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Swedish Bronze Age Mounds . . . evidence of a Pan-Atlantic Culture

Swedish Bronze Age Mounds . . . evidence of a Pan-Atlantic Culture


Two years after seeing a Kekchi Maya woman in the Guatemalan Highlands, who was identical to my Granny Ruby (Mahala), I stumbled upon yet another mystery of human appearance.  Lena, the best friend of my Swedish girlfriend, Britt Månsson . . . was a spitting image of several of my female cousins. Her facial structure is IDENTICAL to that of my sister.   She said that she was descended from the Gamla Folk (Ancient People) who inhabited southern Sweden before the Germanic Swedes and “Red-Haired” People arrived.  Like everyone in my mother’s extended family (and Creek singer, Carrie Underwood)  Lena had a pronounced chin,  modest nose, flat face and pronounced cheek bones.   These are common features of Creek descendants from eastern and central Georgia, who also have a lot of Uchee heritage.  (Britt was a law school student and President of the College Division of the Center Party.)



Britt and Max had typical “Swedish” features, but Lena was different.  Above Lena’s feet are petroglyphic boulders on the beach.

It should be made very clear.  The Bronze Age people of Sweden, Denmark and western Ireland were Eurasians with tan skin, dark hair, brown eyes and southeast Asian noses.   They would have easily passed for mixed-blood Muskogean and Uchee descendants today.  So we are talking about peoples on both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean, who were not terribly different in appearance . . . not Vikings.  Those in Scandinavia did not speak the Northern Germanic languages, spoken today in Scandinavia.   The Alekmani People of the Georgia Coast and Northeast Georgia did have an Archaic Swedish name (Medicine Men).  Therefore they  couldn’t have possibly arrived in the New World until the very late Bronze Age or Iron Age.

There is very little difference between pottery and mounds produced by the the Deptford Culture cordmarked beakerware of Georgia and cordmarked beakerware of contemporaneous peoples of southern Sweden and southwestern Ireland.   Somehow . . . there was a Pan-Atlantic Culture, both along the coast of North America, the copper-bearing region of the Great Lakes and in the maritime regions of Northwestern Europe that lasted until around 1200 BC,  when a massive hurricane or tsunami inundated most of Denmark and the coastal regions of southern Sweden.   After this holocaust other peoples began settling in southern Scandinavia and its cultural similarities to the peoples of the Lower Southeast diminished.  The cultural ties seemed to have completely ended by the beginning of the Iron Age around 500 BC.  However, apparently for some period after that cultural change, the peoples on both sides of the Atlantic were aware of the existence of  peoples on the other side.  Perhaps some intermittent voyages continued.

Britt liked to go topless, whenever we were in the country.   Max and I followed suit.   Lena couldn’t quite get up the courage that day.

I was seeing many other things around Landskrona, Sweden that “just didn’t make sense.”   There were many, many earthen mounds that were the same age and same construction as those in the Southeastern United States and Ohio Valley.  On both sides of the Atlantic, the mounds began as tombs built out of logs.  Even the core of Mound C at Etowah Mounds was a log sepulcher.  However, it contained the famous Itza Maya style marble statues, plus the dismembered skeletons of three humans.  This is the only possible example of human sacrifice known in Georgia.

Lena and Max fighting over the meaning of a Bronze Age glyph. Not! . . . LOL

At numerous locations along the Öresund Channel, where Landskrona was located, there were symbols carved into boulders that were identical to traditional Creek and Uchee sacred symbols.  Only in recent years, have I discovered that all but a couple of petroglyphic boulders in northern Georgia have identical symbols to either those in southern Sweden or those in southwestern Ireland.

In the Landskrona City Museum was a large section devoted to the region’s Copper Age and Bronze Age Culture.  Landskrona was at the center of the sophisticated Scandinavian Bronze Age civilization.  The copper ingots, hatchets, bracelets and tools in the Landskrona museum were identical to those in the Etowah Mounds Museum, northwest of Atlanta, Georgia. These puzzling memories stayed in the back of my head for decades and are only now being explained.

During the Bronze Age, Ven Island between Sweden and Denmark was a major trading center. It seems to also have been a location for grazing large herds of cattle, goats and sheep.  Note all the dark and light spots that indicate locations of structures going back thousands of years.  Danish astronomer, Tycho Brahe, built his observatory here.  The entire island is a massive archaeological zone containing Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Viking Age, Medieval and Renaissance occupation levels.  Archaeologists go in first before any construction occurs.


This wattle & daub Medieval farmhouse on Ven Island was constructed in an identical manner to houses in Proto-Creek towns.

Location of Bronze Age & Iron Age port on Ven. Many of the massive boulders have glyphs on them.  The wooden jetty dates from the 1800s

The Oresund’s water is crystal clear. This jelly fish was about 15 feet beneath the surface.   My slide was made from the gunwale of a tugboat.


Images of mounds in Southern Sweden

This mound is identical to the Adena Mounds in Ohio. The photos of Britt, Lena and Max were taken immediately to the west of this mound.


Some of the Swedish mounds have terraces and ramps like the larger mounds in the Southeastern United States

Three dimensional site plan of Uppsala Mounds from the Renaissance Period.

The Kiviksgraven Burial Mound was constructed entirely of large, hand-carried field stones.

Where do we go from here?

The Swedish Connection is not a theory.  There is no way that most of the petroglyphs in North Georgia could be identical to those either in southern Sweden or southwestern Ireland without there being “close encounters of a third kind.”  Individual river valleys in Georgia’s Gold Belt either have Swedish or Irish/Scottish petroglyphs.  The problem that we have now is that Southeastern archaeologists face ridicule from their peers, if they attempt to investigate the evidence.  Worse still . . . state and federal federal government agencies operate in Byzantine political environments.   Here is an example of what I have to put up with.

In 1934, Smithsonian archaeologist, James Ford, found numerous bronze and iron weapons and tools along the banks of the Altamaha River, plus many 16th century Spanish and French (yes, French) artifacts.  These were put on display at the museum of the Santo Domingo State Park near Darien, GA.   After World War II, the state park was converted into a state orphanage, because there was a glut of orphans and unwanted illegitimate children in the state.  The Ford artifacts were put in boxes and apparently forgotten.

In 2014,  while I was in Savannah to receive an award from the National Trust for Historic Preservation, I drove down to Darien to visit with the staff of the Fort King George State Historic Site.  They were in somewhat of a turmoil because the male site director had just been fired for no reason other than being a male then replaced by a female site director with no background in Colonial History.  Nevertheless, the staff became extremely interested when I showed them the report from James Ford.   They offered to go through all the records and find out what had happened to the artifacts at the Santo Domingo Museum.

Now . . .  I noticed that a Georgia Bureau of Investigation car had followed me along the whole route.  I was doing nothing illegal (as always) so I figured if the agent wanted to actualize his delusions, let him do it.  I would just do my thing.  You see . . . back in 1998, a retired Marine, who had gotten a job as an investigator solely because he was a veteran, decided that because I worked for three months in Sweden and then traveled for three months in Europe, I was a draft evader and Marxist.  Actually, at that time, no one was being drafted and I was an inactive Naval Reserve Officer anyway.  Until I was in my mid-40s, I could tell no one that I also was watching ships of the Soviet Baltic Fleet pass Ven and Soviet subs come out of the water near Ven,  while frolicking with Britt the Svenska Flicka.  Because of the shallow water in that part of the Oresund, all submarines heading out to the Atlantic had to surface.  However, in modern day American politics, facts rarely get in the way of delusional hatred. 

So began 20 years of non-stop attacks on my personal and professional life by right-wing Georgia cops.  They would call up women I had dates with to tell them that I was a serial killer, bisexual, a pedophile, a predator of college coeds or all of the above.  If that didn’t work, the cops would threaten to plant drugs in the cars of their teenage children. For the record, Britt was a 23 year old college coed, but she came up to me to introduce herself in the city hall plaza (Rådhusplats) and I was also 23.  Guess you could say that I was a helpless victim of a predatory Swedish college coed.  LOL  Oh, the horror of it all!

The jerks would also call up architecture clients and threaten tax audits, if they hired me for any more projects.  When I ignored 18 year-old wannbe models, with heavy makeup and bleached blond hair (just graduated from Yeehaw High School) who were posing as underage teens, the cops assumed that I was gay.  That started eight years of trying to find some evidence with your tax money that I was a homosexual, which now not illegal anyway.   Democratic, Native American, African American and Latin American law officers never bothered me in anyway and several times apologized to me for what the white neo-Nazi officerswere doing.

Suddenly, the director got a phone call.  When she returned from the phone conversation, she called all the staff into her office.  After that point, no one on the staff would talk to me.  Anything I could say beyond that point, would be speculative.    And the beat goes on . . .










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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.



    Richard T., This particular post is very good and informative. There are many migrations between Scandinavia, Ireland, British isles and mainland Europe prior, during and after the Bronze Age.
    From this current post
    “The Swedish Connection is not a theory. There is no way that most of the petroglyphs in North Georgia could be identical to those either in southern Sweden or southwestern Ireland without there being “close encounters of a third kind.” Individual river valleys in Georgia’s Gold Belt either have Swedish or Irish/Scottish petroglyphs.”

    It should be clear by now that it’s an east to west ;from Scandinavia, Ireland, Scotland into the Americas (Southeastern North America in particular); migration and not the other way around especially when the individual river valleys in Georgia’s Gold Belt either have Swedish or Irish/Scottish petroglyphs.

    Beautiful pictures/photos by the way.

    • Actually, Dr. Gordon Freeman of the University of Alberta has proven that the oldest Stonehenges and stone circles are in Canada. They predate the ones in NW Europe by at least 500 years. Mounds were being built in Peru, Georgia and Louisiana about 1000 years before they appeared in Europe.


        Richard T., If the stonehenges, circles and mounds are 500 – 1000 years older in the Americas before they appeared in Europe the text should be adjusted to Bronze Age Swedish, Irish and Scottish people were influenced by native Americans.
        One of the questions should be, were the builders of those stonehenges, circles and mounds different people DNA-wise or do they share the same DNA or closely related to the DNA of Bronze Age Swedish, Irish and Scottish people?
        If the DNA of those builders are the same or related to the Bronze-Age Swedish, Irish an Scottish people it would mean that there still is an east to west migration into the Americas unless of course they were living in the Amricas first in that case it would be a west to east migration.

        DNA testing on “native American” skeletal remains/bones is somewhat problematic since most if not all native American tribes don’t allow it, an example would be the case of the Kennewick Man.

        From wikipedia Kennewick Man
        “Kennewick Man became the subject of a controversial nine-year court case between the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), scientists, and Native American tribes who claimed ownership of the remains. Under NAGPRA, the tribes would maintain the right to rebury the remains of Kennewick Man and to refuse to allow scientific study of the man they referred to as “The Ancient One”.”

        If todays (south-)eastern north American native tribes refuse and prevent skeletal remains/bones to be tested for DNA from the time period 500-1000 years before so-called Bronze Age Swedish, Irish, Scottish contact it will probably never be known who the actual stonehenge, circles, mounds builders in the Americas were.

        • The Cherokees are the only ones in the Southeast blocking skeletal genetic analysis. That’s because they know that the studies would prove that the Cherokees were no where around during the Pre-Columbian Era. Unfortunately, the Cherokees influence on federal government agencies and university anthropology programs is pervasive.


            The Cherokee are making southeastern tribes/natives look like liars which is very unfortunate. Southeastern tribes should be allowed to live on their ancestral lands.

            Richard T., Do you happen to know when/what time period the earliest Sami(-like) DNA or (pre-)Bronze Age Swedish, Irish, Scottish (Scandi-European?) DNA was present in the Americas?
            Present day southeastern tribes with Sami / Bronze Age Scandi-European related DNA would be of great help to see how many mutation they have in their DNA.
            That way it could be possible to see (calculate and predict?) if the Sami / Bronze Age Scandi-Europeans were present in a certain time period during or after the construction of Americas stonehenge, circles and mounds.

          • No one has addressed that question. Because textbooks state that the first permanent European population arrived after Columbus, it is a forbidden research topic. Keep in mind that the North Pole may have been in a very different location. It is common knowledge today that magnetic north is constantly shifting. It could be that the Sami type people were in Canada first then migrated to Scandinavia. The oldest stonehenges are in Canada.


    I think at least one of your pictures are mislabeled as to the identity of Lena and Britt, unless they changed clothes sometime during that day. Nice pics though. I am sure that was a lot of fun.

    • Two different outings. Ven Island was our favorite place to ride bikes and picnic, because there was very little auto traffic.


    Speaking of Nazis…

    Hitler pretty much killed any chance that those Charlie Chaplin mustaches would ever become a mainstream phenomenon ever again. It’s a damn shame that he didn’t go the extra mile and make the Gestapo wear bell bottoms. It would have saved hundreds of millions of 1970 photographs from being sent to the dump. Poor Max lol!

    • And to think that the rock stars made us think that bell bottoms were cool. I was wearing shorts. Thought it was interesting that in that era, both shorts and ice tea were a rarity in Scandinavia.


    As for the trans-Atlantic connection circa 5000-4000 BC…

    Once the ice sheets had melted from what is now Hudson’s Bay, and before isostatic rebound had lifted the land mass that was depressed by the glacial ice appreciably, the Tyrrell Sea gave the best and easiest access to the rich Lake Superior copper deposits. It was just a short trip to tidewater at this time, which incidentally was the same time that copper was becoming very fashionable in Europe prior to the Bronze Age proper. Also at the same time, the Shield Archaic peoples moved into this copper-rich area between the Tyrrell Sea and Lake Superior for some unknown reason lol!

    As the Tyrrell Sea shrank, vast mudflats formed and the distance and difficulty in getting to the sea significantly increased. Climate also cooled. Then we find the Maritime Archaic people moving from their home along the coast of Labrador up into the St Lawrence valley. By 3400 BC the earliest copper mines on Isle Royale had shut down and copper production had shifted south of Lake Superior into Wisconsin. By 3000 BC we see large quantities of copper heading down the Ottawa River, Trent-Severn rivers, and down the Mohawk-Hudson valleys. Sounds like a new trade route was being established.

    Ritchie says it all from his digs at Oberlander 1 and Robinson at Brewerton on Lake Oneida…

    “Exotic artifacts from the west in the form of cold-hammered copper tools– rather abundant at Brewerton– connect the central New York region with the western Great Lakes (possibly through a route along the Ottawa River north of Lake Ontario). The long distance movement of materials such as copper from the western Great Lakes, as well as the broad geographic distribution of the Laurentian group of artifacts (and their Maine and Maritimes counterparts) may indicate geographically overlapping alliances and gift-giving relationships (essential to diplomacy) among leaders and communities over very extensive areas.”

    The Laurentian Archaic and Lamoka peoples (‘long-heads’ and ’round-heads’ respectively according to Ritchie) were living separately across the river from each other in villages for the next 500 to 1000 years, sharing the same rich fishing resources. Now 500-1000 years of sharing the same resource would have to be an alliance of sorts in order to survive that long without war. But for what purpose? My guess is that the fish and game harvested there were supporting the network required to mine and transport OCC copper from Wisconsin to the coast. Eventually that trade also made it’s way from Wisconsin down the Mississippi, Ohio, and Tennessee rivers, across the Appalachians and down to the Atlantic coast. One must remember that hunter-gatherer economies could not support large populations. After the Bronze Age collapse in the Old World, OCC copper production basically stops with the exception of decorative objects.

    If you are a professional anthropologist however, this is all just rampant speculation based on a couple hundred random coincidences lol!


    Richard, You keep finding connections across the Atlantic with the Bronze age peoples and some iron age peoples as well. How far back in time that happened goes back to the Clovis (13,000 years ago) as the flints tools are a match in France and the America’s. They were Native Americans that migrated to Europe based on DNA information. The Copper/ Bronze age might have begun here and spread to the middle East and the Black Sea area. I’m aware that the peoples of the Yucatan designed their cities to correspond to star constellations most likely the peoples of Egypt did the same with their Pyramids. is there a star constellation match of the alignment of the Native temples of Georgia? Thanks for your Great articles.


    Richard T., You mentioning of shifting magnetic north and a possibility of Sami type people in Canada is an interesting thought. If so, it would mean that the Sami type people migrated from the Americas into Scandinavia/Europe and migrated back into the Americas after Indo-Europeans (Germanic people?) pushed them out.

    Haplogroup X mtDNA

    What do you think about the Haplogroup X mtDNA found in Europe, America and Western Asia? Haplogroup X mtDNA is thought to came into existence around 30,000 YBP (Years Before Present).
    Than there’s the Solutrean case with a European based people migration into the Americas about 20,000 BP (Before Present) which would be approximately be 7.000 years earlier than the Clovis civilization.

    30,000 years ago – Haplogroup X mtDNA came into existence (concentrated in and around western Asia)
    20,000 years ago – Solutreans migrated into the Americas
    13,000 years ago – Clovis came into existence 13,000 years ago

    Note: Anzick remains dated between 12,707 – 12,556 BP yet mtDNA is related to haplogroup D mtDNA – D4h3a.

    Quote (from wikipedia Anzick-1):
    “Anzick-1 is the only human who has been discovered from the Clovis Complex, and is the first ancient Native American genome to be fully sequenced.”

    When taking the migration of Haplogroup X mtDNA and a Solutrean migration into acount, Anzick and or Clovis type people could have been influenced by the Solutrean type people.
    Since Canada’s (North American) stonehenge ;also known as a medicine wheel; is dated 5,200 years (BP) ;approximately 10.000 years after Solutreans entered northern America; it could have been build by either a Solutrean type people or an Anzick/Clovis people who were influenced by the Solutreans.

    Quotes (from wikipedia Clovis culture):
    “According to researchers Michael Waters and Thomas Stafford of Texas A&M University, new radiocarbon dates place Clovis remains from the continental United States in a shorter time window beginning 450 years later than the previously accepted threshold (13,200 to 12,900 BP).”

    “The results of a multiple-author study by Danish, Canadian, and American scientists published in Nature in February 2016 revealed that “the first Americans, whether Clovis or earlier groups in unglaciated North America before 12.6 cal. kyr BP”, are “unlikely” to “have travelled to North America from Siberia via the Bering land bridge “via a corridor that opened up between the melting ice sheets in what is now Alberta and B.C. about 13,000 years ago” as many anthropologists have argued for decades.”

    “The scientists argued that by 10,000 years ago, the ice-free corridor in what is now Alberta and B.C “was gradually taken over by a boreal forest dominated by spruce and pine trees” and that “Clovis people likely came from the south, not the north, perhaps following wild animals such as bison.”

    From the quotes and timeline above one can see that the Solutreans (X mtDNA) were already in the north after an east to west migration into the Americas by the time the Clovis (D/D4h3a mtDNA) arived from the south.

    Of course, Further DNA research and archaelogical research are needed to come to a final conclusion.

    Source/Links: – (Haplogroup X mtDNA) – (Distribution Map Haplogroup X mtDNA) – (Anzick-1 , Clovis) – (Canada’s Stonehenge) – (Clovis Culture)

    • Now you are thinking out of the box. The oldest and largest number of Clovis Points are in the Southeast! The profession of anthropology needs you! That’s right. The earth is constantly changing its polarity and magnetic field. Geologists know this. Paleontologists apparently do not.



    While identical tools keep showing up at the same time in history on both sides of the Atlantic, unfortunately anthropologists still remain certain that the Atlantic had never been crossed before Columbus. The Pacific, yes of course, but never the Atlantic.

    “Polynesian voyages to and from South America, though thousands of kilometers, “just seem to be plausible,” he says, and archaeological evidence shows that the sweet potato, domesticated 8000 years ago in Peru, had spread to Polynesian islands as early as 1000 C.E.”

    Then that Vikings at L’anse aux Meadows ‘thang’ happened in the 1960’s and they had to rewrite the books lol!

    Now we once again know with certainty, that OTHER than for the Vikings, the Atlantic was a completely uncrossable ocean. The design on this particular eel fishing tool below however is so strikingly unique that it could only have been invented once. Unless of course you are an anthropologist lol!

    3000 BC European eel fishing spear. It’s called a leister. These haven’t changed much since Maglemose times (6000-9000 BC) …

    Lo and behold… here’s an historic period M’kmaq eel fishing spear on the North American Atlantic coast (scroll down and laugh!) …

    The best leisters however were produced by the Old Copper Culture savages. Made from copper they would bend but would not break. The problem is that anthropologists don’t know what copper leister parts should look like.

    Hint: Those aren’t a knives at the bottom among that collection of fishing gear along with the central leister spike lol!

    • It is obvious that people were cross the Atlantic both ways over 2,000 years before the Vikings. All but two of the symbols on the Track Rock petroglyphs can be found on the Nykoping Petroglyphs in Sweden, which date from 2000 BC. Those other two are Itza Maya glyphs. However, several Maya glyphs can also be found on the Nykoping Petroglyphs.


        The early “Sea Peoples” (R1b) literally took over Ireland around 2500 BC. They brought Beaker culture and controlled the Old World Bronze Age copper trade. They came from Iberia out of the Mediterranean and literally exterminated the preexisting male DNA gene pool shortly after their arrival around 2500 BC which interestingly enough, if you are not an anthropologist, also neatly coincides with the discovery of copper at Ross Island.,_Killarney

        We also know that OCC copper had already found it’s way down to the NA Atlantic coast Maritime Archaic peoples between 3000 and 4000 BC. If connections to northern Europe existed during that time (they did) as the common tools, funerary traditions (red ochre, flexed and bundle burials/reburials with partial cremations etc) and linguistic similarities found on both sides of the Atlantic suggest, then there is little doubt that they could have easily followed the source of the copper back to North America in their sailing craft had they chosen. A late Bronze Age Sea Peoples (Minoan below) trading vessel was 35 meters (115 feet) long, had a crew of 120, a cargo capacity of 50 tons and a loaded speed of around 5-6 knots. It looked precisely like the vessels carved into the coastal petroglyphs that Richard has often shown us.*.html

        The geostrategic location of Ireland becomes evident in the fact that the Gulf Stream heads directly towards Ireland as it leaves the coast of North America. Strong and reliable eastward blowing winds with a Gulf Stream / North Atlantic Gyre assist would be capable of speeding the vessel 3300 miles back to Ireland in around *** 3 WEEKS *** even without the use of oars. Since the Gulf Stream is warm water and the prevailing westerlies are warm air, the journey could take place even in the dead of winter with little discomfort for the crew provided no severe storms occurred during the crossing.

        The fastest trip from Ireland to North America would require the vessel to sail north from the western Irish coast to Iceland / Greenland then down the Labrador coast to the eastern coast of North America. Both the winds and the currents encountered would reduce the need for oar power to make this voyage.

        Did they actually make this voyage for over 1000 years?

        Were Ritchies’ Laurentian Archaic / Lamoka sites at Brewerton NY and Frontenac Island NY (which coexisted for 1000 years during this same period) along with the 1000 year occupation of OCC sites in Wisconsin… ALL ending at precisely the same time as the Bronze Age collapse in the Old World just another amazing string of coincidences?

        ‘Pre-contact’ Algonquian R1b y-DNA will certainly give us the answers if only the anthropologists would pull their collective heads out of their collective asses and look for it.



        There is an interesting story or two in my neck of the woods. This is one of them…

        “An article from 2001 in Ontario Archeology (number 72, 2001) by David A. Robertson suggests that studies have “failed to reach a consensus as to their function.” It was observed that the mounds comprised of “burnt rocks” which indicated they were under the influence of fire and heat.

        Robertson then details similarities of the PEC mounds to burned rock middens in Texas and in Ireland where they are known as fulachata fiadh (“outdoor” or “wild cooking places”). Similar features can be found in ancient mounds in the Orkneys, and regions of Atlantic Europe. These mounds would almost always be found near marshy areas where a hole dug into the ground would quickly fill with water. These stone enclosures were filled with water and heated stones thrown in to create a pool of boiling water in which meat was cooked, or used for bathing, washing and dyeing of cloth, and leather working.”


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