Substantial evidence of an Arawak presence in the Southeastern US
Joey Karei Kumaha’manigua wrote me this letter, which describes the extensive evidence of an Arawak presence in the Southeastern United States. North of the State of Florida, anthropologists seem unaware that the Arawaks and other peoples from South America were in the Southeast. Note that he has provided references for all his statements. Since he went to so much trouble to write the letter, the least that we could do is publish it!
The current situation in Southeastern Anthropology is very frustrating. While living in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, National Park Service archaeologists found an Adena Village and a Hopewell village on my farm. When I brought a sample of the artifacts to the Department of Anthropology at the nearby University of Virginia, the professor literally laughed at me and accused me of getting the artifacts in Ohio. A couple of years later, I began finding artifacts typical of southern Mexico, the Caribbean Basin and northern South America on construction sites in the Shenandoah River Bottom Lands between Strasburg and Winchester. I couldn’t even get a professor at U.VA’s Department of Anthropology to talk to me on the phone. Twenty-five years later, I stumbled upon Sam Kercheval’s History of the Shenandoah Valley. Turns out that large mounds and “Mexican style artifacts,” as Kercheval called them, were endemic in the Shenandoah Valley, when the first settlers began plowing the ground. University anthropology professors should have known this fact, but didn’t.
I am a Taino descendant. I am a member, and Behike/Spiritual Leader of the Yukayeke Guacata of Bimini/Florida. I have followed your information for awhile, and Thank You for the information you have gathered. I would like to share some of the research I have done, and pointed in the right direction by Archeologist Alan Brech. Excited to hear some feedback. Seneko Kakona/Abundant Blessings!!! The Direct connection between Bimini/Florida and the Caribbean, and the evidence of the Indigenous of Bimini and the Indigenous of the Caribbean traded, communicated, and were related.
- The oldest Papaya seeds found in North America, 2000yr old Chili Pepper seeds, and pollen of Maize or corn found in Pine Island, Fl.
- The language of the tribes of Bimini was Arawak.
- Tobacco used in Bimini was a South American variety Nicotinium Rustica.
- Taino/Carib style burial found in Hutchinson Island, Fl.
- A axe head found near Gainesville, Fl made of a stone from South America.
- A gold Jaguar pendant found at Fort Center, Fl(just West of Lake Okeechobee, location of the original Guacata Tribe) along with the same style gardening on top of mounds.
- Dujos, Makanas, Body Stamps, Mask, Gourds, Ear Spools, and Shell Tools found in Key Marco, Fl.
- Zoomorphic style pottery at Crystal River, and Weedon Island archeological sites
- At the Crystal River Archeological Site is home to a limestone slab, possibly a “stele”, on which is a crudely carved human face and torso. This is odd because the slab is one that is not found on other mound sites except in locations such as the Caribbean, South America, and Central America. At this particular site there were at least four of these large stones placed by the inhabitants in their ancient time.
- Aon/Dog, the barkless dog Columbus recorded also found in Florida.
- The distinctive Crested Caracara “combines the raptorial instincts of the eagle with the base carrion-feeding habits of the vulture” (Hudson 1920). Called ignoble, miserable, and aggressive, yet also dashing, stately, and noble, this medium-sized raptor, with its bold black-and-white plumage and bright yellow-orange face and legs, is easily recognizable as it perches conspicuously on a high point in the landscape. In flight it can be distinguished by its regular, powerful wing beats as it cruises low across the ground or just above the treetops. Known locally in some areas as the “Mexican buzzard”, the Crested Caracara is an opportunist and is commonly seen walking about open fields, pastures, and road edges, feeding on a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate prey, as well as on carrion, often in the company of other avian scavengers. The name “caracara” is said to be of Guarani Indian origin, traro-traro, derived from the unusual rattling vocalization that the bird utters when agitated. Found only in the Lake Okeechobee area of Bimini/Florida other than Mesoamerica, Cuba, and slightly into North America.
- Conquistador Hernando D’Escalante Fontaneda shipwrecked in South Bimini from the age of 13 to 30yrs old living with the Calusa as well as learning their language documented Taino’s coming from Cuba to the west coast of Bimini, and was still present in 1566. The Kasike was referred to as Kasike Carlos of the Calusa who governed a chain of islands called the Yucayos. And the Tainos in present day Bahamas were called the Lucayos.
- A 1100 yr old 40ft canoe found on Weedon Island, Fl confirming over seas travel.
“I have presented at length elsewhere (Sears 1977b) the hypothesis that much of the settlement of Florida, at least that in the wet, freshwater zone from the southern end of the state well up into the northern St. Johns area, is a product of people moving from northern South America through the Antilles well in advance of the Arawak migration. There is some evidence in support of this theory: the use of conch-shell tools in the Archaic period in the St. Johns region; the frequent presence of conch-shell celts and adzes in early contexts in inland South Florida; and the fact that Timucua, the dominant linguistic stock of peninsular Florida, is believed to be of South American derivation (Granberry 1971) (it’s closest relative is apparently Warau, spoken in the Orinoco delta).
A constant relationship is suggested between northern South America and South Florida. At some time, James A. Ford suggested (1966), fiber-tempered pottery, and later discovered variants, were introduced by the same route as that advocated for tools and language. Northern South America is also (Denevan 1970), as I have suggested elsewhere, the home for various terraforming techniques that enable savannah agriculture.
By the date 1,000 B.C., suggested as the time of the beginning settlement at Fort Center, we find available, thanks to the South American savannahs and the Antillean route, a well-adapted population, making fiber-tempered pottery in simple bowl forms. These forms remain characteristic of South Florida throughout its history, a strong contrast to the mainland eastern United States. This aboriginal population possessed more than pots: They cultivated maize, which could be stored to stabilize and seasonally equalize their food supply, and they had a technique for growing it in the savannah, making circles that provided drained fields and possibly a source of fertilizing muck.” – Archaeologist William H. Sears
- Archeologist Alan Brech – The Material Culture of Key Marco Florida
- Marion Spjut Gilliland – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystal_River_Archaeological_State_Park
- Fort Center An Archeological Site in the Lake Okeechobee Basin – William H. Sears
- Proceedings of the Fifteenth Symposium of the Natural History of the Bahamas
DOGS OF THE BAHAMAS AND CARIBBEAN: EVIDENCE FROM COLUMBUS’S DIARIO, HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS, AND ARCHAEOLOGY – Gerace Research Centre San Salvador, Bahamas 2016
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