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The Georgia-Texas Connection, Texas Creeks and Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar

The Georgia-Texas Connection, Texas Creeks and Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar

The labeling of Ocmulgee National Monument as being a manifestation of the “Mississippian Culture” and the specific indigenous traditions that spawned the Creek Confederacy being called the “Lamar Culture” are a direct result of seldom recognized demographic connections between West Georgia and East Texas that began in 1763. They also explain the brutal massacre and expulsion of the Texas Cherokees. 

As discussed in the POOF series on William McIntosh,  former National Park Service Director,  Roger Kennedy discovered a profound cultural connection between Antebellum Georgia and the Republic of Texas.  Apparently,  academicians had missed it because of the obsession in 20th century America over “Davie Crockett and the Alamo.”    Kennedy was convinced that much that was still not understood about the development of the “Old South” Culture would be found in Texas.

Kennedy brought me into the research process because I was a Registered Architect with much experience in the restoration of very old buildings in the Southeast, but would also be able to recognize Georgia Native American influences in Texas.  Well,  also I was homeless and getting hungry by late winter.   As we dived into the history of Texas from our unique perspectives, we would experience many surprises.

(Photo Above)  Most of the 500+ men killed in the infamous Goliad Massacre were members of the Georgia Battalion.  The Lone Star Flag that they carried to Texas was designed and sewn in Georgia by 17 year old Joanna Troutman.

Early Creek settlement of Louisiana and Texas

Very few of the Creeks and none of the Cherokees and Shawnees living in Alabama in 1812 were indigenous to Alabama.  When France was defeated in the French and Indian War,  she turned over her lands east of the Mississippi to Great Britain and those west of the Mississippi to Spain.   Over 5,000 Creeks, Alabamas and Koasatis left Alabama and the Florida Panhandle, when the French did.  They settled in western Louisiana, Tejas and Coahuila.  They were baptized by Catholic priests with Spanish names.  Only the Alabama and Koasati maintained their distinct Native American identity.  South Carolina, Georgia and Tennessee Creeks moved their towns into the vast area vacated by France’s indigenous allies.

So by the time that Anglo-American settlers arrived in western Louisiana and Texas 60 year later,  they assumed that the very tall, bronzed skinned Mexicans were just . . . very tall Tejanos.   Roger and I were never able to prove it, but we suspected that the Georgia Creeks, who settled in East Texas in the 1820s and 1830s, knew that there are already large numbers of Creeks living there.

While the surviving archives of the presidential administrations of Sam Houston and Mirabeau Lamar frequently mention problems with the Comanches and Lamar was constantly vexed with the “Cherokee Problem,” there is virtually no mention of the Creeks.  Apparently,  Creeks in Texas were so assimilated into the emerging hybrid  Anglo-Tejano Culture that they were hardly noticed.

The research that Roger Kennedy and I did determined that the mass migration of affluent mixed-blood Creeks from West Georgia was precipitated by the executions of William McIntosh and one of the sons of US Government Agent to the Southeastern Indians, Benjamin Hawkins.  The migration was led by surviving offspring of Hawkins and their husbands.  Some of these Creeks later relocated to Mississippi and established plantations there.

William McIntosh was brutally executed on the morning of April 30, 1825. Samuel and Benjamin Hawkins, Jr.(sons of Agent Benjamin Hawkins and brothers-in-law to Chilly McIntosh) who had also signed the treaty, were captured later that day. Samuel was hanged, but Benjamin escaped after being shot.

The power structure in the Creek Confederacy was suddenly in disarray.   Georgia Creeks, who had served under McIntosh in the Red Stick War realized that the State of Georgia was not going to protect them and feared that former Red Stick warriors would murder them next.  Moving to Alabama was therefore not an option after all Creek lands in Georgia had been ceded.   Immediate relocation across the Mississippi River to Louisiana and Texas seemed to be the safest refuge from danger.   These families were affluent and living lifestyles similar to white planters.  They carried their hybrid Creek-Southern culture with them to Texas.

angelina-jolie-TrueWomen1Georgia Hawkins Woods became the matron of a prominent family in East Texas.  A direct descendant,  Janice Woods Windle, published the book, True Women, about the life of this half-blood daughter of Benjamin Hawkins and a high-born Creek lady.  She was born on a plantation in Crawford County, GA, but spent most of her adult life in Texas during the period when many dramatic events unfolded.   The book was made into a movie in 1997, staring Angelina Jolie as Georgia.

Cherokee settlements in Texas

In 1806 a band of Cherokees from  Arkansas founded a village along the Red River in Louisiana and Texas. That same year, an inter-tribal delegation, including Creeks, Alabamas, Koasatis, Shawnees and Cherokees petitioned Spanish officials at Nacogdoches for permission to settle there, which was granted.  Cherokee immigration into Texas increased between 1812 and 1819.

Chief Bowl (Di’wali) a former Chickamauga leader and friend of Sam Houston, led many Cherokee families into Texas in 1820. They settled near present-day Dallas, but were forced by local tribes to move east into what is now Rusk County, Texas. By 1822, an estimated 800 Cherokee lived in Texas. Also, by this time,  Richard Field had been elected Principal Chief and War Chief of the Cherokees, while Bowl was named Second Chief and Peace Chief.

In 1822, a convention was made between the Cherokees and the Empire of Mexico, by which the Indians were permitted to occupy and cultivate certain lands in eastern Texas, in consideration of fealty and service in case of war. Neither the empire, however, nor its successor, the Republic of Mexico, would consent to part with their sovereignty in the soil, and persistently refused any other rights than those of domicile and tillage.

During the short-lived Fredonia Rebellion in 1825,  Anglo-American settlers around Nacodoches attempted to revolt against the Mexican Empire, because the democratic ideals of the Mexican War for Independence had been betrayed by self-proclaimed Emperor Augustin Iturbide.   Chief Bowl urged the Cherokees to remain loyal to Mexico, while Richard Fields opened up negotiations with the rebels.  Fields was subsequently executed by the Mexicans.

Apparently,  no Creeks were involved with the Fredonia Rebellion.  However, long time Spanish-speaking Creeks and the new Creek settlers from West Georgia played critical roles in the Texas War for Independence.  Some died at the Alamo and in the Goliad Massacre.  In fact,  Roger Kennedy discovered that several of the most prominent “first families” in Texas today are descended from Georgia Creeks.  Former members of the Creek Mounted Rifles in Georgia formed similar units in Texas to fight the Comanches.  These Creek Mounted Rifle units evolved into the Texas Rangers and are accurately portrayed in the movie, True Women.

On the other hand,  some bands of Texas Cherokees openly fought for the Mexicans during the Texas War of Independence, while their chiefs attempted to maintain neutrality.  The pro-Mexican Cherokee renegades thought it was the Chickamauga War all over again and scalped non-combatants, women and children.   Texans from Tennessee blamed all the Cherokees for these atrocities.

In 1836, the Republic of Texas, following Sam Houston’s  recommendations, established a reservation for the Cherokees, but the negotiated Treaty of 1836 was never ratified.  At the time, Houston did not think that this was a serious problem, but he failed to recognize the continuing bitterness toward the Cherokees among Tennessee families, who lost loved ones in the Chickamauga War during the late 1780s and 1790s or more recently from renegade Cherokee attacks.

Georgia’s key role in Texas Independence

Georgia was the only state government that openly furnished munitions to Texas to assist in its fight for independence.  Several of the most prominent leaders of the war came from Georgia.  The Lone Star Flag of Texas was originally the flag carried by a battalion of volunteers from Georgia.  It was sewn by 17 year old Joanna Troutman.  When news arrived of the opening Battle of Gozales, the October 1835 Macon Messenger stated, “The cries of our fellow countrymen of Texas have reached us, calling for help against the Tyrant and Oppressor.

James Fannin (1804-1836)

JamesWFanninJames Fannin was a merchant from Columbus, GA, who had immigrated to Tejas and immediately become prosperous. He had attended West Point, but received no combat experience. Fannin moved his family from Georgia to Velasco, Coahula Y Tejas in 1834, just as the resistance to dictator Santa Ana was quickly evolving from political protest to military action.

Prior to permanently relocating, Fannin had been an empresario, who had recruited hundreds of Georgia families to relocate to Texas. He participated in the initial Battle of Gonzales and several other battles in the fall of 1835. In December of 1835, he was made a colonel in the army. His primary talents, though, was essentially that of a quartermaster, not a field commander.

When the commanding general of the provisional Texas Army resigned, Fannin, Sam Houston, Frank W. Johnston and James Neill feuded over who was in command. For weeks, each ignored the orders of the others.  Of the four, only Houston and Neill had any military experience, whatsoever; and that consisted of participation as temporary volunteers in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, near Talladega, AL.

Once Houston was named by the Provisional Government as Commander-in-Chief, Fannin was appointed commander at its largest garrison in Goliad. Fannin was definitely no military genius, but he faced extremely serious obstacles to molding a fighting force out of the volunteers at Goliad.  Only about 25 of the approximately 400 men in the garrison were citizens of Texas. The rest were members of the Georgia regiment carrying the Lone Star Flag.

When ordered to lead his 600 man army to relieve the Alamo, Fannin’s volunteers went one mile out of Goliad, and began to balk. Fannin was forced to turn around and go back to Goliad.  Fannin was soon ordered to abandon Goliad because a much larger Mexican force was headed toward him.  When General Urrea’s army blocked his path, he submitted articles of surrender, rather than putting up a fight or trying to escape.  It was very stupid thing to do.

Fannin and his entire command were soon executed after surrendering.   It should have never happened.  Fannin’s little army was heavily armed and well provisioned.  The Anglo-Americans had proved themselves superior in hand-to-hand fighting, while being rather inept in conventional warfare.  If they stood and fought, they may have been victorious or at least some of Fannin’s men would have probably made it to safety, while causing severe casualties among Urrea’s troops.

Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar (1798-1859)

MBLamarWas it any accident that a member of one of Macon’s most prominent families, Mirabeau B. Lamar, became an important leader of the Texas War for Independence, yet had only recently arrived in Texas? Lamar was from a wealthy French Huguenot family, which helped settle Georgia, and thoroughly detested anything Spanish, because of the massacre at Fort Caroline in 1565.  French Huguenots in Georgia and South Carolina always assumed that their doomed colony was on the Georgia Coast.

The Georgian newspaper of Milledgeville announced, “”Let all who are disposed to respond to the cry, in any form, assemble at the courthouse, on Tuesday evening next, at early candle light.”  The newspaper, which Lamar founded, the Columbus (GA) Enquirer urged the state to send troops to Texas; that Georgia did . . . an entire battalion, in fact. They were armed with new rifles issued directly from the state armory.  Georgia continued to equip and send relatively large contingents of soldiers, even after the Battle of San Jacinto.  Many of those Georgia boys stayed in Texas because of free or cheap land.  Many of their relatives and friends joined them.

After being a hero at the Battle of San Jacinto, Mirabeau Lamar was appointed Secretary of War.  He was elected Vice President under Sam Houston then elected the second President of Texas.  He appointed the commission which selected the site of the national capital, Austin, and then took an active role in its planning.   He went on to found the Texas State Library and the Texas public education system.  Lamar entered the U.S, Army at the advent of the Mexican-American War, where he served with distinction.

Lamar exhausted the Texas treasury to finance repeated, unsuccessful attacks on the Comanche’s.  He rejected the use of the style of guerilla warfare favored by the Mounted Rifles and instead repeatedly tried more conventional military tactics that had been used successfully against the Mexicans.

Lamar grew to hate Native Americans because of the incessant raids by the Comanches and intermittent attacks on farmsteads in East Texas by Cherokee renegades.  On more than one occasion he was publicly quoted as calling for the extinction of all Indians.

Ironically,  the Lamar family owned a vast tract of land near Macon, which is the site of Ocmulgee National Monument and the Creek capital of Ichese.  This is where the Creek Confederacy was founded, but is known to archaeologists as “the Lamar Village” site.    Today, archaeologists call the Creeks in the Southeast,  the Lamar Culture.   That also can be explained by the Georgia-Texas Connection.  See below in the article about Arthur Randolph Kelly.

The Massacre and Expulsion of the Cherokees

The massacre of Chief Bowl’s Cherokee Band and the subsequent expulsion of all Cherokees from Texas was concealed from Texas history books for many generations.  During the late 20th century, it was again publicized by Cherokee descendants in Oklahoma.  However, what occurred then was a one-sided presentation of the Cherokees being peaceful farmers, who were brutally murdered or driven out of their homeland by land hungry Texans.

Roger Kennedy found that the Cherokee Massacre and Expulsion was far more complex than most references were stating.  While publicly professing neutrality,  the Cherokees had assumed that the Mexican government would defeat the Texas rebels.  Many covertly provided intelligence to Mexican armies and some Cherokee bands were actively involved in attacking Anglo-American settlements, using the same brutal tactics as the Comanches.   Furthermore, these Cherokees continued to fight for the Mexicans for three years after the Battle of San Jacento.   They were supplied munitions and supplies by the Mexican army.

This is why Mirabeau Lamar equated the Cherokee renegades with the Comanches.  There were no differences in their tactics and the Cherokees were being supplied by the Mexicans.  However,  if the Cherokee Reservation had been formally ratified, most of the Cherokees would probably have ceased their attacks and the remainder would have fled to Mexico.

Roger Kennedy discovered that the proposed Cherokee Reservation was located on some of the best cotton-growing land in Texas.   Whites from Alabama, Tennessee and Georgia used exactly the same tactics to constantly irritate the Cherokees that they had used on the Alabama Creeks to provoke the Red Stick War.  The goal was the same . . . provoke the Indians into a war they couldn’t win, then steal all their land.

In 1839, in his first formal address as president, Mirabeau Lamar urged that the Cherokee and Comanche tribes be driven from their lands in Texas, believing that the “total extinction” of the Indian tribes was necessary to make the lands available to whites. Lamar instructed the Texas military to construct a military post on the Great Saline (in the southwest corner of present-day Smith County), with Di’wali warning that such a move would provoke a violent response.

Lamar sent word to Di’wali that the Cherokee were to depart East Texas or suffer removal by force, but Di’wali was determined that Texas should honor its 1836 treaty.  He stated that if he didn’t fight, his people would kill him.  He didn’t understand that the Texas government had never ratified this treaty.

The Cherokees were thoroughly defeated in a battle on July 16, 1839.  Di’wali, a close friend of the first Texas president, Sam Houston, was killed after being found wounded and laying on the ground.  In fact, the Texans killed most of the wounded and captured men.  Subsequently,  all remaining Cherokee men, women and children that could be captured, were marched out of Texas.   Some of the hostile Cherokee band were able to escape to either Mexico or what is now Oklahoma.

Arthur Randolph Kelly (1900-1979)

Arthur Kelly grew up in the town of Hubbard in Eastern Texas.   Hubbard was in the exact same area that the Alabama Creeks settled in the 1760s and the West Georgia Creeks settled in the 1820s.  His physical feature showed many Native American traits, but when I asked him if he was part Indian,  he shrugged and said that there was some Indian or Mexican somewhere back in the past.

Kelly went out from Hubbard to gain a PhD in Anthropology from Harvard University.  After teaching three years at the University of Illinois, he was hired to direct the excavation of Ocmulgee National Monument.  He would spend the rest of his life in Georgia.

Being new to the profession,  Kelly let his regional biases influence his interpretation of Ocmulgee.  The oldest structures were massive round houses with center poles.  Their footprints were larger, but otherwise similar to the Caddo houses in East Texas and Louisiana.  Therefore, Kelly decided that Caddo Indians from the Mississippi River Valley had settled Ocmulgee.   Hence was born the label, “Mississippian Culture.”

The Lamar family was not the owners of Ocmulgee National Monument when the lands were purchased to create the park.  In the 1800s they had owned part of the bottomlands.  Nevertheless,  Arthur Kelly chose to name the Late Mississippian town about two miles downstream from the Acropolis, the Lamar Village, rather than some Creek name.  Undoubtedly,  this was because of the importance that one member of the Lamar Family had in the history of Texas.   Within a few years all of the Late Mississippian and Proto-Historic Period in Georgia was named the Lamar Culture.

Model of the important Creek town of Ichese, now in the Creek Mound Building in Ocmulgee, OK. Arthur Kelly named this town the Lamar Village after the family of Mirabeau Lamar.

Model of the important Creek town of Ichese, now in the Creek Mound Building in Ocmulgee, OK. Arthur Kelly named this town the Lamar Village after the family of Mirabeau Lamar.

When it came time to build the Ocmulgee Museum in 1951,  Kelly had been replaced by archaeologists from the Midwest.   They decided that Ocmulgee was settled by Indians from the Midwest, most likely Cahokia.   They therefore concealed the presence of large round houses and only showed the public later types of houses at Ocmulgee, whose footprints were more like those at Cahokia.  However, in actual form these rectangular houses were like those in southern Mexico, not Cahokia.  The public never knew this.

Kelly’s favorite assistant was James Ford  from Mississippi.  At age 21, he was hired as a professional archaeologist, when only had about three years of liberal arts education.   Kelly assigned him the full responsibility for the excavation and reconstruction of the so-called Ocmulgee Earthlodge.  Unfortunately,   Ford had no knowledge of architecture, structural engineering, Creek cultural history or even the eyewitness drawings that William Bartram drew of cone-shaped Creek chokopas or rotundas.   Ford decided that the building he had unearthed was built by Mandan Indians, who were the founders of Ocmulgee.  Therefore, he directed the reconstruction of a Mandan earthlodge.

So to this day,  Georgia archaeologists describe any round building they find at a Creek town site, as an earthlodge.  They have repeatedly been told by the Oklahoma Creeks and myself that they have it wrong.   The last time I told an archaeologist this, he pouted, crossed his arms and said, “You are nothing but an architect. The Ocmulgee Earthlodge was thoroughly studied by professional archaeologists with many years of experience in determining such things.  My professors told me that it is an earthlodge and therefore that is what I will call it!”

And now you know!




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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.



    What travesties those archaeologists perpetrate.


    Your information on the peoples of Texas are not totally based upon facts. Your dates are off, your hypothesis, while at times correct, others are way off. This is especially true of the Cherokees. The Cherokees did not go to the No Mans Land that early. In fact it wasn’t until long after John Jolly and Tahlenteeskee arrived in Arkansas that he first settled south of the Arkansas reservation lines. Only then did h move south, eventually settling on the Trinity River (now Dallas, Texas) in 1817. By 1819 they had relocated to an area south of present day Tyler, where the group made up several small villages, but three substantial villages, eventually led by Duwa’li, Gatun Wa’li and Fox Fields. Cherokees did not fight for the Mexicans during the revolution as a group. Oh may be a few hot heads but not an organized group and nothing tied to the Chickamauga. The joining of Cherokee and Mexican firces happened after Devereaux Bell trued to buy land in Rusk County in 1840. This le to a confrontation in which 3 whites were killed. The so-called offending Indians headed for Mexico, where they then joined Vincente Cordova and fought the Texaians until our defeat at Salado Creek in 1842. The following year with Sam Houston back as President, we sought peace through the Treaty of Birds Fort. There was no Creek involvement due to the Alabama-Coushatta & Pakana maintaining a close tie to the Republic. Also their lands were not as developed as the Cherokees (3,000 acres vs 1.66 million) so they were not viewed by vultures as desirous to be taken. There were NO other Creek groups in Texas, although some Coushatta (Koasati) did go back forth from Louisiana to Texas. This does not mean that a few individuals or family groups didn’t migrate, but that would be a very dangerous endeavor. Finally, there were members of the Drew and McIntosh families that did settle near Beaumont, but this was much later after annexation.

    Creeks and Cherokees did not join the Catholic Church in any numbers and take Spanish names, just did not happen. While I am sure it may have happened on occasion, not as a matter of normality. The Cherokees under Duwa’li refused to accept Catholicism, even though, had they done it, they would have gotten title to the lands. Your reference to Rusk County is in a way mixing the contemporary Mount Tabor Indian Community *formed in 1845) with Duwa’li’s Cherokees. While some families such as the Bell’s and Vann’s were with both groups, Rusk County was on the edge of the 1836 Treaty Area. All of Cherokee County, Smith County and parts of Van Zandt , a small part of Rusk and (after 1873) southern Gregg County made up the 1.66 million acres of Cherokee lands that were never a reservation per se, but a semi autonomous nation.

    If you want facts on Texas, I can give you a lot. The Creek information is also off, as the numbers of Creeks were always relatively well documented if they remained CREEK. If they went white or Tejano as you suggest, they are just part of the general population that might have an Indian ancestor, or might not!

    Beyond the Alabama-Coushatta, the Pakana Muscogee and a few others that would go back and forth from Texas to Louisiana, there was no major Creek presence in Texas as an organized band. (That’s why Lamar didn’t mention them) Those that may have became part of the Walk Away People, if a large group ever existed in Texas and my years of study of Texas Indian history says their not there, are not Creeks or Cherokees because they left the ways of their people and became part of the Mexican Nation as have hundreds of other tribes the are now extinct culturally.

    Bottom line, there was no major Creek presence in Texas beyond a few scattered families that went white and the tribes mentioned earlier. The Pakana, by the beginning of the 20th century were no longer an organized band in Texas. Their numbers dwindled to such an extent that the few remaining were either taken in by the A-C Tribes, moved to the MCN or a few married into local families like some of the Blount and Davis descendants.

    Then there were the Choctaws! You haven’t said much about them! Lamar was actually afraid to go into the forest after them! The guerilla war by Cherokees and a few Choctaw allies that lasted from 1840-1843, the Treaties of Birds Fort, Tehuacana Creek, President Polk’s Executive Order related to the Cherokees, etc. etc. Lot’s of history and well documented. Without having to fill in. Yes Georgia played a big part of Texas history, but among whites, not Indians

    • First you need to read the book, True Women, and you will take back what you said. There is a wide misconception that the Creeks in the early 1800s were still living in tribal villages. You also need to go back and read both the William McIntosh article and this one again. Roger and I never said that the Creeks in Georgia established tribal villages in Texas. In fact, we said just the opposite. This why they were hardly noticed. By the way, Pakana were from the Chattahoochee River and Peachtree Creek in present day Atlanta.

      What we found was that the Georgia Creeks had already assimilated and were living on detached farms and plantations. So the constant whine about the Georgia Creeks had their land taken away because they were not ready to live beside white families is malarkey. The McIntosh Faction feared for their lives and so moved to locations where the Red Stick Creeks would not be moving as a tribe. In other words, they moved their farms and plantations from West Georgia to East Texas and brought the Greek Revival Style with them .

      All my descriptions of the Cherokees came verbatim from heavily footnoted articles published by respected Texas historians online. I continue to trust what they said. I don’t know who you are.

      This article was not about the Choctaws, the Osage, the Caddo or any the other tribes in Texas. They all have interesting histories, too.


        Halito: It is a semi fictional account of a real life woman. That vs my being involved in Native history, politics and culture for years and years. Still fighting to change the non-sense put out by the Texas Historical Commission. I don’t need one book, when I have dozens of accounts from the Indian Papers of Texas, to the De Witt Colony Archives, our own archives in the Thompson Collection at SFAU, an on and on. Yes, I know quite a bit about the McIntosh Party in Texas and the Falonah Plantation, but your hypothesis of Creeks everywhere is not accurate. Reminds me of Ancient Alien theorists who see an alien under every rock. The Creeks, before the revolution were extremely limited.

        I would be more than happy to work with you on this after things calm down this summer, but your info is just off. One extended family does not mean this incredible infusion of Creek blood into Texas and Creeks did not take to Catholicism very well at all pre-revolution. In fact, few are today. Historically the Choctaws, Cherokees and Creeks were tied to Methodist and Presbyterian faiths after annexation.


    I would like to point out that the Creeks were fully integrated into the Texas settlements and the Cherokees remained a tribal group or groups. The Cherokees were an easy target for the “Indian Haters” including President Lamar.


      What proof do you have that “the Creeks were fully integrated into the Texas settlements and the Cherokees remained a tribal group or groups. ” That just isn’t true. While the Creeks (Alabama-Coushatta’s and Pakana’s) did get along with the Republic, they were anything but “fully integrated”.

      The information that Richard Thornton was referring to as related to the Hawkins/Drew/McIntosh, was post revolution and only one large family group. All others between annexation and the end of the Civil War were very much a part of tribal bands/communities. This is all very well documented.

      Now following the war, there was a spreading out of families into area counties, such as Angelina, Trinity, Harrison in the east; Limestone and all the way to Marble Falls in the west.

      So the Alabama-Coushatta were a target too, but having only 3000 acres vs the Cherokee (and Creeks included in the treaty) 1.66 million acres is the reason. (The Pakana had no lands at all but lived on the John Burgess survey, he was white, married to a Pakana.) Texas wanted to join the USA. The USA would not have them if they were in debt! Thus the Cherokee war and sale of treaty lands and badda bing, no debt. Texas becomes a state!

      Following the Cherokee War of 1839, our people continued to fight until 1843 when the Treaty of Birds Fort was signed. There were two organized bands of Cherokees at that time, Chicken Trotter (that became Mount Tabor) and Wagon Bowles. There was also a group in central Mexico near Guadalajara (1908 US Bureau of Ethnology report), plus a few families in northern Mexico. (John Bowles band was decimated in San Saba County on x-mas day 1839) We weren’t an easy target after 1840, nor as the Creeks a threat prior to 1840.

      Part of the reason why so few Creeks are part of Mount Tabor today, has to do with the Civil War and Watie’s fights with Opothleyahola. He did the Creeks wrong. Although not all Mount Tabor Cherokees went with Watie. Quite a few along with Choctaws and inter-married whites fought under John Martin Thompson, he being the grandson of Judge John Martin.

      The Indian Haters, especially in the year of blood 1840, slaughtered Indians, including a few Creeks, all over Texas. The Alabama & Coushatta were spared in many ways and kept to themselves. The Pakana, were not there yet.


    I would like to me too that not only Creeks from West Ga migrated to East Texas but Creeks from all over Ga including Creek/Yuchi families along the Savannah River. Parts of my family migrated to east Texas to Nacogdoches County area and when Angelina County was formed, they were placed there. My family was the Redd/Red family. They were descendants of John Red and O ci ef. Some of the family moved to East Texas and others to SE Ga and NE FL around the Okefenokee whom married into other mixed native families.


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