  33. yonahrr@yahoo.com'

    Great article! Many years ago, when I built Mt. Yonah Railroad Station, I received an email from a boy in Israel who asked me why a place in Georgia was named after the Hebrew name for a dove. I joked that the Cherokee were possibly one of the lost tribes of Israel. Little did I know there was such a strong connection between the Jews and North Georgia. As a person of Jewish descent I find this complex history fascinating.

    Reply
  34. dslaterkeller@aol.com'

    Thank you so much for your RESEARCH!!! The history is amazing!!
    The article about the Cherokee…….who they were and who they were not is very enlightening.
    Just got the results on the Mtdna…finding Native American heritage which was a surprise to my Mother as well! She being from Henry County, Alabama traced only as far back as 1830. This REALLY HELPS with the J2 Haplogroup too.
    Maternal surnames, Cox, Clements, Seymour, Jones………
    Paternal surnames, Richardson, Palmer, (Palmore), Hughes, Day, Lynch, Pace, Day, Chambers, Bankston……love this!
    Northeast Georgia, Northeast Alabama

    Reply
    • dslaterkeller@aol.com'

      Thank you & I look forward to following your site~!!!
      Have you done research at Crown Garden’s & Archives in Dalton, Ga???

      Reply
  35. pittypat01@gmail.com'

    Interesting. Do you discount the village on the Etowah River, in Dawson County?? My family is direct decended from that village. My 5th great Grandfather, Solomon Palmer was the first white settler there, and he and his brothers established a trading post, and intermarried, taking Cherokee wives. When the removal ocurred, they stayed and were given land in the land lotteries. My 4th great Grandfather, Kennedy Talley, who was dark skinned, ran from the removal to Florida and joined the Seminoles, leaving his wife and kids (who were light skinned) behind. BOTH were from that village!! And yet you say there were no Cherokee here?? We have family pictures of these people, and their features are undeniably Native American! Please feel free to email me, as my mother is a genealogist and has done extensive research on our family.

    Reply
    • pittypat01@gmail.com'

      We have had our DNA run, and rang the cherries, so even though we are light skinned, we are Cherokee. We do tan up nicely in summer, but pale up in winter. No indicators of middle east… though we do have Scottish, English and German ancestors come down thru the ages. (Doccumented.) We still live on Etowah River Rd. where the villages were located in two different locations, depending on the season. There is a ceremonial mound along the riverbank that the Smithsonian has investigated. Someone once said we weren’t Cherokee but Kitowa from S.C. (sp?), but their motives are in question, as that was what was used to deny us membership in NC. I had a relative to sell her land and goods, voluntarily emigrating west BEFORE the forced removal, and thru our kinship, we have relatives out west. I and many others in our family have the high cheekbones and “Cherokee nose,” with the characteristic bump on it. My nose and cheekbones look exactly like the photo of my 4th great grandfather who ran to the Seminoles to keep from being forced west. When people start saying there was no Cherokee here makes my blood boil!! My great Great Aunt lived to 100, and I remember her telling stories of her daddy hiring the CHEROKEE (same ones to which Kennedy Talley belonged ) to help in his fields. She NEVER referred to them as “Kitowa or any other name but Cherokee!! She never even called them Indians!! Our family has always passed stories with Cherokee words, which I learned later in life to be part of the Old Lost Lower Dialect!!! They are similar to the same words in Eastern Cherokee, and when my uncle was stationed in Oklahoma, he amazed the residents there with his knowledge of the language. Thoughts??

      Reply
      • debsblueuniverse@hotmail.com'

        Wait…further explain this Creek Knot, please. would it be one lump, like a vertebrae but on the skull? I have what I would describe as a lump at the base of the skull on each side, but it doesn’t meet in the middle. Maybe that’s something different.

        Reply
      • pittypat01@gmail.com'

        I do not have the Creek knot, but I do have the bump on the nose!! I also have very few permanent teeth… what I do have is almost all of my baby teeth (I am 47!!!). My dentist said that is a trait of native Americans… not having a lot of permanent teeth. Also, our family is COVERED in fraternal twins!! My great grandmother had 3 sets of twins and a set of triplets, and there are 5 sets in my current generation. My first pregnancy was with twins. That is another native trait. I read a study in college that it is a genetic trait that derived from eating sweet potatoes (yams). Something in the sweet potato causes a woman’s body to release 2 or more eggs at the same time, and that, over generations, it became a genetic trait. It is also prevalent in African tribes where yams are a staple of their diets. (NO we had no gentic markers for African peoples!)

        Reply
      • nomad1392@hotmail.com'

        I have that knot at the base of my skull. I have read were that was also called a Turkish bump or is that diffrent?
        I also have what is called shovel teeth were the front two teeth are concave, I have always heard that was a asiactic or American Native trait, have you heard this?
        Great artical you could almost turn this post into a website, thanks again Richard for all your work.

        Reply
  36. olsmith40@gmail.com'

    Researchers in my family have traced us back through “David” O’oWatie (Uwatie). I understand that he was the father of Stand Watie and Elias Boudinot. From reading what you have written, can you give me any information on this family.

    Reply
    • lydia.bodine@gmail.com'

      Ah, I wondered where Rome/Floyd County and the Ridge family fit into all of this since the area received no mention. I am a historical researcher in the area, and not so much interested in the genealogy as the timeline and the difference between the local historical memory of the Cherokee and what the research bears out. It is only peripheral to my project which is why I haven’t dug in deep with it, but could you point me in the direction of some good sources that go beyond the standards (Battey and Aycock)?

      Reply
  37. hkmcguire4@gmail.com'

    This is very interesting. I have always been told that my mother’s family had Cherokee heritage. Supposedly, my ancestor was the daughter of Sam Houston and an Indian woman from when he lived with the Cherokees in Alabama. Many of the Barrows, that family line, have olive complexions, dark eyes and dark hair. My mother was mistaken as Indian when she was visiting in Oklahoma once during the time of an Indian School reunion. We are from South Alabama. No one in our family has had our DNA tested, but it doesn’t sound as though testing would yield any true verification. Would it?

    Reply
    • wakefieldrising@gmail.com'

      Sam Houston was married a second time in Marion, Perry co. Alabama. Jack Fleming Cocke and Woodson Cocke hosted the wedding. The Cocke Family Married into the Binions who btw were Georgia French Huguenots Richard mentioned above. They are my Ancestors.

      Reply
  38. evviamitsou@gmail.com'

    doing reserch on my family as well. south east native american . hitting road blocks on the ladies with no name and no family. some do not have known cemeteries. my mother claimed NA. i found your comments very helpful today. i would like to subscribe to this site.

    Reply
  39. Speakingformyancestors@Yahoo.com'

    My work will be published in the Collective:

    We Will Always Be Here: Native Peoples on Living and Thriving in the South (Other Southerners). It will be officially Available May 07, 2016 on Amazon.com. You can preorder a copy by following the link:

    http://www.amazon.com/We-Will-Always-Here-Southerners/dp/0813062632/ref=sr_1_3?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1450103857&sr=1-3

    My work can be found on pages 7-23 entitled ” Speaking for My Ancestors “.

     
    Please share. Thanks
    Speakingformyancestors@yahhoo.com

    SPE

    Reply
  40. Speakingformyancestors@Yahoo.com'

    I am Pee Dee and Chowanoc. Interestingly I had DNA ties to areas of not only the Chowanoc and folks from the Peedee communities but Catawba as well. I believe this may have been when the Peedee who where at some point enemies of the Catawas where amalgamated into the tribe. The Catawba were originaly made up of various tribes. I also had a DNA cousin who originated from a white/ European mixed Cherokee Ghormley/ Taylor line. They are well documented. They where Scots/Irish who intermarried early on with Cherokee in NC and passed through TN and GA and did wind up on Oklahoma in the Cherokee Nation. I suspect that the common ancestor may have come from the European Taylor line. The Taylor’s had stirred up so much trouble in the BIA at one point that they were kicked out of the Nation. Their descendants managed to re enroll. The Catawba after leaving The Cherokee Nation and heading back to SC, where scattered about crossing between the borders of NC and SC (near Anson). There where some Catawba who never returned to the Catawba reservation and wenr unaccounted for. My family hails from Anson County. This was an ancient homeland for our people as well. There where many Artifacts, caves and Indian trails that existed there. My brother used to find many old Indian Arrow heads on our land. I think some people of Native ancestry from the Low country and SC will show North African if not African ancestry from pre colonialism contact because of the Spaniards that brought Africans and North Africans on the ships that where taken in after they attacked the Spaniards. It was in my DNA as well. I am Native Maternal Haplogroup A2n. This has been closely link with the Chuckchi people, Northern Canadian tribes who migrated south. Some in our family still carry the strong Native Asiatic traits. If you can see my son in the link. He is the second photo under the Blackfoot young man. They where both winners in a Native youth contest.
    Ratu was one of the winners of the Native Youth Contest!
    https://cnayblog.wordpress.com/2015/10/01/cnay-announces-winners-of-health-tech-essay-contest/

    SPE

    Reply
    • urisahatu@yahoo.com'

      Very interesting comments and information.
      Yet another example of how much Europeans and
      other non-natives mixed with the various native-
      tribes during the colonization of (southeast) north
      America, not to forget the displacements and
      extinctions of certain tribes.

      PS: Are you a descendant of the Pacific Islanders,
      Fiji in particular? The name “Ratu” and surname
      sounds Fijian.
      In Fiji one can find the name “Naivalu”.

      Maybe it’s just a coincidence.

      Reply
      • Speakingformyancestors@Yahoo.com'

        Hi. I am Native American (Pee Dee and Chowanoc). I also have other Native tribes in my lineage from the southeast as well as Black American nd European ancestry. My direct Maternal lines decend directly from an Indian female. If you read the book you will see my Indian ancestor. My son is part Fijian yes. He father is of Melanesian extraction. You can see Fijians or Melanesians here. My ex husband is similar to these men:

        http://l7.alamy.com/zooms/0abe54a1a3ee476ba476308a3202db31/kava-ceremony-wayaseva-island-yasawa-island-group-fiji-south-pacific-d7tyr8.jpg

        His Father’s line come from a chiefly family thus he inherited the names”Ratu” which is a Melanesian term for “Chief”or “Young Chief”. So we are a mixed people. Many Southeastern Native folks have absorbed and intermingled After years of living with non-Natives and having our people killed off sometimes left us with not much of a choice. The odd thing is that my Maternal line were almost full native still sitting right there in Anson county. True Native Families did not intermarriage or sleep with close relatives. In my family it was forbidden. My mom said they told them they intermarried with others because most of their kinfolk died off or where closely related. One of her cousins brought a girl home and our Indian Great grandmother said take her back she was a close relative. They used to have clans. You married into a different Clan. Some of the remnant Indian men or women Married Blacks, Mulattoes or sometimes whites. I remember my Grandma telling us this. Much was taken from our people but I vowed to keep what we had left of our people alive.

        Here is a photo of my Maternal Indian ancestor. Passed away more than 50 years ago.

        https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/45/bb/d9/45bbd9a045d919e5a06691c8021a9f21.jpg

        Thank you.

        SPE

        Reply
        • urisahatu@yahoo.com'

          Hey Shoshone, Thank you for your reply and
          thank you for explaining the customs of the
          True Native Famlilies.

          It may seem that I am soley doing research on
          the origins of the Cherokee at the moment;
          yet I am actually also doing research on the
          possible ancient connection between the
          Native Americans and the Pacific Islanders.

          Examples:
          – The Chumash of California and similar
          boatbuilding technics of the islanders
          in the Pacific; also certain words which
          seem to be borrowed from Polynesians
          (Austronesian languages).

          – Artifacts and linguistic evidence of contact
          between South Americans and Pacific
          islanders; Rapanui (Easter island) in particular.

          Reply
    • Speakingformyancestors@Yahoo.com'

      You are welcome. You also have some great information and discussions on this site. That is a a good question. I speculate that some of the Catawba that did not return to the Reservation and became the core families that you will still find their decend ants there today mingled in with the local people. Some where said to have gone to Charleston others in the surrouding areas. They where wanders and poor at the time. Some I believe became Colored, Mulattoes black or maybe White bas

      Reply
    • Speakingformyancestors@Yahoo.com'

      You are welcome. You also have some great information and discussions on this site. That is a a good question. I speculate that some of the Catawba that did not return to the Reservation to became the core families that you will still find residing there today. The other Catawbas that did not return mingled in with the local people. Some where said to have gone to Charleston others in the surrounding areas. They where wanders and poor at the time surviving anyway they could. Being an Indian at the time took second seat to survival. Some I believe became Colored, Mulattoes black or maybe White based on some of the research and people who had Native DNA or genealogy that tied them back to that area where the Catawba lived. While staying on the Catawba Reservation several years ago a Catawba elder told me something interesting. He said when some of the Catawba traced their ancestry back….. some had black ancestry. He laughed and said that was the end of that research. Lololol. He also mentioned that” when some of the Peedee came to live amongst them already had black in them”. When he greeted me he said you have ties to the Iroquois. I said how? He said you just do. Oddly enough I came up years later with the Cherokee DNA cousin and the connection I Mentioned. Strange huh?

      Reply
  41. ctturnip@gmail.com'

    You work in an area that I find quite fascinating and I greatly admire what you have accomplished. I understand that your work is concentrated in Georgia, but I would like to ask for some clarification on my understanding of what you have presented regarding Alabama tribes. It is my understanding that the Alibamo are closely affiliated with the Coosada. Although I am uncertain when the affiliation began, it appears to me that both were in the area and were Mississippian moundbuilders. How closely are these tribes connected to the Muscogee? When did the Muscogee arrive and were they descended from or actual members of that same Mississippian culture? Anything you choose to share on this would be greatly appreciated. Thank you

    Reply
  42. maryyoung126@yahoo.com'

    My paternal ancestors were from Pulaski , TN. My great grandfather was said to have married a fullblooded Creek woman. My dad was very dark with pitch black hair. Even at his death. My maternal great grandmother was said to have been a fullblooded Cherokee. They lived in Fayette, AL. My grandmother was short, dark , with the same black hair. My question is this. Is there a way to find out if either of these are factual ?

    Reply
  43. chandlergray@yahoo.com'

    Thank you, this was most enjoyable and informative. The family legend states a Great Great Great (or some magnitude of Greatness in that vicinity) Grandmother that was Cherokee. My matrilinear family was from Polk and Haralson Counties in NW GA, so I would guess Creek?
    Once I began to look at the theory of migration patterns of the Cherokee as a Iroquoian tribe that moved South, everyone’s adherence to the Cherokee looked a little less stable. Thoughts on that migration?

    Reply
  44. urisahatu@yahoo.com'

    Hahahaa.. if only; A time machine would be great
    if it’s in the right hands that is.
    You don’t want anyone alter history in their
    favor; not to mention how destructive the out-
    come could be in the future.

    On a serious note:
    I’m going through all these research data;
    looking at multiple scenarios to rule out
    as many errors as possible.

    For now I am trying to determine if the
    Chorokhi (Colchis / Georgia (Caucasus) and
    the Charaki (Characine / Cilicia (Anatolia)
    migrations were happening in different stages of
    their existence or were happning simultaneously
    since both Kingdoms existed in the same time
    period.

    It would be very helpful if someone knows the
    time periode the pre-Columbian Aniyunwiya
    (The Principal People) were present (living) in
    Northern Mexico (if they ever lived there).
    This could help to determine the time periode
    of the theorized first wave migration of Chorokhi.

    Source:

    A Brief History of Catoosa County:
    Up Into the Hills
    By Jeff O’Bryant – 2009

    Page 21:
    Chapter 1: The Principal People

    Quote:
    “They originally migrated from northern Mexico and
    portions of Texas to the Great Lakes region, but
    wars with other Native Americans, both the Iroquois
    and Delaware tribes, forced them into the Southeast.”

    Reply
  45. marshat84@gmail.com'

    I too had been told that we had a Native American ancestor on my mother’s side; never specified as Cherokee though. Recently my brother did a DNA test which came back 99% European and 1% African (specifically Bantu tribe). The European part included 4% Iberian peninsula. What does this mean as far as our “native american” ancestry go since DNA markers will not show SE native american tribes?

    Reply
  46. janeteager@gmail.com'

    I was reading this article and came across the “Adair” name. I have been doing research on my family and am having a difficult time locating a male, James Adair that was married to a Theresa Arnold. I have found a James Adair, dates way back, and am curious if this James Adair could be related some way.
    I am hoping someone reading this link will have some knowledge of the Adair family.

    Reply
    • janeteager@gmail.com'

      I have been baffled hahahaha for a while now Richard. Their daughter, Malinda Ellen Adair, and her mother, Theresa, disappeared and do not show up on a census until Malinda is 13. It shows that she is a step-daughter of an Allewyne … soooo your response to my question makes a lot of sense.

      Thank you
      Janet Thurmond – Eager

      Reply
      • janeteager@gmail.com'

        Also, James Adair’s mother, Nancy, was born in Georgia.

        Reply
  47. urisahatu@yahoo.com'

    Is anyone having trouble posting comments?

    Reply
    • urisahatu@yahoo.com'

      I’ve been trying to post information on the migration
      of the Sephardim/Sephardic Jews; when click enter
      it says: “Not Found”
      “It looks like nothing was found at this location.
      Maybe try a search?”

      Reply

Leave a reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Subscribe to POOF via Email

Enter your email address to subscribe to this website and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 845 other subscribers

The Information World is changing!

People of One Fire needs your help to evolve with it.

We are now celebrating the 11th year of the People of One Fire. In that time, we have seen a radical change in the way people receive information. The magazine industry has almost died. Printed newspapers are on life support. Ezines, such as POOF, replaced printed books as the primary means to present new knowledge. Now the media is shifting to videos, animated films of ancient towns, Youtube and three dimensional holograph images.

During the past six years, a privately owned business has generously subsidized my research as I virtually traveled along the coast lines and rivers of the Southeast. That will end in December 2017. I desperately need to find a means to keep our research self-supporting with advertising from a broader range of viewers. Creation of animated architectural history films for POOF and a People of One Fire Youtube Channel appears to be the way. To do this I will need to acquire state-of-art software and video hardware, which I can not afford with my very limited income. Several of you know personally that I live a very modest lifestyle. If you can help with this endeavor, it will be greatly appreciated.

Support Us!

Richard Thornton . . . the truth is out there somewhere!

Pin It on Pinterest

Share This

Share this post with your friends!