The linguistic ties between Europe and the Americas that we can’t explain
Artistic, genetic and linguistic evidence of trans-Atlantic migrations is irrefutable, but understanding those migrations is not!
British archaeologist, Rita Roberts, wrote us from Crete . . . “It seems you certainly know your subject but I still struggle to understand some of it with regard to the migrations of different peoples even though I am familiar with the Minoan and Mycenaean people.” Welcome to the club, Rita. We are struggling to understand these migrations also. That is why I am putting in so much energy to fully document all the surviving ruins and petroglyphs. There is no simple answer (aka anthropological model) to explain the evidence. How do you explain Minoan Linear A script on a stone tablet at the Great Falls of the Chattahoochee River in Columbus, GA . . . or a triangular, quarried stone temple, typical of Cyprus, Sardinia and Corsica, at a mud volcano in Northeast Metro Atlanta? It is easier to understand Bronze Age European petroglyphs in the Georgia Gold Belt, which has the purest gold in the world, plus native copper and natural brass containing little arsenic . . . but still . . . it is a long way from the Baltic Coast of Sweden to Plum Nelly, Jawja!
How does one explain how many of the symbols used in an untranslatable writing system near Nyköping on the Baltic Coast of Sweden and dated at 2000 BC, became the basis, 2000 years later, for the Maya writing system? The Mayas have a migration legend like many branches of the Creeks do, but it starts in a different region. It begins in an icy land far to the north of the Yucatan Peninsula. Having grown tired of the struggle to survive in this place of snow and ice, plus constant attacks by a giant race of people, the Maya’s ancestors traveled due south along the edge of the Atlantic Coast, crossed the Florida Strait in large boats and then the Yucatan Channel, until they came to a land where there was no snow. It appears that they migrated directly from Northeastern Siberia or northern Scandinavia to the Americas. Scandinavian folk history also remembers the “Ice Giants.”
All, but a couple of the symbols found on the Track Rock Gap Petroglyphs in Union County, GA can be found on the Nyköping petroglyphs. Some are also Maya glyphs. Several of these symbols, however, do not appear in the Maya writing system. What does that mean? Did the ancestors of the Mayas come through the Georgia Mountains? On the other hand, almost all of the petroglyphic symbols in the Georgia Mountains can be found somewhere in Bronze Age Europe – mostly commonly in southwestern Ireland and southern Sweden. One symbol, that looks like a sunflower, can also be found in Eurasia, a petroglyphic site in Ontario, Canada and at Parawan Gap in Utah.
Apparently . . . over a long period, many small groups of peoples arrived in Southeastern North America, the Great Lakes Region, Mesoamerica, the Pacific Coast of South America and the Amazon Basin from many places . . . intermarried . . . then evolved into tribes, which retained DNA and cultural traits of several of their ethnic ancestors. These tribes migrated long distances. For example, the Zuni state that their ancestors migrated southeastward from western Canada to the Atlantic Coast of Southeastern North America then migrated westward to their present homeland. They learned agriculture from more advances peoples in the Southeast. All of the Siouan Earthlodge Peoples of the Missouri River Basin state that they lived in the Southeast, near the ocean or along the Ocmulgee, Tennessee and Coosa Rivers, until the arrival of European colonists. They also learned agriculture from more advanced tribes there. They then migrated northwestward to the current locations. The versions of their histories, seen in Wikipedia and anthropological books, whereby they originated in the Midwest, was made up by white academicians in the Midwest, without consultation with the Native peoples.
We have many indigenous peoples in the Southeast, who were of predominant Asiatic heritage, but who spoke some words from Bronze Age Europe. DNA tests of Creek, Seminole and Uchee descendants, however, also consistently show DNA test markers associated with the Bronze Age peoples of western Europe. There are many mysteries that we have discussed in the past or will discuss in the future. Here are the three that puzzle me the most:
(1) Pre-Gaelic and Gaelic Irish suffixes – “Re” is the pre-Gaelic, archaic European word for a group of people, large enough to have a ruler or government. Many ancient provinces and cities in Ireland have re, ry or reigh as an ending. They include Kerry, Derry and Osrey. It is the root of many ancient words in western Europe, having to do with government. These include the Celtic and Latin word for king – rex . . . the archaic Spanish word for kingdom, now king – rey . . . the French word for king – roy . . . the the Swedish word for kingdom – rik . . . and the German word for kingdom – reiche. There are also such borrowed and modified English words such as royal and regal.
Many Uchee tribes in the Southeast also had “re” . . . the suffix for a tribe with a government . . . in their name. However, because indigenous Americans in the Southeast rolled their R’s so hard that the seemed like L’s, their names survive as place names ending in “lee” or “ly”. The Wataree River in South Carolina and the Nottely River in Georgia are examples of both spellings. However, the names of some tribes on the Gulf Coast of Mexico also had this ancient word as a suffix. Tamaulipas is an hybrid Itza/pre-Gaelic Irish word meaning “Trade-People-Place of.”
The Uchee told Georgia Colonial Governor James Oglethorpe and Colonial Secretary, Thomas Christie, that they came across the Atlantic to the Savannah River from the home of the sun. There was no one living in the region at the time, but they could see the mounds and shell rings of an earlier people. However, farther north the Algonquians were well established in the Mid-Atlantic region, New England and Canada. Okay, that makes sense.
Here is the problem. Many of the Uchee tribes have names associated with water and also have “re” or “le” as a suffix. The name Uchee was actually pronounced exactly like the pre-Gaelic and archaic Irish/Scottish word for water, uisce. “Ui” or “Ue” is the Coastal Uchee, Muskogee-Creek and Gallic (French Celtic) word for water. The Shawnee and Cherokee word for the Uchee . . . Uste . . . comes from Ue-este (Water People). Keep in mind that these are all pre-Gaelic Irish/Scottish words, which the Gaels absorbed. Ustanaula and Eastanolee are Anglicized versions of Uestenole, the name of a powerful Uchee province, with a pre-Gaelic Irish name, at the headwaters of the Savannah River.
HOWEVER, the Algonquians, Shawnee, Cherokees, Muskogee-Creeks and modern Gaelic Irish all use the same word for “tribe or people” – ge or ghe . . . which is pronounced very close to a “k” sound. Muskogee speakers originated in the region between Franklin and Hendersonville, North Carolina. I have found the names of all the original Muskogee-speaking tribes in the place/river names of that region. Most of these tribes also had Scottish or Gaelic names. Some even had freckles! So if the Algonquians were in North America long before the Uchee, why would they use a word for “tribe or people” that only arrived in Ireland after the Bronze Age . . . around 500 BC or later? I told you that it was a complex situation.
(2) A Swedish word on the South Atlantic Coast, southern Mexico and in eastern Peru – “Bo” is the ancient Swedish word for “living place.” The equivalent word in Danish, Norse and Skanska is “by.” It was also an Anglo-Saxon word because the Angles originated in southeastern Sweden then migrated to southern Denmark and finally to Britain. So the name of the pedestrian village that I designed on Ven Island in Skåne (southern tip of Sweden) was a Skånsk word . . . Gamlagårdby . . . which means “Old Farm Living Place” in Skånsk. However, the conceptual site plan’s name was a Swedish word, Boplatsplan. By the way, Ven meant “grass, meodow or pasture” in Archaic Scandinavian. So Vinland, does not refer to grape vines, but to grassy meadows. Winya (Venya) Bay, South Carolina is an Archaic Scandinavian word meaning “grassy or green.”
Bo became the root for such modern English words as bureau, borough and burg. Bo is also the Panoan word for “living place.” The Panoan Peoples live in eastern Peru and the headwaters of the Amazon River. Many indigenous American peoples have a sound that is halfway between a P and a B in their language. European colonists wrote that sound as either a P or a B. So the towns named Satibo (colonists-place of) in Peru, the coast of Georgia and in the Smoky Mountains were written by Europeans as Satipo. On the other hand, Asebo Island (Sacred Black Drink – Place of) kept its B sound and today is known as Ossabaw. Uestebo was the indigenous name of the Savannah River. It means “Uchee – living place of.” The word survives today as a place name, Westeebo.
The Chontal Mayas pronounced bo like po, but it had the same meaning. The Itza Mayas and then the Itsate Creeks changed that to “pa.” The Muskogee Creeks changed “pa” to “fa.” Okay, what in the heck is a Swedish word doing . . . scattered all over the Americas?
(3) The Alekmani People of Georgia and Alec Mountain Archaeological Zone – The coastal capital of the Alekmani was at present day Doctortown on the Altamaha River. Doctortown is a few miles northeast of Jesup, GA. During the 1700s and early 1800s it was known as Alectown. Alek is the Georgia Creek word for a medical doctor. Captain René de Laudonnière, Commander of Fort Caroline, stated that the capital of the Alekmani was about 16 leagues (35 miles) upstream from Fort Caroline on the May River. They had villages and extensive chichona tree orchards for making quinine near the mouth of the May River. He also said that the meaning of Alekmani was “Medicine People.” The only possible location for Fort Caroline is in the Altamaha River Delta in Georgia.
For years, I could not find an indigenous language in the Americas that matched the meaning described by De Laudonnière for Alekmanni. Then I remembered that mani was the plural of “man” in Northern Germanic. The Romans fought several tribes in northern Germany that had mani in their name. In fact, one tribe, the Allemani, became the French word for the Germans. The Swedish word for Germans, Tyska, means “warriors.” A very similar word, Tvska or tuska, is the Muskogee-Creek word for warriors. See how weird the linguistic evidence is?
Alek is also an archaic Scandinavian-North Germanic word. “Lek” is now a root word in the Scandinavian, Finnish and Slavic languages that is associated with words for doctors, medicine and hospitals. However, it originally meant “medicinal herb.” The word in Old Anglisc (the language spoken by the Angles) for a person, who specialized in healing with herbs was alæk and was pronounced the same way that Americans pronounce “Alek.” The word for medicine in Swedish today is lãk and the word for doctor is läkare. The Swedish letter, ä, is pronounced like an ĕ in Modern English or æ in Old English. The Danes and Norwegians use entirely different words for doctor. The Old English word for medicinal herbs, læk, survives today as the vegetable, leeks.
So . . . if you walked up to an Angle man in southern Sweden around 100 AD and told him that you were an Alekman or a member of the tribe of Alekmani, he would have understood you perfectly . . . and then asked you to take a look at his wife, because she had a fever. That part of Sweden has many burial mounds, stone cairns and petroglyphs. All of the Bronze Age petroglyph symbols in southern Sweden can also be seen in the Georgia Mountains. You go figure!
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