The glossary emailed in the last newsletter is just a beginning. There are many more borrowed words in the Southeastern indigenous languages that provide evidence of regional trade. They do not need to be from outside North America, but rather merely reflect cultural exchanges between indigenous ethnic groups. I have a long list of Maya and Totonac words in Itsate, Mvskoke and Koasati that will be added in the near future. I had to finish construction of the terrace for winter squash in my experimental biochar garden this Memorial Day Weekend and was pushed for time.
Tunica, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Alabama and Natchez members of POOF have emailed us such words in the past, but now we have a web site to store that knowledge for future generations. The Shawnee and Yuchi were major players in the trade network. We can be certain that there are certain words in their languages, which reflect trading activities. Deborah “Amichel” Clinton, you are probably the leading expert on the Chitimacha and a brilliant linguist. We KNOW that you can help us. Joseph Creel, you have been working on-site this year in the land of the Biloxi and Chatot. Lend us your expertise. If there are any POOF readers, with special expertise in the Timucua and Calusa languages, we desperately need your help, too.
The search for the Apalache and Yama language
In fact, the information from the Gulf Coast region, where Joseph Creel has been working on an archaeological site, is probably a key link. Biloxi is the Anglicized French word for a hybrid people that called themselves the Palache or Apalache. Eighteenth century Creeks called them the Palachikola (Palache People). The small village that the French called Biloxi was just a tiny outpost. They also had a village in the Florida Panhandle, whose name, the Spanish extended to all of the Muskogean mound builders in NW Florida. “Now, you know,” as Tulsa’s favorite son, Paul Harvey, would say.
The main territory of the Apalache was right here in the Georgia Gold Fields. I live about a mile from the headwaters of the Etowah River, two miles from Amicalola Falls, and about 200 yards from a large Apalache village site. The Apalache’s territory ran from Amicalola Falls and the Etowah River’s source, southeastward along the Lakota Trail to the head of navigation of the Oconee River near Athens, GA. Unfortunately, since Robert Wauchope’s initial survey in the 1930s, Georgia archaeologists have not shown any interest in the cluster of Apalache villages in the Dahlonega area, where gold is so abundant.
By the time Savannah was settled in 1733, at least part of the Palachikola had migrated from the Blue Ridge Mountains and Foothills to southeast Georgia. They formerly had been in the Yamasee Alliance, but with its downfall, joined the Creek Confederacy. Presumably, they spoke the Mobilian Trade Jargon, which was called Yama. The word, Yama, is Totonac. In 1733, Chikoli, the Palachikola war chief, was one of the most influential members of the Creek Confederacy. He became a friend of General James Oglethorpe. Interestingly, the most prominent family of among the Snowbird Cherokees in Graham County, NC is the Chikolelee Family. The word means “Chikoli’s People” in SE Georgia Creek, but has no meaning in Cherokee.
Meanwhile, the new Native American archaeological museum in Dahlonega is called the Yahoola Cherokee Museum. It labels all artifacts, no matter what age, as Cherokee. Its sponsors told the Dahlonega Nugget newspaper that they wanted to use an “authentic” Cherokee name for the museum, since the Cherokees always lived here and Yahoola Creek flows through Dahlonega. The Cherokee Nation owned the area around Dahlonega from 1794 to 1824. Okay, all you folks in Okmulgee, OK can now stop rolling in the floor laughing.
Thank you for your help.
Latest posts by Richard Thornton (see all)
- The Otto Mound . . . an ancient Uchee and Itzate trading center in the Blue Ridge Mountains - October 21, 2017
- Footnote: William Bartram listed no Cherokee villages in Georgia - October 19, 2017
- William Bartram’s description of a Cherokee council house at Watauga in the Little Tennessee Valley - October 19, 2017
- The Battles of Echete Pass . . . the British Military Campaigns - October 18, 2017
- Map Supplement: The Battles of Itsate Pass - October 16, 2017