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The Many Peoples of the Southern Blue Ridge Mountains

The Many Peoples of the Southern Blue Ridge Mountains


Much of what is taught our students in official state history books about the early history of this region is mythology.

Above is a section of the 1820 Sturges Map of Georgia. There are no ethnic Cherokee words on the map.  Itsate is the Itza Maya word for “Itza People.”  Sautee means “Raccoon People” in Creek.  Sticcoa is the Anglicization of Saticoa, a Peruvian Arawak word from the Georgia coast that means “Colonists-People.”   Chattuge is the Anglicization of a Muskogee-Creek word, meaning “Red People.”  Tugaloo is the Anglicization of a Pre-Gaelic Irish and Uchee word, Tokah-le, meaning “Principal People or Elite.”   Notice that in 1820, Yonah Mountain had a Creek name, which means “bear”- Nokose.  The 1832 map below marks the first appearance of the Cherokee word for bear, Yonah, which is here misspelled as Yeona.  Chota is the Creek word for frog.  Frogtown Gap was later re-named Walasi-yi Gap (Frog Descendants – Place of) in Cherokee.   These geographical features were given Cherokee names by white settlers from North Carolina over a decade or more later.

The original eight Lower Cherokee villages were Itsate Creek and Uchee colonies, who did not want to be part of a Creek Confederacy, dominated by Muskogee-Creek speakers. Chora-ki means “Splinter People” in Muskogee.    All of their Native names are Creek words.  Until the second decade of the 18th century, South Carolina colonial records uses their Creek names such as Tamasee, Keowee, Oconee, Chauge, Edisto, etc. rather than calling them Cherokees.   This is why, Eastern Creeks have no trouble translating “Lower Cherokee” words, while Cherokee scholars call these words “remnants of an extinct language that cannot be translated.” Over time, political marriages between the ethnic Cherokees in northeastern Tennessee and the “Creek” Cherokees in South Carolina tended to bring them closer together culturally.

This is why It is clear that Northeast Georgia was occupied by the remnants of several indigenous ethnic groups, mostly from Chickasaw, Itsate-Creek (Itza descendants) Uchee and Shawnee tribes, who were not particularly interested in association with either the Cherokee Nation, which was dominated by mixed-bloods, who had moved to northwest Georgia from Tennessee . . . or the Muskogee-dominated Creek Confederacy, whose center of power had moved far to the southwest into Alabama. The Native peoples on the south side of the Blue Ridge, called themselves the Elate . . . an Itza Maya and Hitchiti Creek word that means “Foothills People.” Another version of the word was Elasi (pronounce E-la-jzheh) which white settlers spelled Ellijay.

Oh there is so much more that you are never told!

In 1915, archaeologist George Heye found an Aztec-style ceremonial knife within a grave in the Nacoochee Mound. Bet you didn’t know that!


The surprising discoveries of three famous 20th century archaeologists

Archaeologist Robert Wauchope spent most of 1939 researching the rich cultural history of the Nacoochee Valley, which is in White and Habersham Counties of Northeast Georgia.  He found that the valley had been continuously occupied since the end of the Ice Age.  He found 35 Clovis points in alluvial soil on the surface, while searching for much more recent habitations.  The valley was densely occupied from around 1200 BC to around 1700 AD.  During approximately the last century of dense occupation, he found numerous European artifacts mixed in with Lamar Culture artifacts, typical the Creek Indians.

In his book, An Archaeological Survey of Northern Georgia,  Wauchope stated that he searched for a Cherokee village in the Nacoochee Valley throughout the year, but never found one. The State of Georgia has erected a historical marker near the Nacoochee Mound, which describes the Native town site as being a Cherokee village, visited by Hernando de Soto. No Cherokee artifacts have been found in the mound or at the village site around it.

Wauchope also found a horseshoe shaped Itza Maya ballcourt near the Sautee Post Office.  However, he was young and didn’t recognize it for what it was.  He gave it a archaeological site number, but added a note that he did not know the purpose of this large earthwork.  Until the 1720s,  Sautee was called Itsate, which is the Itza Mayas’ name for themselves.

In 1957, archaeologist Joseph Caldwell began work on Tugaloo Island in Stephens County, GA, adjacent to South Carolina.  He expected to prove that both Etowah Mounds and Tugaloo Mounds were built by the Cherokees.  Instead, he found pretty much the same cultural traits and history as the Nacoochee Valley.  A large town with eight mounds thrived here from around 800 AD to 1700 AD, a which time it was sacked and burned.   This town was built on top of a series of villages, which dated back to around 1200 BC.  A small village, with crude round huts had been built in a corner of Tugaloo’s plaza after its sacking, but the mounds had never been occupied again.

In the 1980s, the State of Georgia erected a historical marker at Tugaloo that describes the site as “the oldest Cherokee town in Georgia.”  it states that the Cherokees built the eight mounds when they arrived around 1450 AD and that Cherokee priests maintained sacred fires 24 hours a day within the temples on top of the mounds.

Joseph Caldwell first dug some shallow test pits at the Chauga Mounds in Oconee County, SC in 1953.  He mostly encountered a brief occupation in the 1700s by a people that he interpreted as being Cherokee.  That made him assume that all of the occupation of Chauga and nearby Tugaloo was Cherokee.   However, like virtually all Southeastern archaeologists, past and present, Caldwell refused to learn the Creek languages.  Chauga is the Muskogee-Creek word for the Black Locust tree.  It has no meaning in Cherokee.

Archaeologist Carl Miller excavated part of one mound in 1958.  A complete excavation of the entire village site was carried out by Arthur Kelly and Robert Neitzel from August 1958 to January 1959.  They found that the village had been burned twice.  The first sacking brought in a people with cultural traits similar to those around Macon, GA at that time.  It appears that one branch of the Creeks had replaced another branch of the Creeks.

There is another odd thing about the treatment of this site in references.  There were three mounds at Chauga. None dated to the “Cherokee” Period.   Wikipedia’s anonymous author mentions only one mound and states that it was built by the Cherokees.  Don’t bother with trying to correct the article with references to Kelly’s extensive archaeological report.  Your corrections will be quickly deleted.

A Trail of Tears Myth

In 2008, in a lavish PBS documentary film on the Trail of Tears, funded by the Eastern Band of Cherokees, the talented Cherokee actor, Wes Studi, told viewers that “the lands in North Georgia, where the Cherokees had lived for thousands of years, was stolen from them in 1828, when gold was discovered in the Nacoochee Valley.”  It’s a popular myth, but not quite true. By 1824, most of the Cherokee portion of the Gold Belt had been voluntarily sold to individual whites or to the State of Georgia.  Cherokee leaders did not consider the Natives in that part of Georgia as being “real” Cherokees. Meanwhile, almost half of the Georgia Gold belt was in the Creek Nation, and Georgia grabbed it in 1825 and 1827.

One must look at the eyewitness accounts, maps and read the treaties to identify the real history of the Southern Appalachians.  Until 1784 the southern boundary of the Cherokee Tribe was the North Carolina-Georgia Line, except for a tiny sliver of land northeast of the Tugaloo River on the extreme northeastern tip of Georgia.  This fact is stated by an eyewitness account from botanist William Bartram.  When the 1776 Cherokee War broke out,  he raced southward from a Cherokee village near present day Franklin, NC to the safety of the southern side of the Tugaloo River.

In 1795, all Cherokee lands east of the Little Tennessee River in Rabun County, GA were ceded to the United States.  On the west side of the river,  Uchee heads of household were offered large allotments, which they would own fee simple, in return for renouncing any association with the Cherokee Tribe.

In 1817 and 1818,  the Creek Confederacy ceded all of its remaining land in Northeast Georgia. That land cession would become much of Metro Atlanta. Up to that time,  Clarkesville, GA had contained a trading post, which catered to a remnant population of “Creek” peoples . . . those to the south of the fort and Nacoochee Valley were loosely associated with the Creek Confederacy, while the Sokee and Uchee people to the north were loosely associated with the Cherokee Tribe.  The Sokee were originally from Tabasco State, Mexico.  They were the same people as the Miccosukee in southern Florida today.  Miccosukee means “Leaders of the Sokee.”  The official history of Clarke County remembers that its southern half was Creek, but White County, which was carved out of Habersham County in 1857, describes itself in Wikipedia and the New Georgia Encyclopedia as being “carved out of the land of Cherokee.”

In 1821, two real estate speculators from Burke County, NC traveled to the Nacoochee Valley and brokered the sale of over 7,000 acres land.  If the leadership of the Cherokee Tribe had considered the valley, Cherokee land, this could have never happened.  The next year,  families from Burke County, still a gold-mining region in that state, began moving to the Nacoochee Valley.  In 1824, the Cherokee leadership sold all of its land, east of the Chestatee River.  No one forced them to do this.  The region sold was only sparsely occupied by non-Cherokee indigenous peoples, mixed with long time descendants of the 17th century Spanish Sephardic gold miners.  “Miraculously,”  the discovery of gold in the Nacoochee Valley was announced in 1828.


There was a village with the Spanish name of Nuevo Potosi located a few miles south of present-day Dahlonega, prior to the Trail of Tears.

Gold has been mined in North Georgia since the Bronze Age.  Captain René de Laudonnière, commander of Fort Caroline, specifically mentioned that the Apalache of Northeast Georgia had grown wealthy from mining gold and greenstone in the area of present day Dahlonega, then distributing gold foil, gold chains and green stone wedges across a broad swath of eastern North America.  LOne of his officers, La Roche Ferrière, brought back samples of yellow, white and red gold from the Dahlonega, GA area.   Jacques Le Moynes painted a water color, which portrayed Creek Indians mining gold particles from the edge of a river in the Georgia Mountains.

Governor James Moore of Carolina led an expedition of British Red Coat horsemen to the edge of the Nacoochee Valley.  Here he observed the smoke plumes of dozens of gold smelters, operated by Spanish-speaking Sephardic miners.  His party beat a hasty retreat.  The ruins of two Spanish gold mining villages were found in the Nacoochee Valley during the Georgia Gold Rush.

In 1653,  British explorer, Richard Briggstock, spent several weeks in the Nacoochee Valley, with his Apalache-Creek and Spanish-speaking hosts.  During that time, he also traveled to what is now Franklin, NC.  There was a Spanish-speaking gem-mining colony there.  The Spaniards used Apalache laborers from the Nacoochee Valley town of Nokose.  Hence, the new Apalache colonial village was also named Nokase.   In the 1700s, the Cherokees called this village Nukase, but today it is remembered in a modern Cherokee dialect as Nikwasee.

Throughout the 1800s up to the present era, Southeastern academicians, at least the Caucasian and Cherokee ones, have described the region’s ancient history from the perspective of “tribes” that are now recognized by the federal government. I cringe every time I see a notice that some Caucasian anthropologist is giving a talk on “Cherokee and Creek history.”    Although the Creek Migration Legends described earlier alliances going all the way back to southern Mexico,  the modern People of One Fire (Creek Confederacy) dates from the Green Corn Festival of 1717, held at the ruins of what is now Ocmulgee National Monument.  The Chickasaw had been members of several earlier alliances, but dropped out of this one because the Muskogee language was adopted as the confederacy’s official diplomatic and legislative language.

The first appearance of the word, Cherokee, was on a map of the Southeast, hand-sketched by John and Richard Beresford in 1715 at the onset of the Yamassee War.  A loose alliance of over 14 bands, speaking as many languages, became the Cherokee tribe at the behest of British official, Colonel George Chicken, in 1725.  Chicken noted that several translators were required during the negotiations because most of the bands spoke mutually unintelligible languages.   That is a very different perspective on Cherokee history than presented today.

Contemporary newspapers provided detailed information on the discoveries of the Spanish villages.  Both these discoveries and the visits of Richard Briggstock and Governor James Moore to Creek and Spanish-speaking occupants of the Nacoochee Valley were published in 19th century history books.   For unknown reasons,  late 20th century academicians and state bureaucrats “erased” the information about Spanish Sephardic colonization of the Georgia Mountains.

Yet my Grandmother Ruby knew about it.  She would say,  “Why there were white folks living in the Georgia Mountains a hundred years before there was such a thing as a Cherokee.”  Meanwhile,  Wikipedia tells the reader that “there are some theories concerning Spanish miners in the Georgia Mountains, but there is no archaeological evidence or eyewitness accounts to substantiate these theories.”   Odds are about 20:1 that the anonymous author is a North Carolina anthropology or history professor, who has never even been in the Nacoochee Valley.

No Lower Cherokee villages were ever located south of the Keowee River.  South Carolina mixed blood Creeks settled immediately south of there.


Etymologies of some Native American place names in the Southern Blue Ridge Mountains

I was able to eventually translate the oldest words in the region by interpolating several sources for Bronze Age languages in Ireland and Scandinavia. The remainder of the words were translated via dictionaries for Itza Maya,  Panoan languages in Peru, the Mixtec-Zoque dictionary in Mexico, the Miccosukee Dictionary and the modern Muskogee-Creek Dictionary. The Muskogeans, Itzas and Panoans rolled their R’s so hard that English and French speakers typically wrote them as L’s.  The Archaic Gaelic word for kingdom or nation was Reigh or Re.  This typically became an “le or li”suffix in the Southeast.  The Irish Gaelic, Algonquian, Shawnee, Creek and Cherokee suffix for “tribe or people” is “ge, gi, ke or ki.”    Yes, that’s right, the same word is used on both sides of the Atlantic!

Enoree ~ Eno-re (Pre-Gaelic Irish)=Trade People, Enotah Mountain ~Eno-te (Pre-Gaelic Irish/Itsate Creek=Trade People

Saluda River ~ Suale-te (Itsate Creek)=Buzzard (Xuale) People.  They were the descendants of the Hopewell Culture.

Toxaway River ~ Toks-a-we (Creek)=cooking shed

Keowee River/Keoree/Kiale/Kiawah Island/Kialeki ~ Kiar-Re (Pre-Gaelic Irish/Muskogee)=Dark People.  They were from County Kerry,Ireland, which has petroglyphs identical to those in the Etowah River Valley of Georgia. Kiar-re is the origin of the word, Kerry!

Soque/Soco ~ Zoke (Mixtec-Zoque)=Civilized People, Jocassee ~ Zokasi (Mixtec-Zoque/Itsate Creek)  Civilized People-Descendants of. The Zoque are the descendants of the so-called Olmec Civilization.

Tugaloo ~ Togah-re (Pre-Gaelic Irish)=Principal or Elite People, Toccoa ~ Tokah-koa (Pre-Gaelic Irish/Arawak)=Principal or Elite People, Tuckasegee River ~ Tokahse-gi (Pre-Gaelic Irish/Muskogee)=Principal People – Descendants of.

Savannah River ~ Savano (Southern Shawnee)=Southerners, Swannanoa River ~ Suwani-owa (Muskogee)=Shawnee River.

Estatoe/Ustatoa ~ Usta-toa (Uchee)=Uchee or Water Clan, Eastanolee and Oostanaula ~ Ustanauli (Uchee)=Uchee Province

Chauga ~ Chauka (Creek)=Black Locust

Tamasee ~ Tamau-si (Itsate Creek)=Tama-Descendants of, Tama (Itza Maya, Totonac)=Trade, Tomatly ~ Tamau-tli (Itzate Creek)  Trade People.

Oconee ~ Okvni (Creek) – Water – Born in,  Oconaluftee ~ Okvni-lufte (Itsate Creek)=Oconee People – Cut off or Massacred.

Chattooga River/Lake Chatuge ~ Chata-gi (Muskogee-Creek)=Red People

Tallulah~Talula (Itsate-Creek)=district administrative town, usually with only one platform mound.

Little Tennessee River/Tanasee Creek~Taenasi (Taino/Creek)=Taino-Descendants of

Echete~Itsate (Itza Maya/Itsate Creek)=Itza (Maya) People

Nacoochee/Nikwasee~Nakosi (Muskogean)=Bear

Chenocetah Mountain~Chenosetaw (Muskogee-Creek)=Descendants of Eight Villages-People

Curahee Mountain~Kurahi (Archaic Gaelic.Itsate-Creek)=Sun Goddess-Place of

Choestoe Community~Choes-toa (Uchee)=Rabbit Clan

Nottely River~Note-le (Uchee)=Other side-people

Coosa River/Coosa Creek~Kaushe (Panoan)=Elite

Hiwassee River~Hiwalsi (Itsate Creek)=Highlanders

Chattahoochee River~Chata-Hawche (Itza Maya)=Ancient Shallow River. A large, deep river is Haw in both Itza Maya and Itsate Creek.  Muskogee-Creeks use hawche for all rivers and large creeks.

Chestatee River~Chestua-te (Uchee-Itza Maya)=Rabbit Clan River

Chiaha/Cheoah/Chehaw~Chiahaw (Itza Maya/Itsate Creek)=Salvia River.

Nantahala River~Nantahaw-le (Panaon-Itza Maya-Uchee) Rapids-River-Place of

Kennesaw Mountain/Conasauga River~konasaw-gi (Muskogee-Creek)=Konas People. Conestee~Konas-te (Itsate Creek) Konas was a province in eastern Peru and northern Georgia.

Tuskegee~Tauske-gi (Muskogee-Creek)=Pilated Woodpecker People

Tusquitee~Tauske-te (Itsate-Creek)= Pilated Woodpecker People

Yahoola~Yahaula (Muskogean)=Leader of the Sacred Black Drink ceremony

Chickamauga~Chika Mauka (Chickasaw)=Place to look out

Chattanooga~Chata-nvka (Muskogee-Creek)=Red Neck [gorge]

Etowah River~Etula (Itza Maya via Muskogee [Etalwa])=Principal town or capital

Yonah Mountain~Yona (Cherokee)=Bear*

Walasiyi Gap~Walasi-yi (Cherokee)=Frog-Place of*

*Do some etymological research yourself and it will become immediately obvious that these names were assigned by whites, who were using a dictionary from a dialect of Cherokee only spoken in certain parts of North Carolina. The Cherokee, spoken today in Oklahoma was the language spoken by Cherokees, who left Georgia on the Trail of Tears. The person or persons, who assigned the names actually knew very little about the Cherokee language.  The primary Cherokee word for bear in Oklahoma is alisokaládi. Yona is their word for a grizzly bear.  The primary Cherokee word for frog is walosi.  The village of Frogtown was in present day Lumpkin County, GA was located on Yahoola Creek.  Yahoola is a Creek word!   There are NO frogs at Walasi-yi Gap.  It is on a dry slope of Blood Mountain.  





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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.



    Richard, Great work on finding so many ancient word meanings that the university experts never would. The Natives of the South East are a very mixed people and have been for a very long seems the DNA data is proof of that now. Old names for places are sometimes passed on and sometimes are changed….you are among the Very few that know the meaning today of words like: Tallahassee.
    The “Tal-li-ke” people or “Tal-re-ki” would indicate another bronze age Gaelic speaking people as noted by the Delaware Elders living in Ohio until driven South. Those “grey eyed'” peoples lore have been around for awhile because many peoples crossed the Atlantic?

    • The next step is figuring out when these bands of people crossed the Atlantic. We can be fairly sure that the petroglyphs along the Etowah River are about the same age as those in County Kerry, Ireland . . . since they are identical.


        One lead may be the island of Antillia. It was an island on the charts that Christopher Columbus used to cross the Atlantic. It was likely the island of Cuba. The origin of the Antilla story is rooted in Phoenician seafarers. The Vikings claimed to reach it in the Norse Sagas and the Irish even reported its existence in “Immrama”. You can read a bit about it here and follow up from there if interested:

        The Phoenicians without question crossed around 3,300 years ago at the time of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty during the rule of Akhenaten and Nefertiti and they even returned to Egypt with cocaine and tobacco which were found as residue in the tomb of their son Tutankhamen. Egyptologists wrote it off as being contamination because it was assumed at that time that there was no interaction but there is a very strong reason to believe the Paracans came as Phoenicians. The elongated skulls and genetic evidence when paired with numerous parallels between the Maya and Egyptians culturally makes it unreasonable to doubt that there were interactions between the people. I would even go way out on a limb and speculate that the Pre-Olmec people were building mounds when the Phoenicians showed up and became a powerful ruling class of “Living Gods” who introduced pyramid building, the ballgames, the pipe tradition, artworks with powerful men having their left foot forward, the headdresses of the Olmec Twins (complete with the frontal lobe object), the combination of the vulture with the cobra, and various elements.

        However, I don’t believe that our current timeline is accurate. The Sphinx wasn’t built by the Egyptians. There is no doubt that the Sphinx was originally constructed around 12,000 years ago. Evidence is in the erosion lines caused by water in the area around the Sphinx itself. Egyptians even recorded that they dug the Sphinx up and carved away a Lion’s head to create the Pharaoh’s head at the time. I think there was some sort of global disaster around that time that completely wiped out much earlier civilizations around the world and evidence exists of this at Gobekli Tepi and in Peru. The extinction of the Mammoths and Wild Horses in America correlates with natural disasters. This discussion is long but well worth your time. As somebody interested in ancient history and archeology you’ll find inspiration here, I’m certain:


        This video will also fascinate you, I think. Michael Shermer represents the blind, deaf and dumb arrogant few who are trying to control the old ridiculous narrative from shifting out of their hands.


    Richard, Thanks for the reply. The Stonehenge’s/ circles of North America are carbon dated on some accounts to 10,000 BC… then later created in Europe 3000 BC. Copper of the Great lakes (99.7) purity found with “Ice man of the Alpes” dated to 3300 BC. Bronze age Sami people should now be known to you as a “Native American DNA match”? in other words, the coastline locations of Europe still had Bronze age maritime Native American peoples until the Romans drove most over to Ireland / Scotland (Alba). Those left over were called the “black Irish”, Welch, Bass, “walhiska” a Germanic term for the Bronze age people. I don’t think the North America landmass was by any means a secret to many peoples of the other side as we have been taught to believe. Also, some of the Togaha / Tokah people lived by the Armenians in the old days according to this old map…that might explain the Armenian area symbols you have found in the South?


    Mark and Richard T., In the post “Portuguese archaeologists find evidence of ancient civilization in the Azores Islands . . . linked to the Sami (Lapps)!” a POOF member under the name Moya gave the Gaelic word ‘Ait Ghalanta’ (áit ghalánta/galánta) meaning ‘beautiful place’ for Atlantis.
    For some or rather many it would seem to be absurd to think such an explanation should be considered as a possible origin for the name Atlantis.

    Even when such statements are made one should not dismiss it without giving it any thought. Is Atlantis derived from a Gaelic word? One would have to look at the location of Atlantis which is believed to be in the Atlantic Ocean and the Azores Islands in particular. You will see that the Azores Islands are closer to Ireland and the British Isles than it is to Greece (distance from the Azores Islands to Greece is roughly twice as far).
    With that in mind one would have to ask; is the word or name Atlantis truly derived from a word of the Greek language thousands miles away from the Atlantic Ocean or is it derived from a word and language relatively nearby?

    In doing some research after Moya’s comment I came across a Gaelic-English dictionary by Ewan Maceachen.

    The folowing is a reconstruction of the word or name Atlantis using Gaelic words.

    àit = a place (page 9)
    Làn = full, complete, perfect, satiated (page 262)
    Lann = an inclosure, a repository (inclosure = enclosure – page 262)
    Tìr = land, the land (page 440)

    There is no word spelled ’tis; Tis’ in this particular Gaelic-English dictionary.

    When using the words àit-làn-tìr (àitlàntìr) the meaning would be ‘place of perfect land’ or alternatively ‘place of abounded land’/’place-; land of abundance’.
    However when using the words àit-lann-tìr (àitlanntìr) the meaning would be ‘place of inclosed land’

    Here you have two almost identical words (word combinations) yet with different meanings; the latter being more logical since Atlantis is said to have been surrounded by rings which means it was enclosed.
    If the word or name Atlantis is connected to the Gaelic language the words ‘àitlàntìr’ and ‘àitlanntìr’ would be the best candidates.

    The Azores Islands which is believed to be Atlantis are (relatively) in the right place to be a major trade-center for Bronze, other metals and other products from Europe (including Ireland and British Isles), Middle-East, Africa and America (including Caribbean Islands, Meso-/Central and South America).
    Perhaps many natives in southeast north America migrated via the Azores Islands (Atlantis / àitlanntìr ?).

    Map Atlantic Ocean – Mid-Atlantic Ridge:

    Gaelic-English dictionary (publication date: 1922 – fourth edition)


    Outstanding reporting….I continue to be amazed how the ‘mainstream anything’ will dishonor itself fighting to remain closed minded and defending lies to the exclusion of exploring any new, or ignored evidence. Take the case of “renowned Egyptologist” Col. Richard William Howard Vyse who “proved” a catouche in the Great Pyramid was 4004 BC old-the exact date 16th Century Archbishop James Ussher was promoting, with the Catholic Church, as the “beginning of creation”. It is also interesting to note Vyse’s Egypt ‘exploration’ was funded in part by the church who made it clear no discoveries could “pre date the beginning of creation” (now that’s open minded science for you!). This bogus date stood unchallenged for over a century. When Scott Creighton, and others, proved that same cartouche was over 9500 BC years old-he was physically attacked and efforts to discredit him within his field were vigorously undertaken…The almost exact same thing happened when Robert Temple laid out a well explained theory that earth’s intelligent life originated in the Sirius Star System-backed up by ancient Egyptian, Dogon, and many Native American beliefs… I know you, Richard, can relate-why are we so hell bent on defending FAKE NEWS????


    Your article is very interesting, Mr. Thornton. I’d like to do more indepedent research on the subject on my own. Would you tell me the names of the contemporary newspapers that mentioned the Spanish gold miner settlements? Do you have any photocopies of them or have dates on them so I can look them up on I’d also like to find the 19th century history textbooks you mention. Have they been digitized somewhere or will I need to visit specific city record halls or libraries to find them?

    Also, I really like the maps on this article, they’re very helpfuk for picturing the region in the past. Did they come from a particular history book or article? I’d like to read about them in context.

    Your theories are fascinating, but I was always taught to try to study things at the source, so I hope you can help me dig deeper. Thank you for your time.

    • Hey Joe, Actually, I don’t have any theories. I just follow the evidence wherever they lead me. The difference is that for unknown reasons, Southeastern anthropology departments ignore the Native American words, which would be unthinkable for archaeologists I studied under in Mexico and worked with in Sweden. There are a series of articles under petroglyphs in POOF which will explain the progress of my linguistic research. Also, I created a five part series on the petroglyphs of Georgia on the People of One Fire Youtube channel. Of course, not many people have a working knowledge of Creek, Itza Maya, Spanish, French AND Swedish . . . so that gave me an advantage. LOL

      Send us an email to PeopleOfOneFire@aol and I will send you copies of the maps and the newspaper article. There is a section in the book, Antiquities of the Southern Indians by Charles C. Jones, Jr.(1874) contains a section on the discovery of a Spanish gold-mining village in the Nacoochee Valley and the presence of many stone ruins throughout North Georgia.


    It must be really frustrating for Creeks having your history jacked by Cherokee revisionists. Sometimes I disagree with certain things you write but I really enjoy reading your posts. You’re not afraid to speculate and admit that you’re speculating. Others are just throwing their own wet shit at a wall and calling it “art” when it slips down to the floor and leaves a filthy trail of stink behind it. One of the most frustrating aspects of researching my own ancestors is that the same folks making up Cherokee history are also actively trying to cover up the truth. The one thing that irks me more than anything else is how Cherokee “educators” are perpetuating the lie that Dragging Canoe died in 1792. He didn’t die in 1792. He stepped aside as commanding War Chief of the Chickamauga because he was 60 and traditionally a 60 year old man had no business leading young warriors into battles he could no longer fight physically. Is why he hand-picked John Watts. It is being taught not only to tourists but also to young Cherokee that he “died suddenly following a celebration in which he danced the Ghost Dance all weekend” despite the fact that his name appears on the “Treaty of Washington, 1816” right after the young John Ross as “Cheucunsene”. Some are trying to claim it was one of his sons when early American documents even state that the eldest chief with Major Ridge, Colonel John Lowery, John Ross, and the others was an old war chief in his 80s who “commanded yet an air of nobility despite his age and unwillingness to speak to or be spoken to” by President Madison himself whom he considered a “mere boy”. He spoke only through Ross and President Madison was forced to communicate with him by asking Ross to ask him questions. After meetings with the President were concluded and Northern Creek lands were signed over to the Cherokee Nation (for defeating the Red Sticks) the other chiefs all went to New York as celebrity guests and the young John Ross escorted Cheucunsene back home with three dozen warriors on horseback who traveled with him everywhere he went. Why there is an active effort to cover up this history I can only speculate, but I suspect it has something to do with exposing the fact that the Cherokee Nation was created on Northern Creek lands taken from the Red Sticks and that the only reason the Cherokee didn’t ally with Tecumseh and the Northern Creeks was because Dragging Canoe wanted revenge on the Northern Creeks for helping Colonel John Sevier kidnap his six year old daughter in 1788. He never forgave that betrayal once he got his daughter back and she told him it was Creeks who took her. He waited 25 years to pay them back and in the process completely humiliated General Andrew Jackson who thought by getting Cherokee to help him Georgians would be able to take the Northern Creek lands. When Jackson found out what the Cherokee did after that war he went into a rage. Being Scottish he knew all about holding grudges also and paid the Cherokee back with the Indian Removal Act and Trail of Tears. If Cherokee talk about this history of getting the United States to give them Creek lands that the Cherokee took they can’t play victim when they cry about the United States taking it back when Andrew Jackson became President.

    Here is a link to that Treaty. You can see the signatures toward the end. Cheucunsene (pronounced “Chi-you-cun-see-nee”) was Dragging Canoe. Nowadays some Cherokee are intentionally even spelling it different (as Tsiyu’gunsini) in order to distort history. That’s how it appears everywhere in modern books and even on Wikipedia. Questions have been raised to certain individuals in search of an explanation and I’ve received nothing but awkward hands-in-pockets shuffles and silence in response so I’m taking it to be intentional and guessing at a motive from reading your various posts. Tsiyu’gunsini appears nowhere on a Treaty in that spelling to my knowledge. Not on a single historical document. Cheu is Canoe and Cunsene is Dragger. His sons were Cheusdi Conseen (Little Dragging Canoe) and Chuleo Conseen (Young Dragging Canoe). Any male with the name Conseen today is a direct male descendant. Neither of his sons ever used the name Cheucunsene and by this time they were using Conseen as a surname.…/treaty-of-washington

    Anyway, thanks for putting this site together. I’ve learned a lot reading your posts and following up on things you say. It’s given me countless leads with my own research when I didn’t know where to look for certain things. Keep doin’ what you do.

    • That’s true! Dragging Canoe did not die at age 60. The real Cherokee history is far more complex and interesting that their fabricated history.


        Too true. The real history of humanity is far more complex and interesting than the fabricated history. One thing our ancestors all had in common, regardless of language or tribe, was that they all once identified themselves as “the human beings” first and foremost. Then they started trying to map the terrain in order to navigate it more successfully and forgot in the process that the map is not the territory. Now we’re all living on reservations of the mind, fighting to conquer the boundaries which exist only in the minds of others and striving to defend borders of our own imaginations. One day we’re gonna do what the Chief did at the end of One Flew Over The Cuckoo’s Nest and get free ourselves from this nut house . . . or we’ll die trying.


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