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With this info, you might as well toss out your DNA test results

With this info, you might as well toss out your DNA test results


What do Colombia, Oklahoma, Pensacola, Savannah, Charleston, County Kerry and Scandinavia have in common?

It rained all day, yesterday. Watch out!  When I can’t go hiking or canoeing on a Sunday afternoon, you can expect big time trouble for the world of fossilized anthropology.   In between packing (yes, I am moving!) I continued my research on the ancient history of Ireland.  To do this, I bounce back and forth between documentaries on YouTube, Vicipéid na Gaeilge (Irish Wikipedia) and scholarly articles from Irish academicians.  There were some extreme Oh My Gosh moments yesterday.  For starters,  the Shawnee, Muskogee and Cherokee suffix for people or tribe . . . written as Ki in Muskogee, but pronounced as in Shawnee, Muskogee and Cherokee . . . is the Archaic Gaelic word for “People or Tribe.”   Gaelige is the Gaelic word for the Gael (Keltic) People.  Just like the Shawnee, Muskogee and Cherokee, the ancient Gaels of Ireland and Scotland pronounced their K’s so gutturally that it is a toss-up to use a K or G, when spelling the words in modern English alphabetical letters. 

That’s right . . . part of the actual names of the Muskogee Creek (Mvskoki) and Cherokee Peoples (Tsalagi) are IRISH. “Gi” is also a suffix for Algonquian tribal names all the way north into Canada. Shawnees, Creeks and Cherokees have a right to wear green on St. Patrick’s Day.  The Itsate (Hichiti) Creeks use an Itza Maya suffix for people . . . te . . . but we seem to have a lot of Gaelic from way back when or from 18th century Irish and Scottish colonists, so I guess we should wear green also. 

The name of the Uchee People is the Anglicization of the Archaic Gaelic word for water or ocean or sea –  uisce. The Itsate-Creek words for the Uchee were Okvte (Water People) and Okvsi [Ogeechee] (Offsping from the Water).  In addition, the Muskogee and Uchee word for water, ue, is Pre-Gaelic Irish and Atlantic Maritime Gallic (French) word for water.  The modern French word for water, eau, is derived from ue.  These words have the same ancient Indo-European root as the Germanic-English word for water – wed or wet.   How about them thar apples?  But there is even bigger bombshell in the making.

Reverse Engineering the Uchee, Shawnee, Creek and Cherokee Peoples

In February,  POOF readers were told that the origin of the names of the Tugaloo River; Toccoa River;  the Muskogee word, tokahle; the Toque People mentioned by Juan Pardo; the Tokasi divisions of the Creek and Seminole Confederacies;  the Togaria Uchees of Tennessee and the Cherokee town of Tocqua had been traced to an Archaic Irish word, Togha-re, which meant “Great (Principal) Kingdom or Nation.”  One of the early names of the Cherokees, Aniyunwiya, is merely a Algonquian translation of those words. That means that if your Native ancestors were from the Southern Highlands,  a significant percentage percentage of your legitimate “indigenous” DNA could have been classified as “Northwestern European.”

Re (reigh) is another key Archaic Gaelic suffix that is found in various forms in Southeastern tribes. Reigh originally applied to the government of a people, but came to mean an ethnic group.  The aboriginal word is also found in the ancestral languages of most western European peoples such as English (reign); Dutch and Scandinavian (rik); German (reiche) and rex (king ~ Gallic and Latin).

Because a Muskogean and Panoan R was rolled so strongly that it was often written by Europeans as an L.  Thus, ree and lee are common endings for Anglicized tribal and place names in the Lower Southeast.  Examples are Nottely (Other Side [of the mountain] People) River,  Wateree * (Water People) River, Sutalee (Sky People) Creek, Wahale (Guale ~ Southern People),  Guaxule (Waxhaw People),  Satilla (Satali ~ Colonists) People and Nantahala (Nantahawle ~ River Rapids People),

*The word water was used for water among numerous ancient peoples in northern Europe.

Kataapa, Katapa, Cataaba or Catawba appeared in numerous 18th century maps of Georgia. They eventually moved southward to the Lower Chattahoochee River.

In the past three years, I have also been examining the surviving words of the legion of small tribes that once lined the rivers of South Carolina and southeastern North Carolina.  Carolina academicians decided one day that they were “southern Siouan” words. They have no Southern Siouan dictionaries other than modern Catawba.  None are aware that the actual word was Katawpa and that it was an Itza Maya name for a Muskogean tribe on the Chattahoochee River near Gainesville, GA which joined the Creek Confederacy.  Look at the maps, if you don’t believe me. A branch of the Katawpa established a colony among the small non-Muskogean tribes in north-central South Carolina.  The official name of their descendants is Catawba.

No one analyzed those “Siouan” words.   Most are words that meant the same and were pronounced the same 2000 years ago in either the British Isles or Scandinavia (including the homeland of the Angles [English] in Friesland and Schleswig).  For example,  South Carolina academic sources tell us that bo is a “Siouan” suffix meaning water.  Horse manure!   It is the Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon AND Panoan (Amazonia) word meaning “living place.”    “Bo” is the root of many English and Scandinavian place names . . . but also is part of the name of most Panoan tribes in Peru and the Southeastern United States such as Shipibo, Conabo, Satibo, Kaushibo and Westibo.   The English words borough and its derivative in both English and Swedish, burg,  is derived from bo-reigh, which means, “living place of a nation or tribe.”

To the person who accused POOF of being a bunch of white racists, because we won’t go along with their new pet theory that “Africans built all the mounds in the Southeast and founded the Olmec Civilization, while African Muslims created the “Missisippian Culture.”  Personally, I am mixed heritage trash – a genetic brunswick stew of Scandinavian, Gaelic, Panoan, Mayan, Sami and Polynesian.  Ric Edwards, who was a co-founder of the People of One Fire and suggested our name, is tri-racial.   He is just as proud of his African ancestors as the other peoples, who made up his particular Brunswick Stew. However, all of us are committed to discovering the truth, not proving that published information is compatible with the beliefs of any particular religious cult . . . even traditional Creek beliefs. 

Kora, kola, kula, cula, okola, okla, koa and gua

The latest linguistic discovery, however, spreads the impact of cross-immigration to-and-from eastern North America and Northwestern Europe to a sizable chunk of the Americas.  For years, I have pondered the other common words used for “people or tribe,” used in a vast region that stretches from Stecoah Gap, North Carolina to the Amazon Rain Forest.  I knew that they were not from Mesoamerican languages, even though most branches of the Creeks originated in Mexico, so have poured through a legion of South American languages, looking for an ancestral root word.  There were none.

Kora (kola) is the suffix meaning “people or nation” in the name of the Aparasi-kora  or Apalachicola. It was the Georgia Apalache elite word for people or tribe.  Muskogeans and Panoans roll their R’s so strongly that Europeans typically wrote their R sounds with an L.   The word survives in the place names of Pensacola and Apalachicola.

The Florida Apalachee were not “Southern Muskogeans” as all anthropological texts tell you, but rather Southern Arawaks from Peru.  The real Apalache from Georgia did establish a colony among them, hence then name of one of their villages being Apalachen (plural of Apalache).  However, Southern Arawak words seem also be found in early Cherokee village names in the region where the Tokah-re lived . . . near the sources of the Little Tennessee, Savannah and Tuckasegee Rivers.   The Southern Arawaks in Florida attached their prefix for “important or principal” . . . O . . . in front of the Georgia Apalache word for people and got “Okora or Okola.”  That word is the origin of the name of Ocala, Florida.   The Tokah-re attached the O sound in front of another ethnic group to indicate a principal village in an ethnic group. 

There is more to this story.  The O sound means “principal” in Southern Arawak today.  However, it also had the same meaning in Archaic Gaelic.   In Medieval and Modern Gaelic the prefix was most commonly used as the name of the head of a family . . . the father or elder male.  The male heads of the descendants of the clan founder, Raghallaigh were originally called Ó Raghallaigh.  Now all male descendants carry the family name, O’Reilly.

It appears that the Choctaw and Chickasaw originated immediately west of the “Florida Apalache,” not in central Mississippi.  They picked up the Florida word for Principal People, Okola, and made it their own.   As the Choctaws moved northward in Mississippi, okola evolved into okla.   It then was used to create the name of the state of Oklahoma, which means “People-Red” in modern Choctaw.

Yesterday, during the worst of the rainstorm, I was reading about the early history of the ancient kingdom of Munster within Ireland, which contains petroglyphs identical to those in the Etowah River Valley of Georgia.   One of its Gaelic names is Cúige Mumhan.  Ciar Reige or dark skinned People were in that ancient kingdom as were the giant Os Reige or Deer People, who in the late 1100s would establish the colony of Du’ha-re on the South Atlantic Coast.   Yes, that’s the Duhare, visited by Spanish slave raiders in 1521.  Duhare is the Early Medieval Gaelic word for Irish.

I continued to go back in time with these Archaic Gaelic words.  I eventually arrived at the dawn of Irish remembered history in which Cú-Roi Mac Daire was the semi-mythical first king of the Ciar Reige.  Cú is pronouced like kō in English.

I kept on going back in time with the word Cú-Roi till I came to an explanation that various parts of Ireland used Cú-ReigheCú-Roi,   Cú-Rei or Cú-Re. Roi became the Scottish and French word for king, roy.  Rei became the Spanish word for king, rey.   Keep in mind that until the 1800s,  the letter Y was used for a long I in English, Spanish and French. 

Cú-ra was the word for a group of people, numerous enough to be ruled by a king.   Cúa was the word used for a smaller band or tribe. Oh my gosh . . . those are the word, Kora and Koa, used for nation and tribe in a wide swath of the Americas!  What can you say?  Koa became pronounced as goa and gua among some tribes, but the meaning is the same.  In this case there is also a surprising connection to modern English, Scandinavian and German.  Among the Germanic peoples . . . perhaps reflecting slightly different political traditions . . . the word for king was originally Ku-ing.  In English if evolved to king.  In Scandinavian, it evolved to kung and in German, it became konung.

The Maya and Itsate-Creek word for a king is mako.  The word in Muskogee-Creek is mekko.   I strongly suspect that the “ko” suffix is related to the Gaelic word, kú.  However, one cannot find the wealth of linguistic analyses for the many Maya languages that is available from Ireland and Scotland.  The trouble is that the same word or sound can have multiple meanings in each of the Maya languages.   The late Erik Boot created an Itza Maya glossary, but it is merely a snapshot of the Itza spoken today, not what was spoken a thousand years ago.

Implications for genetic and migration research

It should be emphasized that there are no genetic test markers for indigenous tribes in the eastern United States and for a majority of the ethnic groups in the remainder of the AmericasNevertheless, definite Uchee descendants in Georgia are showing up with significant Sami, Archaic Gaelic and Basque DNA test markers in addition to older Central Asian test markers.

In a recent POOF article, we mentioned the latest discovery of genetics researchers at Harvard University and Københavns Universitet in Denmark.  The aboriginal people of the British Isles and Scandinavia after the glacial ice cap melted were immigrants from Central Asia.   Geneticists have also traced the origins of various peoples in the Americas to Central Asia, but have uniformly assumed that their ancestors traveled eastward to somehow cross the Bering Straight to populate the Americas.  The archaeological record does not support this belief long held by most anthropologists.

The oldest human remains, discovered so far in the Americas are Australoids and Polynesians.  The oldest Clovis Points, pottery and mound are found along the Lower Savannah River, adjacent to Georgia and South Carolina.  No Clovis points have been found in Alaska.  No archaic skeletons with the full combination of indigenous American DNA test markers within them have found in Alaska.  The mixing of peoples that created modern American Indians obviously occurred elsewhere.

The aboriginal people of northwestern Europe had black hair and skin pigmentation equally as brown as American Indians.  Over the centuries, their skin color has lightened significantly due to environmental conditions. The red and blonde hair now associated with peoples of this region came from admixtures by an ethnic group, which originated near the mouth of the Indus River in the southeastern tip of Iran. These people did not arrive in the region until the Middle Bronze Age. 

My linguistic research demonstrates absolute proof that there were direct human interchanges across the Atlantic Ocean between the aboriginal peoples of northwestern Europe and the aboriginal peoples of eastern North America.  In fact, the Uchee and probably also, the aboriginal Algonquians and Arawaks, were immigrants from Central Asia via northwestern Europe.  Thus, the indigenous peoples, encountered by the 16th century explorers of eastern North America represented a mixing of aboriginal European colonists and later admixtures of peoples, who reached the Americas via journeys by boat or foot from eastern Asia. 


Indigenous Americans represent a separate race that evolved from the mixing of many peoples in the Americas.






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Richard Thornton is a professional architect, city planner, author and museum exhibit designer-builder. He is today considered one of the nation’s leading experts on the Southeastern Indians. However, that was not always the case. While at Georgia Tech Richard was the first winner of the Barrett Fellowship, which enabled him to study Mesoamerican architecture and culture in Mexico under the auspices of the Institutio Nacional de Antropoligia e Historia. Dr. Roman Piňa-Chan, the famous archaeologist and director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, was his fellowship coordinator. For decades afterward, he lectured at universities and professional societies around the Southeast on Mesoamerican architecture, while knowing very little about his own Creek heritage. Then he was hired to carry out projects for the Muscogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma. The rest is history. Richard is the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the KVWETV (Coweta) Creek Tribe and a member of the Perdido Bay Creek Tribe. In 2009 he was the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial at Council Oak Park in Tulsa. He is the president of the Apalache Foundation, which is sponsoring research into the advanced indigenous societies of the Lower Southeast.



    Well, now I’m intrigued. My markers do show up with Basque and Irish (and a lot of others) so I assumed that I don’t have any Native American at all, as I was told I did. So who knows where we all came from!

    • Did you have Sami or Finnish DNA. The combination of Sami/Finnish, Basque and Archaic Irish DNA is a sure sign of Uchee ancestry.


    Hello again & thank you for this site as it’s proving very helpful to contextualize my genealogical findings & DNA test results . . . This article sent me to to look at my “Archaic DNA matches” . . . There I found unexpected but significant results for Clovis Montana (12.5ky) & Ust-Isham Siberia (45ky) . . . Also, using the “Jtest 4-Ancestors Oracle” there I found significant “French_Basque” results using the “4 populations approximation” feature . . . I’m uncertain which parent these results correspond to, but I’ve found that both have ancestry from at least early 1800s Alabama (mother) & Georgia (father) . . . Therefore, it appears that my results are consistent with what you mention in the article . . . Thank you again for your explanations/assistance & this site . . . (BTW, I’m now a subscriber to POOF on



    Richard, The Bronze age Irish, Laplanders symbols were expected but Armenian symbols going back to 5000 BC found in the South? That I did not expect. Another Great article. The Golden fleece according to Greek lore was brought to that part of the world by some Armenians that might have traveled to the America’s?

    • Mark, the gold belt in North Georgia has been mined intensively for thousands of years, yet there are still people making a living from mining their “secret” gold locations. During the Early Bronze Age, the gold must have been scattered all over the ground. This fact is making me wonder if that all along, North Georgia’s gold was the source of many European legends in ancient times. Most people don’t know that Georgia’s gold is the purest in the world.


    WOW ! Now I am totally confused. But a thoroughly interesting post. Thank you Richard.

    • Hm-m-m . . . how to say it simply. Throughout a broad swath of eastern North America, the Caribbean Basin and the northern edge of South America, the indigenous tribes speak key words that sound the same and mean the same as words of the Gaelic peoples in the British Isles, and to a lesser extent, Scandinavia. This could only be possible if during the Late Neolithic Period or Early Bronze Age, there was a interchange of people and cultural ideas across the North Atlantic. Indeed, most of the petroglyphs in North Georgia’s Gold Belt are identical to those in either SW Ireland/Dundee, Scotland or southern Scandinavia. The petroglyphs in some river valleys of Georgia are like those in Ireland and Scotland, while the petroglyphs in other river valleys are like those in Scandinavia.


        Thank you Richard. Much appreciated.


    Richard, around 9500-10500 BC a Atlantic ocean cosmic event occurred that caused over 200 large animal species to be wiped out and almost all of the people on this North American landmass. Most likely a comet strike….do you know of what the Native Maya or any other Native people say of that time period? The symbols of this landmass matching different locations as far as Armenia indicates multiple migrations of people surviving as fishermen until the environment settled down again. North Africa turns into a desert around 9000 BC causing mass migrations there as well.
    This many peoples surviving as Sea fishermen is what led to these many different peoples symbols in the South and Sea merchants continued crossing the Atlantic until the last.

    • Hey Mark,
      The critical environment event among the Creeks appears to be the Great Flood of around 2360 BC. I don’t know of any Creek traditions of a catastrophe from the sky, but there is supposedly a Maya one. I say “supposedly” because I often find that Maya facts are often the result of someone making a speculation and then getting it replicated in the media. However, several divisions of the Creeks have migration legends and remember their ancestors coming to North America via the ocean.


    Interesting read. Would add, however:

    Aniyvwiya is an amalgamation of the Anitolian prefix Ani for a people and Yvwiya (Yahweh). It literally means People of Yahweh or Yahweh People. Yvwi is also the word for a human being. So the Yvwi was within Yvwiya with Ya meaning the natural law. The Tawodi (Wodi) Hawk (Red Paint) Kituwa is of Phoenician origin. Those from this clan have an Iberian mitochondrial X Chromosome originating in the Eastern Mediterranean in what is now the border region of Turkey and Syria.

    This is of interest to me because the Royal Scythians had wizards called Wodi. The Viking deity Odin was said to be a Scythian wizard named Godan (the origin of the words God and Good). Bogdan was the name of the Wizards in Slavic languages. Bóg is their word for God. Parts of West China and Siberia also uses Wodi for Shamans. The kurgan mound cultures spread wherever those wizards traveled. Slavic and Nordic lands are full of mounds as is Central Eurasia just like the Mississippians.

    • It’s looking like Atlantis was in the Azores Islands. A massive collapsed caldera has been found there.


    Could you make a recommendation on a reliable/reputable DNA/Genetic testing service?
    Thank you.
    The results of your work are fascinating and intriguing and exciting!!!!!
    There is great mystery on my Mother’s side of the family as there are no records prior to their extradition from Salzburg to Lithuania. You work is bringing more possibilities to the surface where once I thought I had hit a dead end.

    • If you have connections or can afford it, I would recommend a university lab. Two of the best in the world are at the University of Kobenhavn (Copenhagen) in Denmark and the Max Plank Institute at several locations in Germany. If there is a university genetics program near you, they would probably be able to explorer your family’s heritage thoroughly.


    Richard, I have been studying the term “gi” for many years so I think it is fantastic you are pursuing linguistic connections. I also studied the word “ha.” I’ll make an educated guess that gi and ha are proto Jewish, probably older. The pedigree of Anui of the Holy Land has lots of similar sounding names to Gaelic. Ha David seems to mean related to King David on the mother’s side. Gi-Liam, became Guillium de Gellon, became William. Gi meaning related on the father’s side or “father’s people.” In Gaelic the word Buccleaugh (sp) meant portion of land, portion being an extremely important concept from before Biblical times, as the Old Testament is very focused on portions, so much so that the museums of Iraq were immediately plundered looking for these original portions now attached to surnames. Arbuckle= People from Ayr’s portion. Hornbuckle= Ha Arbuckle, female line of Arbuckle. Scott family Buccleugh/Buccleuch having nothing to do with deer in the leau story, but a derivative of Bucckleworthe (Gaelic and Anglo-Saxon.) You’ve taken on an interesting project for a rainy day!

    • The “ge” might have arrived in Ireland via Phoenician traders. It is a definite fact that many Phoenician ships sailed to Ireland and Cornwall to obtain copper and tin. The Phoenicians were Canaanites as were really, the Hebrews at first. That is extremely interesting research that you are doing. Anytime that you would like to publish an article on it here on POOF, you are welcomed. Originally, I was to be merely one of 18 writers, but all the others dropped out, one by one.


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