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The Red-Haired Giants of Peru, New Zealand and the Southern Highlands

The Red-Haired Giants of Peru, New Zealand and the Southern Highlands


(Above)  This handsome family could well be your neighbors, who proudly trace their ancestry to one of the British Isles or Scandinavia. They are not.  They are full-blooded Maori in New Zealand.  They trace their ancestry to one of the two Maori clans, who were white-skinned, very tall and freckled, plus had either blond or red hair.  Only in recent generations, have they intermarried with Polynesian Maori clans.  Genetic testing revealed that this family had no ancestors, who were recent white settlers of New Zealand. 

The white Maori’s are called Tuhae-ka.  Tokah-le means “freckled” in the Creek languages.  Are these words connected?


If your heritage is Uchee, Chickasaw, Creek, Seminole or Koasati, only part of your indigenous ancestry is from Northeast Asia.

At the People of One Fire, we constantly warn readers that what is presented as the truth today, may be only part of the truth tomorrow. We are constantly analyzing and interpolating new knowledge with older knowledge.  Our quest is not to prove that we are some pure indigenous master race, but merely to answer the question, “Who are we?”

I am repeatedly amused by articles and telephone calls from scholars, living other parts of the United States that assume Southeastern Indians to all be short and therefore seven foot skeletons  were obviously non-indigenous.  Northerners are always shocked when I tell them that the Creek Indians averaged a foot taller than the Spanish and French.  The Spanish called the Creek’s ancestors, Indios Gigantes.

In 2016, we watched three incredible TV documentaries for New Zealand Public Television by Gabbie Plumm.   The first one was about the “Red Haired Giants” who settled New Zealand before the arrival of Polynesians.  The Red-Hair Giants and Polynesians assimilated.  In the process, their descendants, the Maori, had many cultural traits and technologies not seen in other parts of Polynesia.

After reading this edition of People of One Fire, please watch that documentary by Gabbie Plumm again.  It will be even more meaningful. The URL is at  Red Haired Giants.

There were several bits of information presented by Ms. Plumm that bothered me intellectually.  I suspected that they had implications that went far beyond what she presumed.  They were:

  • The Maori,  Itza Maya and Itsate Creeks of the Lower Southeastern United States all use the  suffix “pa” for “place of.”
  • Like the Itza Mayas and the ancestors of the Itsate Creeks,  the Red Haired Giants in New Zealand built agricultural terrace complexes out of stacked, fieldstone walls.
  • The descendants of the Red Haired Giants in New Zealand carried substantial Haplo Group C DNA typical of Peru.
  • The genes of both the Red Haired Maori of New Zealand and the Blue Eyed Indians in Peru can ultimately be traced to southeastern Iran . . . but the Red Haired Maori say that they actually were driven out of India by dark skinned peoples. 
  • The chroniclers of the Pizarro Expedition, which conquered Peru, described a province composed of “blue-eyed, white skinned Indians,” who were the allies of the Spaniards in their wars against the Incas, but were almost exterminated by a smallpox plague.  Yet today there are still blue eyed Indians in that part of Peru.  Gringo anthropologists assume that they are descendants of lustful conquistadors, but genetic testing reveals otherwise.
  • Once the Polynesians arrived in New Zealand, they switched from reliance on outrigger canoes to larger boats, which look remarkably like the sea-going boats of Bronze Age Europe.

Vackra blåögda, blonda svenska flicka från Iran

The University of København in Denmark has become the world’s leading center of genetic research.  In 2016, it made the astonishing discovery that the blue eyes, pronounced cheek bones, plus blond or red hair was NOT carried northward into Scandinavian by Germanic invaders during the advent of the Iron Age or caused by living in a cold climate.  The genes for such features have been traced to southeastern Iran or perhaps the indigenous people of the Indus River Valley.  Their descendants, still having blue or gray eyes, can be found among certain tribes in Afghanistan.  These blue-eyed Afghans are probably NOT the descendants of Alexander the Great’s soldiers . . . as National Geographic tells you.  The blond Scandinavians are relative newcomers.

In other words, the first civilization of the in the Indus River Valley were possibly blue-eye blonds, not Semites.   Hitler was not only a monster, but got it all wrong.  The Aryans had dark hair and short bodies like the Persians and Herr Hitler.  The Nazi ideal of tall, blue-eyed, blonds was actually associated with a people, who the Aryans drove out of Persia.  

The Tanum Petroglyphs on the coast of SW Sweden describe a Bronze Age invasion by ships, which dwarfed the boats of the locals.

The Bo Riddle

The Panoan peoples dominate eastern Peru, plus provided many of the basic words and cultural traditions for the Creek languages.  Their word for “living place” is “bo.”  It survives today in the Southeastern United States today in such words as the Cusabo Indians and Osabaw Island.  

Denmark and southern Sweden were the center of an advanced Bronze Age civilization.  In that region to this day, the word for “living place” is also “bo.”   Derivatives of “bo” can be found in the Scandianavian word for village, which is “by.”   That survives as many place names in eastern England, such as Godby, Woodby, etc.   The Anglo-Saxon word borough is also derived from “bo.” 

What the Scandinavian geneticists are now saying is that the aboriginal people of Scandinavia looked something like the Uchee (Yuchi) or the peoples of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan. Their descendants are the Saami of Lappland.   They were of mixed Caucasian and Mongoloid ancestry.  The classic Scandinavian blond-redhead people came by sea, not from Germany.  The Scandinavian languages resulted from Germanic elite with iron weapons, dominating these immigrants. 

The Chicken Riddle

In 2016, the People of One Fire also had a earth-shattering article about the indigenous chicken of the Americas.  Recent genetic analysis as proven that the Araucana Chicken was created long before the arrival of the Spaniards by crossing a tail-less fowl from South America with an ancient fowl that formerly lived in the Indus River Valley.   In fact,  modern commercial chicken breeds owed much of the superior qualities to the Araucana, not scrawny European and Asian chickens.   At the time, my presumption was that ancestors of the American chicken long ago migrated from the Indus Valley across the Bering Straight land bridge . . . or something like that.  I couldn’t quite figure out how the Indus Valley chickens skipped China and Southeast Asia. 

The Tokah-si

The three dominant members of the Creek Confederacy were the Koweta, Kusata and the Tokah-se (Tuckabatchee). In the original migration legends that I found in 2015,  the Koweta said that they were the descendants of the Apalache . . . whose name means “From Amazonia – descendants of.”   The Kusata’s migration legend placed their origin in western Vera Cruz State, Mexico.  However, they and their kin in Mexico were especially tall, so they might also be descended from the “tall sea people.”  No migration legend survives for the Tokah-se, but they were very tall and brawny with many freckles or spots on them.  The Tokah-se originally lived in the Tuckasegee River Valley, Sapphire Valley and Highlands Valley of North Carolina, along with the area between the Keowee and Tugaloo Rivers in South Carolina. The words Tugaloo and Tugaloo are derived from Tocahle.


The Tugaloo Stone

The Tugaloo Stone was found near the banks of the Tugaloo River in Georgia and his now on display at Travelers Rest State Historic Site near Toccoa, GA.  Several weeks ago, I turned my photographs of the Tugaloo Stone up side down rather than analyze the complex images in the same format that all others had.  I almost immediately realized that these were the same images I had seen near where I lived in Southern Sweden on the Oresund Channel.  Several of the images on the Tugaloo Stone were boats, identical to Bronze Age boats on petroglyphs in Southern Sweden, Denmark and southern Norway.

The Solar Cross and Royal Sun

The Solar Cross (Etula Cross) is considered the most sacred symbol of the Uchee People and was adopted by the Creek People as the Sacred Fire.  It is seen on petroglyphs in much of North America, but is endemic among the Bronze Age sites in Scandinavia and in Iron Age art throughout much of Western Europe.  In Europe it is typically know as the Solar Wheel.  However, the earliest appearance of this symbol is on the art of  the city of Mohenjo Daro in the Indus River Valley in the period between 3000 BC and 1800 BC. 

The exact same glyph was used in Southern Scandinavia,  Georgia and among the Mayas to indicate a Great Sun or High King.  The glyph appeared about 1000 years earlier in Southern Scandinavia than it did in Georgia or the Maya writing system.

The Harappan (Indus Valley) Civilization

Are the Hillabee Creeks the descendants of the ancient Indus Valley civilization?  It sounds ludicrous, except . . . Their original name was Hirapa, but pronounced in their language, the syllables that sounded like Hilabe to English speakers.

The people or peoples of the Indus River Basin in present day Pakistan and Iran created the most advanced civilization of their era.  Its largest city is now called Mohenjo-daro, but was probably called at that time Kukkutarma, which means “Chicken City.”   Anthropologists still are not certain, if the chickens were raised for roasting, eggs or cock-fighting.   However, the fact that the indigenous chicken of the Andes traces half its heritage from there is highly significant . . . if one watches the documentary on the Red Haired Giants of New Zealand.

The BBC recently streamed a fascinating program on the Indus Valley Civilization. It is barely mentioned in most World History textbooks, published in the United States, even though its cities contained astonishing technology such as sewage systems, fresh water purification and distribution systems and massive agricultural irrigation systems.  I immediately noticed how similar to the Paracus cities built in the coastal desert of Peru.  Both civilizations built almost entirely out of sun-dried bricks and also utilized extremely sophisticated technology for the transfer and distributions of water over long distances. Even the designs on the pottery were similar.

In addition to being skilled architects and hydraulic engineers, the people of the Harappan Civilization were the master mariners of their time.  Archaeologists have found proof that Harappan boats plied the coasts of Indian Ocean and brought back exotic commodities from distant lands.  The distances that they traveled equaled or exceeded the ships of the later Phoenician Civilization.

Historians are not certain, who actually lived in the Indus Valley Civilization.  DNA has been extracted from skeletons associated with various time periods that the civilization thrived. It is currently being analyzed by two genetics labs.  Although the current regime in Pakistan claims the people of the Harappan civilization are the direct ancestors of modern Pakastanis, scientists are no sure.  There are definitely artistic symbols and religious traditions, which became associated with the Hindu religion, but the skeletons do not exactly look like those of most people today in Pakistan and Indian.  Also, the people, who lived in the Indus Valley after the abandonment of the Harappan cities had different cultural traits.

 At the end of the program the British archaeologists and historians discussed the fate of the Harrapan cities.  Over a period of many centuries, the channels of the Indus River and its tributaries drifted away from the major cities.  The cities ceased to be ports and then it became increasingly difficult to irrigate the fields in what was otherwise had become a desert.  The commentary ended the program by saying, “Perhaps they just all sailed away one day and didn’t come back.”  The closing frame was of a terra cotta portrayal of a Bronze Age Harappan boat.



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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.



    Hey Richard, Yet another great post.

    Perhaps you can include the canoe petroglyph from Rapa Nui (Easter Island) too the Tugaloo and southern Sweden canoe petroglyph to show the similarities.
    Also there are many similar symbols (letters?) between the RongoRongo script of Rapa Nui and the Indus Harappa script.
    The Indus valley script is believed to be linked to the paleolithic script.

    Links canoe petroglyph Rapa Nui / Easter Island: (Note: turn the Rapa Nui canoe petroglyph upside down)

    Links comparison RongoRongo script – Indus Harappa script:


    Richard, There are 4 known ancient Kingdoms that started using written scripts at 3200 BC. But the knotted written scripts of the land now called Peru goes back to 5000 BC. I’m still searching history books for the people that used the same system in the 16-17 century in the South East U.S. I don’t think this written system was used by the Olmec’s, Maya or the Mexcah (Aztecs). I think that type of writing system was brought by fisherman people that had once lived in Peru.
    This type of knots spaced on lines written script could have been changed over time to what is called “Ogam” by the Irish/ Welch. In stead of knots, crossing lines started being used by the “Black Irish” people. This system of writing has being found in the US, Western Europe, and as far as Turkey. Perhaps the Sea fairing Natives of this land brought the concept of writing to the old world?


    Hey Richard
    I ran across an article from NPR about stone age tools found in India dating back about 300,000 yrs. They were made with the same technique as tools in Africa
    Was this tool making technique found in New Zealand or the pacific area?

    While the scientist do not know which branch of the human tree lived there that long ago, the big question is was the technique developed independently? Did the people show others how to make tools this way?
    There is so much happening all over the world in archaeology now that with the new dating techniques I hope we get a clearer picture of the Migration patterns out of Africa.
    Keep up the good work, I really enjoy your articles!

    • Wayne, you are asking me questions in an area in which I know little . . . paleontology. They are good questions, however.


    Wayne. To get a clearer picture you would first need to drop any preconceived ideas about a great migration out of Africa

    There are 3, 4 or 5 races in the world. They did not all originate from Africa

    Knowledge may not have originated in Summer

    There is a view knowledge may have originated in the far North. Maybe Thule.


      Theory is over time, pockets grew independent of each other. Interesting that maybe a tall, white, red haired race (whatever they were) beat the Polynesians. In the US some Indian tribes have stories about mound builders. They say they were already here. I have no idea if that’s true but stories passed down usually have some truth to them.

      • The Uchee are descended from the Copena and Adena mound builders, some branches of the Shawnee are the descendants of the Hopewell Culture, while the Creeks are the descendants of the Swift Creek and “Mississippian Period” mound builders. However, the title of the High King of the Apalache-Creek Kingdom was Paracusite, which is also the name of the tall red-haired people on the coast of Peru.


    Please connect the dots of your findings to the finding of Graham Hancock and Randall Carlson

    • There are hundreds of impact craters in the Southeast. The c. 12000 BC impacts are not a theory. They are a fact.


        I’m not arguing against the impact. I’m suggesting your research is a missing piece of the puzzle and an extremely important one too.

        • Ronnie, the People of One Fire was started 14 years ago by 18 Muskogean professionals and professors. Our prime objective is finding our who we are, not answering all the mysteries of the past. The Creek Indians have a very complex and ancient history with ancestors from many parts of the Americas, plus Bronze Age Sweden and Ireland. The Gringo Anthropologists dummified us into being savages running around the woods near naked. LOL


            Case in point, I would consider myself a victim to those Gringo Anthropologists viewpoints but I have always been intrigued with the civilizations of the ancient world. I am grateful for finding this site because in terms of the ancients everyone talks about the Egyptians, Incas, Mayans, Easter Island, Mesopotamia, even the western tribes like the Pueblo, Navajo, and Hopi people. Yet I never heard much of the eastern tribes like the creek and the Iroquois.

          • We are NOT an Eastern tribe. My indigenous DNA was labeled Mesoamerican by the genetics lab. All the Creek migration legends begin somewhere in Mexico. However, we also carry Panoan from Peru and Sami from Sweden. The Sami DNA is from my Uchee ancestry, which was mixed with the Creek.

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