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The linguistic ties between Europe and the Americas that we can’t explain

The linguistic ties between Europe and the Americas that we can’t explain

Artistic, genetic and linguistic evidence of trans-Atlantic migrations is irrefutable, but understanding those migrations is not!

British archaeologist, Rita Roberts, wrote us from Crete . . . “It seems you certainly know your subject but I still struggle to understand some of it with regard to the migrations of different peoples even though I am familiar with the Minoan and Mycenaean people.”  Welcome to the club, Rita. We are struggling to understand these migrations also.  That is why I am putting in so much energy to fully document all the surviving ruins and petroglyphs.  There is no simple answer (aka anthropological model) to explain the evidence. How do you explain Minoan Linear A script on a stone tablet at the Great Falls of the Chattahoochee River in Columbus, GA . . . or a triangular, quarried stone temple, typical of Cyprus, Sardinia and Corsica, at a mud volcano in Northeast Metro Atlanta?  It is easier to understand Bronze Age European petroglyphs in the Georgia Gold Belt, which has the purest gold in the world, plus native copper and natural brass containing little arsenic . . . but still . . . it is a long way from the Baltic Coast of Sweden to Plum Nelly, Jawja!

How does one explain how many of the symbols used in an untranslatable writing system near Nyköping on the Baltic Coast of Sweden and dated at 2000 BC, became the basis, 2000 years later, for the Maya writing system?  The Mayas have a migration legend like many branches of the Creeks do, but it starts in a different region.   It begins in an icy land far to the north of the Yucatan Peninsula.  Having grown tired of the struggle to survive in this place of snow and ice, plus constant attacks by a giant race of people, the Maya’s ancestors traveled due south along the edge of the Atlantic Coast, crossed the Florida Strait in large boats and then the Yucatan Channel, until they came to a land where there was no snow.  It appears that they migrated directly from Northeastern Siberia or northern Scandinavia to the Americas.  Scandinavian folk history also remembers the “Ice Giants.” 

All, but a couple of the symbols found on the Track Rock Gap Petroglyphs in Union County, GA can be found on the Nyköping petroglyphs. Some are also Maya glyphs. Several of these symbols, however, do not appear in the Maya writing system.  What does that mean?  Did the ancestors of the Mayas come through the Georgia Mountains?  On the other hand, almost all of the petroglyphic symbols in the Georgia Mountains can be found somewhere in Bronze Age Europe – mostly commonly in southwestern Ireland and southern Sweden. One symbol, that looks like a sunflower, can also be found in Eurasia, a petroglyphic site in Ontario, Canada and at Parawan Gap in Utah. 

Apparently . . . over a long period, many small groups of peoples arrived in Southeastern North America, the Great Lakes Region, Mesoamerica, the Pacific Coast of South America and the Amazon Basin  from many places . . . intermarried . . . then evolved into tribes, which retained DNA and cultural traits of several of their ethnic ancestors.  These tribes migrated long distances.  For example, the Zuni state that their ancestors migrated southeastward from western Canada to the Atlantic Coast of Southeastern North America then migrated westward to their present homeland.  They learned agriculture from more advances peoples in the Southeast.  All of the Siouan Earthlodge Peoples of the Missouri River Basin state that they lived in the Southeast, near the ocean or along the Ocmulgee, Tennessee and Coosa Rivers, until the arrival of European colonists. They also learned agriculture from more advanced tribes there. They then migrated northwestward to the current locations.  The versions of their histories, seen in Wikipedia and anthropological books, whereby they originated in the Midwest, was made up by white academicians in the Midwest, without consultation with the Native peoples.

We have many indigenous peoples in the Southeast, who were of predominant Asiatic heritage, but who spoke some words from Bronze Age Europe.  DNA tests of Creek, Seminole and Uchee descendants, however, also consistently show DNA test markers associated with the Bronze Age peoples of western Europe. There are many mysteries that we have discussed in the past or will discuss in the future.  Here are the three that puzzle me the most:

(1) Pre-Gaelic and Gaelic Irish suffixes – “Re” is the pre-Gaelic, archaic European word for a group of people, large enough to have a ruler or government.  Many ancient provinces and cities in Ireland have re, ry or reigh as an ending.  They include Kerry, Derry and Osrey.  It is the root of many ancient words in western Europe, having to do with government. These include the Celtic and Latin word for king – rex . . . the archaic Spanish word for kingdom, now king – rey . . . the French word for king – roy . . . the the Swedish word for kingdom – rik . . . and the German word for kingdom – reiche.  There are also such borrowed and modified English words such as royal and regal. 

Many Uchee tribes in the Southeast also had “re” . . . the suffix for a tribe with a government . . . in their name.  However, because indigenous Americans in the Southeast rolled their R’s so hard that the seemed like L’s,  their names survive as place names ending in “lee” or “ly”.   The Wataree River in South Carolina and the Nottely River in Georgia are examples of both spellings.  However, the names of some tribes on the Gulf Coast of Mexico also had this ancient word as a suffix.  Tamaulipas is an hybrid Itza/pre-Gaelic Irish word meaning “Trade-People-Place of.”

The Uchee told Georgia Colonial Governor James Oglethorpe and Colonial Secretary, Thomas Christie, that they came across the Atlantic to the Savannah River from the home of the sun.  There was no one living in the region at the time, but they could see the mounds and shell rings of an earlier people.  However, farther north the Algonquians were well established in the Mid-Atlantic region, New England and Canada.  Okay, that makes sense. 

Here is the problem. Many of the Uchee tribes have names associated with water and also have “re” or “le” as a suffix.  The name Uchee was actually pronounced exactly like the pre-Gaelic and archaic Irish/Scottish word for water, uisce.  “Ui” or “Ue” is the Coastal Uchee, Muskogee-Creek and Gallic (French Celtic) word for water.  The Shawnee and Cherokee word for the Uchee . . . Uste . . . comes from Ue-este (Water People).  Keep in mind that these are all pre-Gaelic Irish/Scottish words, which the Gaels absorbed.  Ustanaula and Eastanolee are Anglicized versions of Uestenole, the name of a powerful Uchee province, with a pre-Gaelic Irish name,  at the headwaters of the Savannah River.

HOWEVER,  the Algonquians, Shawnee, Cherokees, Muskogee-Creeks and modern Gaelic Irish all use the same word for “tribe or people” – ge or ghe . . . which is pronounced very close to a “k” sound.  Muskogee speakers originated in the region between Franklin and Hendersonville, North Carolina.  I have found the names of all the original Muskogee-speaking tribes in the place/river names of that region. Most of these tribes also had Scottish or Gaelic names.  Some even had freckles!  So if the Algonquians were in North America long before the Uchee, why would they use a word for “tribe or people” that only arrived in Ireland after the Bronze Age . . . around 500 BC or later?   I told you that it was a complex situation.

(2) A Swedish word on the South Atlantic Coast, southern Mexico and in eastern Peru – “Bo” is the ancient Swedish word for “living place.”  The equivalent word in Danish, Norse and Skanska is “by.”  It was also an Anglo-Saxon word because the Angles originated in southeastern Sweden then migrated to southern Denmark and finally to Britain. So the name of the pedestrian village that I designed on Ven Island in Skåne (southern tip of Sweden) was a Skånsk word . . . Gamlagårdby . . . which means “Old Farm Living Place” in Skånsk.  However, the conceptual site plan’s name was a Swedish word, Boplatsplan.  By the way, Ven meant “grass, meodow or pasture” in Archaic Scandinavian.  So Vinland, does not refer to grape vines, but to grassy meadows.  Winya (Venya) Bay, South Carolina is an Archaic Scandinavian word meaning “grassy or green.”

Bo became the root for such modern English words as bureau, borough and burg.  Bo is also the Panoan word for “living place.”   The Panoan Peoples live in eastern Peru and the headwaters of the Amazon River.  Many indigenous American peoples have a sound that is halfway between a P and a B in their language.  European colonists wrote that sound as either a P or a B.   So the towns named Satibo (colonists-place of)  in Peru, the coast of Georgia and in the Smoky Mountains were written by Europeans as Satipo.  On the other hand, Asebo Island (Sacred Black Drink – Place of) kept its B sound and today is known as Ossabaw.  Uestebo was the indigenous name of the Savannah River.   It means “Uchee – living place of.”   The word survives today as a place name, Westeebo.

The Chontal Mayas pronounced bo like po, but it had the same meaning.  The Itza Mayas and then the Itsate Creeks changed that to “pa.”   The Muskogee Creeks changed “pa” to “fa.”  Okay, what in the heck is a Swedish word doing . . . scattered all over the Americas?

(3) The Alekmani People of Georgia and Alec Mountain Archaeological Zone – The coastal capital of the Alekmani was at present day Doctortown on the Altamaha River.  Doctortown is a few miles northeast of Jesup, GA.   During the 1700s and early 1800s it was known as Alectown.  Alek is the Georgia Creek word for a medical doctor.  Captain René de Laudonnière, Commander of Fort Caroline, stated that the capital of the Alekmani was about 16 leagues (35 miles) upstream from Fort Caroline on the May River.  They had villages and extensive chichona tree orchards for making quinine near the mouth of the May River.  He also said that the meaning of Alekmani was “Medicine People.”  The only possible location for Fort Caroline is in the Altamaha River Delta in Georgia. 

For years, I could not find an indigenous language in the Americas that matched the meaning described by De Laudonnière for Alekmanni. Then I remembered that mani was the plural of “man” in Northern Germanic.   The Romans fought several tribes in northern Germany that had mani in their name.  In fact, one tribe, the Allemani, became the French word for the Germans. The Swedish word for Germans, Tyska, means “warriors.”   A very similar word, Tvska or tuska, is the Muskogee-Creek word for warriors.  See how weird the linguistic evidence is?

Alek is also an archaic Scandinavian-North Germanic word. “Lek” is now a root word in the Scandinavian, Finnish and Slavic languages that is associated with words for doctors, medicine and hospitals.  However, it originally meant “medicinal herb.”  The word in Old Anglisc (the language spoken by the Angles) for a person, who specialized in healing with herbs was alæk and was pronounced the same way that Americans pronounce “Alek.”  The word for medicine in Swedish today is lãk and the word for doctor is läkare.  The Swedish letter, ä, is pronounced like an ĕ in Modern English or æ in Old English.  The Danes and Norwegians use entirely different words for doctor.  The Old English word for medicinal herbs, læk, survives today as the vegetable, leeks. 

So . . . if you walked up to an Angle man in southern Sweden around 100 AD and told him that you were an Alekman or a member of the tribe of Alekmani,  he would have understood you perfectly . . . and then asked you to take a look at his wife, because she had a fever.  That part of Sweden has many burial mounds, stone cairns and petroglyphs.  All of the Bronze Age petroglyph symbols in southern Sweden can also be seen in the Georgia Mountains.  You go figure!  

Amazing – A telegram in April 1972 from the Swedish Crown Prince, inviting me to work in Landskrona, resulted in the article you read today!




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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.



    Hello Richard,
    You have identified an Estonian word that means ‘New Estonia’, no relation to water, except that the Baltic was called the Estonian Sea.
    UE < uue- 'new'-
    ESTE < este 'Estonia, Estonian'
    This fits "The Uchee told Georgia Colonial Governor James Oglethorpe and Colonial Secretary, Thomas Christie, that they came across the Atlantic to the Savannah River from the home of the sun."
    Estonia made ocean-going vessels of pine and oak for Carthage. They also navigated some of the fleet of ships across the Atlantic for Carthage to deliver a cargo of settlers to Ohio in 400 BC that included the Shawnee. At that time, Estonia ruled the Baltic from a base on the island Saaremaa. Sweden sent numerous fleets to attack the island, rid themselves of the Estonian pirates, and none returned.

    A second word, -ge, is also a common Estonian/Finnish suffix:
    -GE < -ky 'settlement, village', a shortened form of kylä, Polish -sky or -ski.

    • Except that the Uchee almost always had names that meant Water People, Ocean People or People from the Sea. In Muskcogee Creek – Ue means Water Este means people.


        Also note the similarity to the origins of the word whisky. It means “water of life” in Latin


      Very interesting. The eastern Baltic also has the earliest Maglemose and pre -Maglemose style fluted stone artifacts. However they date to 9000BC so hardly contemporary with Clovis but a technological connection might exist… just the other way around Lol!


    Richard, that symbol of a (T and a circle on the top) in the front of that ship is an ancient symbol of copper used in Cyprus. How about that!!

    • You are hired sir! You have actually helped us translate all these petroglyphs!

    • Where did you get that information? It is a reference where I could get other explanations of symbols?


        Richard, I wish I could remember what web page I read that… I will try to find that symbol information again. It’s possible all those ship symbols were for different metals:–roman-empire-the-romans.jpg (Same Moon symbol)

        You got to read this Richard: (more symbols on boat) Finnish was spoken in Asia minor and Spain. Tarshish?

        • The last one was a fake. A man, who was a con artist, had served prison time for fraud, tried to get me involved with him after the History Channel show, but I wised up. He was planting fakes, made in Mexico at a site near Gainesville, GA and then letting Haskill find them.


            Thanks for the update and articles. The symbols on the item the con man “planted” do seem to connect to some on the Savanna boulder? It’s likely the ancient peoples of Spain did make contact with the Native peoples for trade. The fact that some spoke some form of Finnish was news to me!! As you know that the Uchee are a Finns/Laplander mix people it’s possible they created a trade route over and back across the Atlantic. The “bell Beaker” pottery could have been carried by them to Savanna.


            Wow! I did not know this! Seems to be one con or another around every corner. On a more realistic note, sooner or later there will need to be some proper sampling and testing done at a larger scale. So… Those jumping up and down for preservation will have to come to some sort of compromised consensus, but will fight this with everything they have!! (On some level they would rather not have the truth put out there). For example, having a series of properly handled core samples at terraced sites can tell a lot about how the ancients manged the soils, and might yield some greater details for the time frames of peak activity/population numbers/climate conditions and the like. My own instincts point the same direction as yours do, where an unspoken and much more complex history of our whole continent related to changing landscapes, climate, plant productivity, animal and human populations, and more broad cyclical events are dismissed by the English/Euro worldview and will never come to light until this arrogance collapses under the suffocating weight if it’s OWN CON!! Dinosaur bones and teeth, ancient ruins, petroglyph’s all over the place (although some could be fake), sea fossils found in heavy layers far inland from the shorelines today, and onward. The arrogance I mention stems from modern man thinking he is larger than he is/was. An attitude exported like a plague from Europe centuries ago. Nothing happens above ground that ultimately does not depend on the soil, another reason core sampling tells an important chronological story.


        23 of the Cape Geledonya copper oxhide ingots had a circle with cross symbol on them. The same symbol commonly found in Scandinavia where the ‘Minoan’ ship glyphs are. The same symbol commonly found in your SE petroglyphs. It’s one of the most common marks found on oxhides. It’s also a a Cretan hieroglyph symbol.

        • When I study these petroglyphs closer, later this year, I will have to compare them to known symbols in the Mediterranean Basin also. Last year, Lund University gave me a chart of Scandinavian Bronze Age symbols. Most of the Georgia petroglyphs are 100% Scandianavian or Irish – but more complex petroglyphic sites have some symbols that seem to have come from elsewhere – like the copper symbol.


            ***DO NOT POST***

            Google> Cretan hieroglyphs.

            Number 110 on the chart IS the Palenque glyph. No doubts. Circle with dot in center with 4 circular lobes on outside.

            When you look into Crete make sure you find those circle, dot, and linear features also found on your petroglyphs. There is no linear or column structure in them either, the glyphs are all over the place.

            Circle above T seems close to the Egyptian Ahnk symbol.

            Update: They found a new shipwreck in the Mediterranean recently. Announced in April. It’s dated to 1600BC and the ingots are the earliest Type 1 pillow oxhides around. That matches the timing of those Superior mining sites. Waiting for more info.

          • I have to mark trash any time you send a do not post comment. The server is already marking all your comments as spam because of it. I have to spend several minutes retrieving your comment from spam.


    Apologies Richard,

    In case I didn’t mention it… Zuni blood type is solidly B. Most other native Americans have O+.

    • The thing is that there was lots of population movements in Europe. The people who live there now were not there in 8000 BC. Also, there were still big glaciers in Scandinavia at that time. The DNA probably belonged to migratory hunters or fishermen on the coast.


        Yes quite possible. Yet as you have mentioned, only a super tiny fraction of the human population has been subject to DNA analysis. While inference can appear strong at times, I remain cautious about what a highly sampled earth mapping of human mitochondrial DNA typing will eventually look like. Hope to see it in my lifetime but doubt we will get to that level the day after tomorrow…


    Richard, I was reading that the area of the North Sea and Scotland’s islands had Stonehenge’s that possibly go back to 10,000 BC. It seems I was right that these Stonehenge peoples lived on both side of the Atlantic Ocean as far as Lu-wiya (Western Turkey) as that is what it became known as. This seem to be proof of a Sea fairing network of peoples that were crossing or connected to those locations. In Europe the stone sites seem to be connected to South Eastern France spanning out from that location. It would seem these Sea peoples would have done the same on this land mass as well. They seem to had the cultural trait of burying they towns after use….the same happened in Peru.


    Richard, As you know the Native people of Georgia used the oblong shape (plaza’s/ Earth mounds) on this landmass. The more circle shape of Europe’s “Bell Beaker” type stone works seems to have been found in Canada as well. Just like the site you have found… New England’s stone works site is associated with triangles, wetlands, crystals?, (a high, low, medium land site location) “The result was a 315 ft. x 145 feet x 40 feet mound rising out of a man-made pond.” Could the original size have been 314 feet ? That would represent the 3.14 of “Pi”. Perhaps a little more clay was added over time. The medicine men culture of both these locations seem to be very connected.



    Were you aware that someone has already published on the origins of the Sea Sami?

    Everything from the reindeer people becoming long distance sea farers, ship construction, Atlantic petroglyphs, linguistic links of Sami, Finn’s, Basques etc.

    Head to http://www.paabo ca

    Follow the links from the Science section to the main article UI*RA*LA

    • No I was not! However, since my mother’s family carries lots of Sami, Finn, Basque, Pre-Gaelic Irish and Polynesian DNA, I guess I should read it! Thanks!

    • Google told me that the Paabo website didn’t exist. Got any other suggestions?

        • I skimmed the book. All the ethnic groups that he mentions are showing up in the DNA of our family.


          Thanks Urisahatu,

          The site also has a reinterpretation of Homer’s “The Oddessy”.

          It actually a first millenium BC Nordic saga. I hope that’s not too shocking for you both to read but it makes perfect sense to me. The island of the fiery/smoking mountains fits Iceland, the copper came from London ( told you it was coming from there since 2500 BC lol!) etc etc …

          He’s a local boy and I often swim in his Lake (Chandos). (Eske Willerslev says that Thule is not related to Dorset but Saqqaq is however). The copper coming from Isle Royale from the early 4th millenium BC IS your ancestors trade route however.

          2500BC to 2100BC it’s R1b(1) “Beakers” working Superior copper on the Keweenaw Peninsula. 1700BC to 1100BC it’s a return to the Keweenaw for R1b(2) from Poverty Point Louisiana my friend. All from peer reviewed papers.

          It’s time to now welcome the Sami back into your family!


    Andres Paabo needs to know that the proto Sea Sami followed walrus south into Hudson’s Bay where they encountered the Shield Archaic culture (X2a) around 4500 BC to complete his story.

    Go to Wikipedia and s arch “timber circles”. They were big in Ireland and Britain around 2500BC and ended up at Poverty Point at 1700BC they say but it was earlier. Google Lower Jackoson mound which is 1000 years older and directly south of Poverty Point. You’ll be shocked because Cahokia had over a dozen of them too. They exist in your area as well Richard. There are even drawings and paintings of them by early European explorers.



      The most recent radiocarbon dating places the massive (200ft diameter) Poverty Point timber circles at 2400BC.

      This is probably the early Beaker Culture (R1b) copper traders that took over Ireland and England at exactly the same time.

      The Wikipedia Native American y-dna section now states that the high levels of R1b found centered in the Great Lakes/Mississippi/SE coastal areas is of PRE Columbian origin. Before that it was determined to be indistinguishable from modern European dna and therefore of POST Columbian contact


    If you like historic documents to Burress your articles read “The Story of Powell Knutson” who was sent by Magnus VII Eriksson King of Norway, Sweden etc. And the Pipe to re-ensoave the Greenland Vikings to tax cattle property of the King and Church.

    At LEAST 300 Vikings from the Western Colony left for Vinland because the Church took ownership of their land. They also controlled all trade. ( That part is in Wikipedia Greenland Vikings)

    They left for VINLAND which you know us actually Venland.

    Welcome back some more family Richard!


    As you will learn from Paabo, the Sea Sami set up shop halfway between whale migratory routes. The h Vikings set up repair yards for their ships at a similar halfway point. In this case that repair facility was L’Anse Aux Meadows in Newfoundland.

    Just like we Canadian snowbirds they must have loved to get a tan lol!


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