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This is the day that my great-grand-daddy surrendered

This is  the day that my great-grand-daddy surrendered


I honor Sgt. Wyllis Jackson Bone – Cobb’s Legion, Army of Northern Virginia . . . and an avid supporter of Roosevelt’s New Deal!

On April 10, 1864, after going through living hell for four years, my Creek ancestors headed back home to the soft green hills of Northeast Georgia, after fighting somebody else’s war.  I refuse to let thieves in the night . . . from the left and the right . . . either erase their memory, demonize them into racist monsters or remold them into heroes of those who want to make the rich, richer and the poor, poorer.  They were yeoman farmers, caught up in a storm created by others.  They did not own slaves. Under the laws of Georgia that stayed on the books until Jimmy Carter was elected governor . . . The Creek veterans of the American Revolution, Cherokee Wars and War of 1812, who were originally given state citizenship and veteran’s reserves in Georgia, soon could not vote, hire a white man, own slaves, attend public school,  own commercial real estate,  work in a licensed profession, serve on jury, be a law enforcement officer or even testify in their own behalf in a courtroom. 

My ancestors primary motivation for joining Cobb’s Legion was that, early on in the war, the Confederate Congress gave full citizenship to the Creeks, Seminoles, Cherokees, Choctaws and Seminoles.  Politically correct newscasters and ignorant politicians never tell you this. My ancestors were in the most horrific battles ever fought by American soldiers. In fact, their regiment . . . Cobb’s Legion . . . is considered by many historians to be the bravest military unit of either the South or the North.  The regimental flag of Cobb’s Legion is now the Georgia State Flag.  A few years ago when the state flag was changed to remove the Confederate Battle Flag, Jimmy Carter and I seemed to be the only people, who knew that.  Talking heads from the leftwing and rightwing perspective apparently did such a good job of erasing history that they had forgotten the facts themselves.

At noon on September 17, 1862, the 550 men of Cobb’s Legion were looking at 25,000+ Yanks attacking them across Antietam Creek.

I didn’t intend to write this article until late this afternoon.   While taking a break from fixing up my fixer upper house, I chanced upon an article about the formal surrender of Lee’s army on April 10, 1864.  In describing the decimation of the Army of Northern Virginia by the spring of 1865,  it mentioned that the famous Confederate unit, Cobb’s Legion, has ceased to exist after the horrors of the actions at the Peach Orchard, Devil’s Den and Little Round Top at Gettysburg.   I knew that a leg of my Great Grandfather Jack had been ripped off by a cannon shell’s shrapnel at the Devil’s Den.

Out of curiosity, I looked up the Wikipedia article on Cobb’s Legion and was absolutely astounded that Great-Grandpa Jack had fought in every major battle, involving the Army of Northern Virginia.  A large portion of Cobb’s Legion was made up of Irish immigrants and mixed-blood Creeks.  Very few, if any men below officer rank, had anything to gain out of the continuance of slavery.  They were victims of slavery because that evil institution depressed the wages of working folks.   I never really understood, why the Irish composed such a disproportionate part of the Southern armies.   Guess they wanted to be respected by their neighbors.

Cobb’s legion at the Battle of Fredericksburg, VA.

Do you remember the dramatic scene in the movie, “Gods and Generals,” when Union forces concentrated on a salient in the low stone wall at Marye’s Heights in the Battle of Gettysburg.  That’s the flag of Cobb’s Legion in the background as Great-Grandpa Jack was one of the men stopping the attack.   Earlier in the war,  Great-Grandpa Jack was one of the 550 men in Cobb’s Legion that stopped over 25,000 attacking Yanks at Burnside Bridge during the Battle of Antietam . . . saving Lee’s army from annihilation.   That was the stuff that Great-Grandpa Jack was made of.  After Cobb’s Legion was dissolved, he played in Longstreet’s Corps band and served on the staff of Major General John P. Gordon.  With a wooden leg, he couldn’t be in the thick of battle after Gettysburg, but continued to have bullets and cannon shells whiz past him.

There is one mystery that Great-Grandpa Jack never explained fully.  We had the rifle that he carried in the Civil War.  He was supposed to throw it in a large stack of rifles during the surrender ceremony.   He obviously didn’t.  All he would say to people was that Yankee officers were even dumber than their Southern counterparts.

My other maternal great and gg-grandfathers were reassigned to units that formerly had been under the command of Stonewall Jackson, later commanded by generals Jubal Early and John P. Gordon.  They fought in all those horrific 1864 battles in the Shenandoah Valley . . . marching past my future farm on Toms Brook several times.   In fact, one of my gg-grandfathers was captured, while on picket duty, at the driveway entrance to our future farm on November 4, 1864.  It is statistically improbable, but none of my Creek ancestors were killed during the Civil War, despite being in most of the major battles.  After the war, though,  all of them despised the Bourbons . . . the tiny minority of arrogant slave-owning mega-planters, who dragged Georgia into the horrors of the Civil War, over the opposition of the majority of white, male voters.  You see . . .

Georgians voted AGAINST seceding from the Union!

The planter elite in Georgia used their economic power to bribe legislators into overriding the statewide vote of the people.  The Civil War and continued machinations of the Bourbons after the war, caused the South to essentially be a Third World country until the 1960s.  Both the Hollywood moguls, who repeatedly churn out South-bashing movies and the cynical party operatives of the Nixon Administration, who created the “Southern Strategy” have no clue how long and deeply the descendants of non-slave-owning families suffered after the Civil War.

For the first 16 years of her life, my mother rarely saw any money.   Her family thought themselves better off than many families because they owned their land and had plenty of food.   My mother saw her first significant amount of greenbacks when my grandfather went to work for the WPA and then they received reparations from the Federal government because of land that was stolen from them in the 1870s! because they were Indians.   My grandfather parlayed the WPA checks into enough money to rent an abandoned bank building and convert it into a general store.  At age 17, my mother became the first person in her family to graduate from high school . . . as the valedictorian . . . then was awarded a full college scholarship.  My grandfather carried her to the University of Georgia in a mule wagon.  After leaving the farm when I was about 5 years old, my grandparents worked hard, but lived comfortably from the general store and fried pie sales.

Papa Obie’s general store was in the blue building, which then was natural brick.

I never knew Great-Grandpa Jack, even though he lived to 102.  In some photographs, he was wearing a “Seminole” outfit . . . at least that is what it looked like to little boy.  Other photographs showed most of the people at a family reunion wearing “Seminole” clothing.  Apparently,  he was a mikko (chief), but we could never get any details.  When we cousins asked about our Creek heritage, my grandmother would get angry and say, “I don’t want to talk about it.  They treated us worse than the Coloreds.”  More about that later. The last  picture that my grandmother had of her father was when he was past 100.  He was wearing his old Confederate uniform and sitting in a rocking chair.  He had a long beard and flowing white hair.  Those piercing eyes of his seemed to cut right through the camera lens.

I knew Great Grandpa Jack by reputation, though, as a smart, hard-working man, who didn’t hesitate to speak up against evil . . . whatever its form.   Whenever he became angry at some injustice, he would slam his walking cane repeatedly against the floor . . . sometimes making neighbors think that a rifle had been fired.  Being a Creek Indian, he believed that women should be equal in all things and strongly supported the right of women to vote and the right of all working folks to have a decent living.  My grandmother had her own checking account and was treated as an equal by my Grandpa Obie.  She had eight years of education from a school taught by the Methodist minister in the basement of their church in Ruckers Bottom.  She could not attend public school.  She decided that making Injun pottery and baskets wouldn’t pay the bills after the Boll Weevil struck and so started making fried pies and selling them in my Papa Obie’s general store.  The fried pies eventually grew to sales, equivalent today of $40,000 a year.

What really pushed Great-Grandpa Jack into being somewhat of a political activist were some horrific events in the first three decades of the 20th century.  Until then, the Northeast Georgia Creeks had been “heroes.”  They were Patriots during the American Revolution.  In the War of 1812, they refused to get in involved with the Redstick War, but served in a regular army unit (called appropriately, the Creek Regiment) on the Georgia Coast, where they protected coastal communities from raids by British Marines and Rangers.  Almost all the young men served with honor in the Confederate Army.  However, around 1895 things changed.  The Bourbons whipped up racial hatred among the working class whites in much the same way that they have manipulated Southern working class whites in recent decades to first hate gay/lesbian citizens, then Latin American immigrants and now, “Librul Marxists.”

Suddenly, it was dangerous for my grandmother and her siblings to even go into the county seat of Elberton.  White trash kids would throw mud and manure at them.   The Bone Family’s Revolutionary War Veteran Reserves often included prime bottomland on the Savannah and Broad Rivers.  Some Bourbons in Elberton decided that they wanted the farm land in Ruckers Bottom, which was primarily inhabited by mixed blood Native American families.   As an act of terror,  the Bourbons hired some thugs to rape and lynch my grandmother’s older 16 year old sister.  Her body was left hanging from a tree at the edge of the Creek community.

Great Grandpa Jack soon got involved in Populist activities, but also participated in some raids on Bourbon-sponsored rallies . . . also burning of barns belonging to racists . . . . eventually driving the murderers of my great-aunt out of the county.    It is somewhat surprising that a Civil War veteran would become such a strong supporter of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, but he felt that despite Roosevelt being from an aristocratic family, his heart was fully empathetic to the “Average Joe.”

My grandparents had no time for racial hatred.  Cousin Ray, a POOF subscriber can verify that Papa Obie’s general store was not segregated . . . that goes for the bathrooms and the coal-burning pot belly stove.  On a cold winter’s day, Papa Obie’s “colored” friends sat in the circle around the stove along with his other friends.  We are not allowed to say the N word, even its polite form of Negro.   There was even a young, mentally-retarded man, who everyone called “Good Friend,” who was welcome around the stove circle.

Oh, there was something else you should know about Great Grandpa Jack,  he might have been a librul Populist terrorist and one of them thar Progressives, who refused to take Adolf Hitler as his Lard and Safeyer . . . but he was definitely no wuss.  At age 78, he married a very pretty 28 year old widow of Irish and Creek Indian descent.  They stayed very happily married until his death at age 102.  What a man!

Great Grandpa Jack returns in the summer of 2001

During the summer of 2001,  the new Creek-Southeast message board was abuzz with inquiries from Creek women in Alabama and northern Florida.  Many of them were having the same dream over and over again.  They were trying to find a Creek line of mikkos named Bone in Alabama and northern Florida.  Then some Cherokee medicine women in North Carolina had the same dream and thangs got really kornfuzing.

The dream always began with an elderly Creek mikko, dressed in a tattered Confederate uniform, rising out of a white mound.   He had a wooden leg.  He would first say, “Bone is my name.  Hard times are coming.”  He then warned them of the looming terrorist attack, which would be followed by the rise of fascism in the United States. Most didn’t have a clue what he was talking about, when he prophesied the 9/11 attack. He castigated them for being descended from Master Farmers, yet not even having a garden.  He urged them to teach Creek farming techniques to their white neighbors because a starving time was eventually going to come, in which no chemicals would be available.   He urged them to teach their knowledge of non-chemical farming and medicinal herbs to their neighbors.  In closing, he told them that it was very important that they find the “Black Book” . . .  which had been hidden from them . . . whatever that was.  He then climbed a golden stairway into heaven.

Until the 1970s, the Creek Bone Family descendants were concentrated in North Georgia, the Plant City, FL area,  the Broken Arrow-Tulsa, OK area and the Henrietta-Muskogee, OK area . . . but now they are scattered all over the nation.  Nevertheless . . . now you know who BONE was.   You go figure!


Appendix :  Civil War battles fought in by my Great-Grandfather

  •    Yorktown (April 1862)
  •     Lee’s Mill (April 16, 1862)
  •     Seven Days Battles (June 25 – July 1, 1862)
  •     Malvern Hill (July 1, 1862)
  •     South Mountain (Crampton’s Gap) (September 14, 1862)
  •     Sharpsburg (September 17, 1862)
  •     Fredericksburg (December 11–15, 1862)
  •     Chancellorsville (May 1 – May 4, 1863)
  •     Gettysburg (July 1 – July 3, 1863) [Peach Orchard, Devil’s Den, Little Round Top]
  •     Chickamauga (September 19 – September 20, 1863)
  •     Chattanooga (September – November 1863)
  •     Siege of Knoxville (November–December 1863)
  •                 Siege of Fort Sanders near Knoxville
  •     The Wilderness (May 5 – May 6, 1864)
  •     Spotsylvania Court House (May 8 – May 21, 1864)
  •     North Anna (May 23 – May 26, 1864)
  •     Cold Harbor (June 1 – June 3, 1864)
  •     Petersburg (June 1864 – April 1865)
  •     Front Royal (August 16, 1864)
  •     Cedar Creek (October 19, 1864)
  •     Sayler’s Creek (April 6, 1865)
  •     Battle of Appomattox Court House (April 9, 1865)
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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.



    Bone has several significant implications. It an important catch word in AF &AM. mispronounced tho as “bone” not boneh. My son was tagged with “bone” by his mestizo grandfather as it is a short version of Hebrew & biblical word for builder. That side of family has used it for generations, when someone is construction oriented as child. The actual word is B-n-h with vowel Boneh “bohnay” . One can speculate if the original “Bone” was part of those Jewish mining villages.

    • I do know that Bone is listed as a name adopted by Sephardic Jews, who moved to Scotland. They were invited by the Scottish Presbyterians. However, that side of my family is showing up with a high level of Mesoamerican and Uchee-type DNA markers. Uchees carry Sami, Finnish, Pre-Gaelic Irish, Panoan (Peru) and Basque DNA markers.


    This is a wonderful story of your mother overcoming adversity, plus the honorable legacies of your Great Grandfathers! I enjoyed it very much. Thank you for sharing this piece of personal history with us.

    • Thank you. Many of us are really getting tired of our forefathers being either demonized or trivialized. My Creek-Uchee ancestors were essentially farmers, who loved the land and God’s creations. They wanted to get along with their neighbors and live peaceful lives.


    What is truly “surprising” about the Irish immigrants is why so many of them fought on the UNION side. Most of the Anglo-Saxon Southron were Scot/Irish, so why wouldn’t many of the Irish immigrants fight along side of their American cousins? Of course, like the film “Gangs of New York” showed, many were recruited straight off the boat with tales of “fighting against slavery” and “proving their Patriotism”. smh Talk about the “elite using their economic power”, that worked on BOTH sides of Lincoln’s War.

    After Lincoln’s War and during Reconstruction, it was “The Bourbons”, the conservative elite, who rallied the Southron People into surviving the Carpet-Baggers and Scalawags and black soldiers and black politicians who were hell-bent on destroying The South and the Anglo-Saxon, Southron People.

    Then came aristocratic Ol’ FDR and his communist lesbian wife and their Marxist minions bringing in their “New Deal” communism to America, thus prolonging the Depression and getting us into WW 2 in order to help the anti-Christian, communist Russians and the Colonial European Nations against the
    Christian Germans. I always wonder why Chancellor Hitler is considered the ultimate “Bad Guy” when Roosevelt, Churchill, & Stalin caused the deaths of so many more people both before and after the war? The victors write the History books I suppose?

    By the Way, my Great Grand-Dad fought until he got sick in Vicksburg and my Great Grand-Uncle fought with General Watie throughout Lincoln’s War. Both were “Unreconstructed” until they died.

    • On my paternal side, my gg-grandfather was captured at Vicksburg. He was paroled just in time to be in the thick of things throughout the Atlanta Campaign. He surrendered in Greensboro, NC as part of Hardee’s Army of the Tennessee.


      . Time to be historically picky. the “British ” migrants to America, were 1)Anglo-Saxon. i.e. English. the well-to-do ones had the plantations, owned slaves. 2) Kelts, i.e. Irish, Scotch, Welsh. Yeoman farmers, who did mix with natives . Those were & are separate ethnic & identity groups. My Scots-Irish kin (migrated in 1820s) would whupped or refused to speak with anyone calling them Anglo-Saxon or English. & their white & mestizo descendants are still clear on the difference. None of us admit to any “English” or Anglo-Saxon ancestry. If you had used term “British” that would have been more accurate. Such distinction are not a small matter in Great Britain or our American South, even now.


        Well, if we are being “historically picky”, both the Angels, the Saxons, the Irish, the Scot and the Normans were of the same Germanic stock originally. They just arrived in Britain at different times. LOL


          Time for a another person who knows history, to jump in. I work with the Overton YDA project. most of the clans/families tested are Celtic or Keltic . The prestige ones from Hanover are Anglo-Saxon & by YDNA Germanic & they were the slave owners with plantations. Some others, do show as “Viking”, different again. The Normans were “Viking” not Germanic. That is clear with the science of DNA. that point above is valid. You could argue that they are all “Caucasians” but then so are the Ovetons with Iberian Jewish YDNA. & even Arabs” are Caucasian. So your point is not only wrong but very prejudiced. The English (AS) were & are very prejudice toward Kelts. They called the Irish “Dogs”. Very different cultures, attitudes & even language usage. This “establishment” mentality of lumping historically distinct groups, tribes into a catchpot,, destroys accuracy & denies truth. , It typical of how our peoples have been treated in history books, texts and government polices.

          • There is a lot of genetic and artifact evidence that the Bronze Age people of southern Sweden were Gaelic. Venerable Bede wrote that both the Picts and the Angles were originally from southeastern Sweden. The Angles absorbed northern Germanic words when the migrated westward into southern Denmark.


            possibility. the point that A. Hawk & I are making is that in Great Britain & even here today & even ignoring genetics, there was & is very different attitudes, standards and word usage between the English & Celts. How in The US, they had very different interactions with Natives & even Negroes, different farming styles, settlement patterns. & lumping them together, belittles and slanders the Celts place in America, even more so in the South. It has always been the style of the “elites” to lump all the undermensch together, as inferior & insignificant.


            So “Viking” is a genetic thing now? lol All History experts acknowledge that the Skand, Avian & Dan Tribes were “Caucasians” who eventually became the feared Norsemen/Normans. But their “cousins” were the Rus and the Angles and the Saxons, the Goths, etc. just as I wrote. Possibly, if we go back far enough, the “Caucasian Race” will turn out to be the so-called “Lost Tribes of Israel” that the Assyrians carried off to the Caspian Sea area when they conquered Israel & Judah??

          • Jag taller svenska och norska. Viking today means “pirate” in the Nordic languages . . . derived from the root noun, vik, which means as estuary where ships could anchor safely. Originally, it merely meant those sailors, who sailed out from estuaries. Rusing means “to rise up or arouse.” The Scandinavian traders and conquerors, who headed south and east were typically called “Rusinger” from which Russia gets its name. Those who headed west from Norway were called “Vikinger.” The Danes typically just called themselves Dansk . . . although really, both the Angles and the Jutes also immigrated to Britain from Danmark. The languages of Scandinavia today did not arrive until the Iron Age. The aboriginal languages were either Sami or similar to Gaelic. However, their red or blond hair has been traced to a people living in the southeastern corner of Iran. Bronze Age Scandinavians looked like mixed blood Native Americans. Still today, northern Swedes and Norwegians can be as much as 38% Asiatic.


    Wow, I am printing this. So much history. BTW, do you know of anyone who might be interested in beta reading a novel with a Shawnee character? I’m midway through my rough draft, need general feedback from someone whose idea of who the Shawnee were in the mid-1700s doesn’t come from Hollywood.


    What an amazing story. A parallel to some of it happened in the mid 1840s-late 1860s unfolded in what was then called Persia (Iran); Iraq; Palestine (Israel)-that area. Religious leaders of the Baha’i Faith, (then actively being put to death by Islamic governments for daring to claim prophets came AFTER Muhammad),
    that there would come a time when community and private gardens must become the rule not the exception. Farming was designated as the “most honorable” of professions. A prohibition of destroying farm lands and crops, even during periods of war and civil strife, was considered to be a sin most repulsive in the ‘Eyes of God’. The act of farming was elevated to the rank of worship and prayer. Seems that Truth does not recognize earthy boundaries, time and space.


    when general lee surrendered, grant allowed the confederates to keep their rifles and horses as they would need them on the farms…magnanimous and unprecedended…from the book “April 1865” the “southern strategy” was a democratic scheme, not republican. good article by a black history professor at vanderbilt university about this is making the rounds currently. please be careful with your emotions in reviewing historical events as they will undoubtedly get in the way of the facts.

    • Don’t try to BS people and give this crap about “emotions.” I was appointed by the National Park Service to serve on the council, which set up the American Battlefield Protection Program and owned a key property in the Shenandoah Battlefields National Park. Google “Battle of Toms Brook – Thornton Farm.” The surrender terms offered by Grant state: “The arms, artillery, and public property to be parked and stacked, and turned over to the officers appointed by me to receive them. This will not embrace the side-arms of the officers, nor their private horses or baggage.” In other words, enlisted soldiers were required to stack their rifles..

      Furthermore, I was Principal Planner of Cobb County during the period when Newt Gingrich and Bob Barr were leading the impeachment hearings for Bill Clinton. As such I was invited to several parties, which they were the center of attention. Gingrich talked in detail about the “Southern Strategy” and took credit for it. This may or may not be true. I was appalled at the contempt that Gingrich and his buddies had for the Blue Collar Southerners, whom they were manipulating into switching party loyalties. The strategy involved preying on the insecurities of Southern white males. The first phase was to convince them all Democrats are queers then to take control of the Southern Baptist churches – convincing them that all Democrats are atheists, Marxists and womenz libbers. Ironically, the largest single donor to the George W. Bush presidential campaign was an openly gay, multi-millionaire Republican in Cartersville, GA.


        and now you have two mores sources to review…the truth is out there somewhere.


    first let apologize for my remarks on the 18th, which was not a good day for me. it wasn’t meant to offend. i have been following you for about three years, have donated and shared your articles on social media, find many fascinating, and am a big fan. the sources i was referring to are the book by jay wink “April 1865 ” where he talked about allowing the soldiers those privileges and the second reference was to Carol Swain, a former professor at Vanderbilt and her essay on “the southern strategy” and was interested in your opinion. i know you are a busy man and don’t expect a response, but just needed to feel better about it myself. thanks.

    • I was a victim of the “Southern Strategy,” even though I was an independent voter, plus in 1999 watched two GBI agents trying to extort the Mayor of Adairsville, GA to switch from the Democratic to the Republican Party. I was told that I would have no money, no architecture/planning work, friends, girl friend or wife unless I joined and contributed to the Republican Party. I thought these people were crazy, but local and state law enforcement “enforced” that threat by grotesque violations of my civil rights and privacy. These swine would rather their towns be shit holes rather than let professionals do their jobs without partisan politics being involved.


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