The Irish, Scottish and Sami Indians of the Southeastern United States
Actually, we mean the mixed-race offspring of immigrants from the Bronze Age Peoples of Ireland, Scotland, and the Atlantic Coast of France, plus the aboriginal people of Scandinavia.
At age 23, while I was back-packing above the Arctic Circle in Lapland, Scandinavian and German tourists often stopped to ask me for directions, because they thought I was a “local.” Fast forward to the 21st century. Uchee and Eastern Creek descendants are receiving DNA test results, which show them having substantial Maya, Panoan (Peru), Sami, Basque, Highland Scots and Ciarreigh (Black Irish) heritage. The Maya heritage is obvious, but where in the world did these other ancestries come from?
For the past 160 years, Caucasian anthropologists never seriously studied the etymology of Southeastern indigenous place names. If they addressed the meaning of an indigenous place name at all, they typically quoted the dictionary-less speculations of early 20th century ethnologist, John R. Swanton . . . which are almost entirely wrong. If any of them had even bothered to compare individual Creek words for many common items like “house” and “maize” with the Itza and Totonac words for the same items, they would have instantly known that there was indeed a cultural connection between the Lower Southeast and Mesoamerica.
There is much more than a Mesoamerican connection with the Southeastern United States. Clearly, very ancient words for such objects as canoes, village chiefs, sweet potatoes, beans and Yaupon Holly are directly linked with eastern Peru. However, there are extremely ancient words for such items as water, the names of deities and “living place” that can be also found in the northern edge of Europe. Not only that, the same petroglyphs are found in both the Gold Fields in the Highlands of the State of Georgia and the Gold Fields of southwestern Ireland, but these petroglyphs originated in southern Scandinavia almost a thousand years earlier. Several of the 4000 year old glyphs of an ancient writing system on a rock face in Nyköping, Sweden can be found on the Track Rock Petroglyphs in the Georgia Mountains.
To understand these connections, one must know a modicum about the indigenous languages of the Southeastern United States. Nevertheless, it is obvious. The Creeks, Uchee and Southern Siouans of the Southeastern United States should be considered hybrid Eurasians, not New World Siberians. The indigenous peoples encountered by 16th century European explorers in the Southeast were NOT “full-blooded” American Indians.
Sailing routes between the Americas and Northwestern Europe
Most of the researchers and writers, who have pondered the possibility of trans-Atlantic voyages before Columbus, are fixated on a route that takes European ships to either the Canadian Maritime provinces or New England. This is because most of the American researchers either lived in New England, the Midwest or California.
The most recent book on petroglyphs in North America and Western Europe, When the Sun God Came to America, completely omitted the petroglyphs in the Southeastern United States and put the arrival of Bronze Age ships in New England. The Bronze Age voyagers were assumed to have southwestward to the Azores Islands and a jumping off point then sailed westward against the prevailing winds and currents to reach New England. The book’s authors seem to y have not looked at the North Atlantic sailing charts.
It would have been much easier for a vessel from the Southeast’s coast to reach Western Europe than vice versa. Ships sailing from western Europe would have been steered by the prevailing currents and winds to make first landfall in the Eastern Antilles Islands . . . as did Cristobal Colon (Columbus).
Read again the memoir of the commander of Fort Caroline, René de Laudonnière. Their fleet sailed southwest from France to the Azores in order to pick up the prevailing southwestward currents and winds, which would take them to the New World. They sighted land at Cape Canaveral. The ships of the Roanoke Colony actually sailed first to Puerto Rico and built a fort, before sailing northward into the Gulf Stream in order to reach the coast of North Carolina.
The ships of the Spanish treasure fleets picked up the Gulf Stream off the coast of Florida. The Gulf Stream begins veering to the east off the coast of South Carolina. This is the primary reason that the Spanish Crown was willing to support the new colony of La Florida. It was the last location, where the treasure fleets would be close to land before heading for Spain.
Thus, the location of Savannah as the point where Bronze Age explorers made land fall is quite logical. That section of the Atlantic Coast receives fewer direct strikes by major hurricanes than anywhere between Cape Cod, Massachusetts and Miami Bay, Florida.
Dixie Indigenous Linguistics 101 – Things that you Anthropology professor never told you
Very few “Native American” place names found in the Southeastern United States are the actual words spoken by indigenous peoples. They are interpretations of indigenous sounds approximated to the phonetics and spelling of a European language . . . mostly English. However, with most words there are predictable patterns that enables one to get back to the original word.
(1) R – Muskogee Creeks and Uchees rolled their R’s so hard that English and French speakers typically wrote the sounds as an L. Spanish speakers typically used a letter R, because Spanish also rolls the R’s. So the Spanish labeled the province around Savannah, GA – Chikora, while the French labeled it Chikola and the British labeled it closer to its full name . . . . either Palachikola or Palachicora.
(2) Reigh or Re – Another similar example, which is especially relevant to this article, is the Uchee suffix for “people.” Depending on the tribe, English speakers wrote the suffix as re, ree, ry, li, le or lee. The “re” suffix happens to be the Pre-Gaelic Irish suffix for people also. In earlier times, it was written as “reigh.” However, today the reigh sound is typically written as “ry.” Thus, Ciarreigh or “Dark-skinned People” has become Kerry . . . as in County Kerry. County Kerry has many petroglyphs like those in the Georgia Gold Fields..
(3) “Ki” is the Maori*, southern Arawak, Southern Shawnee, Muskogee-Creek and Cherokee suffix for “land of or tribe.” The Shawnee, Cherokee and Muskogees pronounced the “k” so gutturally that they are typically written as a “gi” or “gee.” The English word, Muskogee, is actually written as Mvskoke.
* Linguists and Maori scholars in New Zealand believe that the Maori absorbed this word from the Tuha, Tuhare, Tuhale or Turihu (a blond or red haired people), who inhabited New Zealand, when they arrived 800 years ago. The Tuhu were absorbed into the Maori as separate, but equal clans. Remember that word Tuhare! You will see it again on the Georgia Coast.
Itsate (Hitchiti) Creeks pronounced the K much closer to the sound of an English K. Cherokee speakers typically converted a hard “K”. . . such as in the Arawak suffix for “people or tribe,” koa . . . to a “kwa” sound.
(4) T – A Muskogee T sound seems to be a D to English and French speakers. Itsate Creek has three T sounds, which to English or French speakers sound like a T, D or Th sound.
(5) P and B – Like the Mayas, the Itsate Creeks have distinct P and B sounds. There is no letter B in Mvskoke. It’s P sound is halfway between an English P and an English B. English speakers often write a Muskogee P sound as a B.
Pa is the Itza Maya, Itsate Creek and Maori suffix for “place of.” The equivalent suffix in Muskogee Creek is “fa.”
Bo means “living place of” in Panoan, the dominant language family of Satipo Province, Peru and originally, the Coastal Plain of Georgia. Their Spanish conquerors changed Satibo to Satipo. French and Spanish explorers also wrote down the capital of a powerful indigenous province on the Georgia coast as Satipo . . . also the name of a Native town at the confluence of the Little Tennessee River and Citigo Creek in the Great Smoky Mountains. When the Rickohocken slave raiders settled down in present day Augusta, GA the Apalache-Creeks on the Savannah called their province, Weste-bo, which means “Scraggly Haired People – living place.”
Here is where it gets strange, though. The ancient root word, bo, had exactly the same meaning in the Northern Germanic languages of Dansk, Svensk, Skansk, Norsk, Jutisc, Saxon and Anglisc. The Swedish coastal village of Fiskarebo means “Fishermen-living place of.” When “by” (pronounced like the sound made by a sheep) was used instead of “bo”, it meant a village. Thus, Danish settlers in England gave English many proper nouns, which end in “by.”
The English and Scots words, borough and burgh are both derived from this same ancient root word, bo. The original word was bo-rig, which means “living place-royal.”
(6) Europeans had a problem writing the Muskogean V and S sounds. V is approximately the same as äw in English. Sixteenth century Spanish and French explorers tried to spell the sound as a U, O, I or Au. English speakers typically used Aw or O. Muskogee speakers pronounced the name of the Itstate town of Ichese (actually Itza-si) as Vchese. British colonists spelled the Muskogee version as either Ochesee or Auchesee. Both spellings have become modern place names.
Like the Itza Mayas, the Itsate Creeks had a least four S sounds, which were pronounced in English phonetics as s, sh, tsh and jzh. Muscogee Creek had two S sounds, sh and tsh. English, French and Spanish speakers. Typically wrote the Muskogean suffix “si” (tshe) as “chee.” Thus, the hybrid Panoan-Muskogean word Apara-si (From Ocean-Descendants of) was written as Apalachee. Its plural form, Aparashen, became the name of the Applachian Mountains.
(7) Tua or toa – This is a Uchee word for a band or small tribe. It was a common suffix on village names in Georgia and western South Carolina. Tuathla is the Irish Gaelic equivalent of this word.
(8) The Muskogee Creeks use an ancient Western European word for water . . . ue. This was the word for water for the pre-Gallic maritime tribes on the Atlantic Coast of France. The modern French word for water, eau, is derived from this word.
The Itsate Creeks, Choctaw and Chickasaw use the word, oka, for water. It appears to be derived from the Peruvian word for water, waka. In the vicinity of Savannah, the Itsate Creeks used three words for water, oka, waka and ue. Waka is the Maori word for a canoe.
The tribal name, Uchee (Euchee, Yuchi) is either derived from the hybrid word ue-she, which means “water-descendants of” or is literally the Pre-Gaelic Irish word for water, uisce . . . pronounced the same. The Itsate Creek name for this tribe was Oka-te, which means “Water People.”
In his memoir, Captain René de Laudonnière. Commander of Fort Caroline, mentioned several contacts with a province between the mouth of the Savannah River and Port Royal Sound, which he recorded as being named Oada. This seems to be a French interpretation of the Creek words, Ue-te (Water People) . . . based on the typical European spelling of a Muskogean T. It is shocking fact, however, that phonetically, the province’s name was also the ancient Indo-European word for water!
That is correct, the ancient Indo-European word for water was ueda or weda. There was a Native province on the South Atlantic Coast, which went by the same word! The current orthodoxy is that indigenous Americans had no genetic or cultural connection to western Asia and Europe. This is refuted by the presence of Indo-European and Pre-Indo-European root words in their languages.
Bronze Age Peoples from Europe, plus the Deer People
I have identified three populations of Eurasian immigrants from Northwestern Europe that arrived during the Bronze Age and one population of Gaelic Irish, who arrived during the late 1100s AD. By the 1500s, the hybrid descendants of these ancient immigrants were concentrated in a broad swath of landscape, which ran from the mouth of the Savannah River to the Upper Tennessee River. Those on the Oconee, Ogeechee and Lower Savannah Rivers were the direct ancestors of people in Oklahoma, who call themselves Euchee. However, all colonial documents in Georgia and South Carolina called them Uchee. The term, Yuchi, originated among frontiersmen in eastern Tennessee. The descendants of the Tokasi (Tokari) and Colasee primarily became divisions of the Creek Confederacy, but some became Cherokees.
There are three specific periods, when mass-migration across the Atlantic Ocean would have been most likely to occur. Around 2350 BC, there was a 20-year period of incessant rainfall in the British Islands and northwestern France. Irish archaeologists have discovered that Ireland was almost depopulated at this time. Its inhabitants were not genetically related to modern Irish Gaels, but possibly related to the Black Irish of the mountainous western coast of Ireland.
Around 1200 BC there was a massive tsunami or hurricane, which wiped out the landscape of Denmark and southwestern Sweden. Most trees were knocked over and a thick layer of muck was deposited everywhere. Scandinavian archaeologists mark this time as the end of the advanced Bronze Age civilization in southern Scandinavia. Afterward, more and more Germanic peoples, the modern Scandinavians began arriving, who intermarried with the surviving “Red Haired” People of southern Scandinavia. The indigenous Sami were pushed farther and farther north . . . or else went elsewhere.
Among many scenes portrayed at the Tanum Petroglyphs near Tanumshede, Bohuslän, Sweden is a epic battle between invaders in large Mediterranean galleys and the indigenous Sami people in lightweight Hjartspring boats. This might be the event that triggered outmigration of the indigenous peoples.
(1) Toka-reigh = Freckled or Blond/Red-Haired People – These are most likely the “red-haired” people, who sailed around the globe. They would have originally looked like Scottish Highlanders, but over time intermarried with Asiatic peoples and acquired more “indigenous American” features. They were called TocE or Toque by the Spanish and Tokee by the British colonists. Their hybrid descendants composed the Tokasi and Tokapa-si (Tuckabatchee) divisions of the Creek Confederacy and Seminole Alliance. The Cherokee village of Tocqua was originally one of their towns.
Place and tribal names derived from this Pre-Gaelic word appear the farthest north on the landscape today. This probably means that they arrived first, but this is not definite. The modern Muskogee-Creek word for “freckled or spotted” . . . tokahle . . . was originally a Uchee tribal name, meaning, Freckled People.” Modern Anglicized, Cherokonized places names that were derived from this tribal name are Tugaloo River, Toccoa River, Tocqua, Tocasee, Tuckasegee River and Tuckabatchee.
Seventeenth century and early Eighteenth century maps show a tribe, labeled the Togaria, which lived on the Tennessee River from Hiwassee Island downstream to Chattanooga. This is a Latinization of Tokaree or Toka-Reigh
(2) Corra Reigh = Spear or Spiral Goddess or Snake Goddess People – Irish sources give two interpretations for the word, Corra. It was an ancient word for spear in Ireland and Scotland, but also a primary name of the Spiral or Snake Goddess. Farther south and east, the Spiral Goddess was a Sun Goddess. The spiral glyph of the Spiral Goddess, Amana, is particularly common in southwestern Iberia.
Both the Toca-reigh and the Corra-Reigh were extremely tall. as can be seen from this Pictish descendant today. These immigrants established their main center, Corra, on the Tuckasegee River, where Cullowhee, NC is now located. The Pre-Gaelic word, corra, became a New World word for “People or Tribe”, which was written down by French and English explorers as the suffix “cola.” The suffix, cora (kola) was absorbed by the Choctaw and Chickasaw Peoples. Adding the prefix, “O”, which meant “principal,” their word became Okola then Okla. Of course, Okla is now part of the state name, Oklahoma.
The hybrid descendants of the Corra Reigh were called Corasi (Colasi or Cullasee) by the Creeks. They became divisions of both the Creek Confederacy and the Seminole Alliance. Initially, their villages were shown on maps to be along the upper Savannah River, but later they relocated to the Chattahoochee River.
Cullowhee, NC and Currahee Mountain, GA are place names derived from the Corra Reigh.
(3) Uisce Reigh = Uchee/Euchee/Yuchi = Water People – Since the arrival of settlers to the new Province of Georgia in 1733, they Uchee have consistently stated that their ancestors came across the Atlantic Ocean from the “home of the sun” and landed in the region around Savannah.
The Uchee were probably the last Eurasians to arrive from across the Atlantic during the Bronze Age, but this is not certain. Since Uchee descendants are showing up with Sami DNA, it is highly probable that these immigrants were originally from Scandinavia. Perhaps they were forced out of their homes in Southern Scandinavia by Germanic peoples from the South. Alternatively, they may have been Sjø Sami from Norway’s coast, whose superior sailing skills enabled them to travel long distances. Another possibility is that they initially migrated from Scandinavia to Scotland or Ireland, then later took the big leap across the Atlantic.
The Uchee have been completed erased from Georgia History books and from maps showing the traditional locations of indigenous tribes in the United States. They are virtually unknown to most anthropologists in the United States despite occupying a vast territory at the time of European contact, which was far larger than that actually occupied by the Cherokees.
The Uchee were the predominant occupants of the region between the Ogeechee, Savannah and Salkahatchee Rivers in Georgia and South Carolina. Their name also appeared in the chronicles of the De Soto and Juan Pardo Expeditions as a major tribe in the Upper Tennessee River Valley. It is not known if the Uchee in Tennessee were the same people as what later maps label Togeria ( Toka-re.) Whatever the case, the Uchee and Toka-re considered themselves to be of the same general ethnic group. Surviving Toka-re in the Tennessee and Upper Savannah River Valleys were both labeled “Yuchi” by 20th century scholars.
The largest Uchee town in the 1500s was near the Fall Line, at the forks of the Ogeechee River in Taliaferro County, GA. It was possibly the town, named Cofita, in the De Soto Chronicles. Cofita means “Mixed Race” in the Creek languages. The town’s three large mounds are still visible today, but little known outside the immediate neighborhood. The large town site has never been studied by archaeologists and has no special historic designation.
Operating in a complete cultural fog, defined by state lines, 20th century academicians in Tennessee decided that their Yuchi originated in Tennessee and that a few Yuchi bands migrated down the Savannah River in the 1700s. This is also what one is told in references, such as Wikipedia. It is malarkey, which is completely denied by the real Uchee living in Oklahoma, Georgia, Florida and Alabama today.
(4) Os-Reigh (Deer People) or Du H’Ai-re (Duhare) – In the first history of the State of Georgia, written by William Bacon Stevens in the early 1840s, the author matter-of-factly references a book by Danish historian Karl Christian Rafn. Rafn’s research found that that early colonists on the coast of Georgia and adjacent regions of South Carolina encountered light-skinned Indians, who spoke a Gaelic language. They called themselves the Duhale, Tuhare or Tuhale. Ravn referenced early medieval monastic journals in Ireland and France, which described the immigration of Gaels and Scandinavians from southeastern Ireland to Witmannsland (White Mans Land) across the Atlantic.
According to these 12th century documents, Richard “Strongbow” Le Clere led a party of Anglo-Norman mercenaries to southeastern Ireland in 1170 to aid a regional king’s effort to retake his lost throne. Once that was accomplished, they began laying siege to the Scandinavian dominated towns along the Irish Channel. Once they were captured, the Normans began invading in the interior of southeastern Ireland. After they were captured, individual war lords began carrying out further raids within the interior of Ireland.
After Henry II of England launched a better organized invasion of Ireland in 1175, he began replacing priests and bishops in the Gaelic church with French Norman priests and bishops. This was done under Paper Bull from Pope Adrian, who wished to end the independence of the Gaelic church in Ireland. The Gaelic Church was organized into congregations, led by laymen and humble priests. Priests and bishops regularly married. The Irish priests and bishops were leaving their land and money to their wives and children. The Medieval church bureaucracy in Rome was being deprived of the power that inherited wealth brought. Celibate priests meant it could get its hands on the lot of it Ireland.
Persecution of priests, bishops and laity was particularly severe in Leinster. Here, the local leadership put up a particularly successful defense against the invaders. Priests and bishops, who helped in that defense were classified as heretics in rebellion against the Church, and therefore were burned at the stake. Scandinavian Irish had an equally rough time. Some had never converted to Christianity and all were disinclined to submit to the seizure of the properties by Anglo-Norman feudal lords.
Survivors from Leinster, who were members of the Osrey Clan of Irishmen were provided transportation across the Atlantic by the Scandinavians in the coastal towns. Passengers were dropped off in Whitmansland on the South Atlantic Coast. The Scandinavians settled a little farther north in Vinland.
Peter Martyr d’Anghiera contained a more detailed account of these hybrid Indians in his book, De Orbo Novo (1530). De Orbo Novo means “The New World.” Slave traders, Francisco Gordillo and Pedro de Quejo, made a clandestine slave raid voyage to the South Atlantic Coast in 1521 near the province that they called Chikora (Palachicora). Some South Carolina academician in the past decided that Chicora was near Georgetown, SC and no one fact checked them. Subsequent generations of students have been looking for Chicora in all the wrong places. The Commander of Fort Caroline, René de Laudonnière, specifically stated that the province that his ship visited, which the French called Chiquola, was one of the same as Chikora . . . and it was about 30 miles south of Port Royal Sound at the mouth of the Savannah River in Georgia. The village of Palachicora or Palachicola was still on the Lower Savannah River in 1733.
While there they visited the Duhare province, which was occupied by very tall, large boned Europeans with red or brown hair. The men wore full beards. Their houses and pottery were pretty much identical to those of their American Indian neighbors. However, their agriculture was a bit more sophisticated than that practiced by their neighbors. They raised several types of livestock and cultivated a wider range of vegetables and grains than was typical of the region.
The Spaniards stated that the people of Duhare also raised domesticated, “dairy’ deer.” The people of Duhare made the deer milk into cheese. The deer were released in the morning to browse through nearby forests and returned to the village at night. At night they were penned inside a stockade within the center of the village.
From its initial publication, until today, very few scholars have taken the description of the Duhare seriously. The description of them raising dairy deer and making deer cheese was too ludicrous to be taken seriously. Few people other than Dr. Ofn in Denmark ever caught the connection between the Duhare story and the strange monastic journal entries about persecuted Irish Christians fleeing across the Atlantic Ocean.
I started the second state-licensed goat cheese creamery in the United States. Later, we became the first federally-licensed goat cheese creamery. Some of the details of the dairy deer operation in Duhare that were provided by the two Spanish slave traders seemed too “close on target” for them to possibly know from their disgusting trade. I thought perhaps the Spaniards had confused Alpine dairy goats with deer. Also, the “Native American” words included in Peter Martyr’s article sounded very Gaelic.
With the assistance of the Consul General of the Republic of Ireland in Atlanta, I was put in contact with the appropriate professors at Trinity College in Dublin. Very quickly, they confirmed that all the “Indian” words reproduced by Peter Martyr were in fact, Early Medieval Gaelic. Duhare (actually Du H’Ai-re) was the word used for Irish in the 12th century. The name of the Osrey clan members, who fled Leinster, literally means “Deer People.” Indeed, Ireland had domesticated dairy deer for probably thousands of years. It only switched to dairy cattle after they were introduced by Norman monks in the 13th century. There is no way that the two Spanish slave traders would have known Early Medieval Gaelic. The story is true.
There are two other odd things about the Duhare Story. An alternative way of spelling the word, seen on maps, is Tuhale . . . which happens to be the name of the tall, freckled, dishwater blond people, who settled New Zealand from Peru.
Secondly, the river flowing through the South Carolina portion of the ancient Uchee province is the Salkehatchee. Hatchee is the Anglicization of the Creek name for a river, Hawsi. The river’s original name was the Sawaki-hatchee River. Sawaiki is the name of the semi-mythical place, where the dishwater blond people in New Zealand traditionally originated.
The Truth is out there somewhere!
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