Town plans of Coosa (Kawshe) and Chiaha were very similar
The long awaited video on the great capital of Coosa will soon be published on Youtube. It is going to turn the world of Southeastern Anthropology upside-down. The majority of the population (commoners) of the Province of Kawshe (Coosa) were not even Muskogeans, but Kanza (Siouans), who around 1585 to 1600 AD began migrating westward out of Northwest Georgia and Northeast Alabama. While in the Southeast, the Kanza built the same style earth-bermed houses that they were living in when first contacted by French traders and American explorers. By the early 1700s, they had reached present day Kansas. Kansas gets its name from the Kanza or Kaw Nation. Their elite stayed in the region and became the core of the Upper Creeks. The disappearance of the Kanza coincided with radiocarbon dates for old gold and silver mine timbers in North Georgia and Western North Carolina. It is not known if military actions by the Spanish-speaking miners or European diseases propelled their departure.
Both Coosa and Chiaha play prominent roles in the De Soto Chronicles. Chiaha was also visited twice by Spanish explorer Juan Pardo in the 1560s. The ruins of the capitals of both Coosa and Chiaha now lay beneath the waters of man-made lakes. The town plan of Coosa was revealed on August 22, 2006, when the US Army Corps of Engineers drained the waters of the Reregulation Reservoir at Carters Lake, GA for six hours to make repairs on the dam. It took me 11 more years to find the definite location of Chiaha’s capital. In the winter time, the Tennessee Valley Authority lowers Fontana Lake, NC. I happened to find a satellite image made during the winter. The surviving mounds of Chiaha are in a geographical location that matches exactly the descriptions of Chiaha by the De Soto and Juan Pardo Expeditions. It is just downstream from the confluence of three mountain rivers.
The fishhook arrangement around an oval plaza is very different than the architectural traditions of other branches of the Creek Confederacy. Oval plazas and mounds were commonplace between around 1400 AD and 1720 AD in Creek towns, but not the fishhook arrangement. Previous architectural periods either had massive five sided or four sided sun temples that dominated rectangular plazas. However, the earliest mounds and plazas in proto-Creek towns from the Archaic and Early Woodland Periods also had oval mounds and plazas. There is no evidence of the famous Creek Square outdoor arenas until the 1700s.
The Muskogean-Itza elite of Coosa stayed in the Southern Highlands and became the core of the Upper Creeks in the 1600s. Kawshe, the Upper Creek language is a dialect of Itsate, which has a vocabulary slightly more similar to Muskogee. Several thousand Upper Creeks died in Union concentration camps during the Civil War, even though they were allies of the United States. As a result, the Upper Creek language has almost died out.
The Itza Maya roots of Kawshe can be seen in the etymology of Tulsa, Oklahoma. The Itza Maya, Totonac and Itsate-Creek word for a large town was tula, which was derived from the Yucatec Maya word, tulan. Tulan was a type of construction that utilized the stacking of small rocks. Tula was the probable name of Teotihuacan and the later capital of the Toltec Kingdom. Etula was the name of Etowah Mounds. It means “Principal Town” or “capital” in Itza Maya and Itsate Creek. Descendants of the residents of Etula were called Tulase, which became Tawlase in Muskogee Creek. By the time of the Trail of Tears, Tulase had become Tulse in Upper Creek. That name was given to a town in the new Creek Nation in the Indian Territory on the Arkansas River. The new Anglo-American residents of Tulse slightly changed the word Tulsa.
Coosa is the Anglicization of Kvse, which is pronounced Käw : shë. Kaw is the Itza and Itsate-Creek word for eagle. Kvse means Eagle-descendant of.
Chiaha is a pure Itza Maya word. It means “Salvia River.” Chia actually is the Itza name for a cultivated variety of salvia, which was grown for its highly nutritious seeds, in recent years generally known as chia . . . as in “Chia Pets.” The De Soto Chronicles stated that the conquistadors observed salvia growing in river bottoms throughout the Province of Chiaha.
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