Juan Pardo, will the real Joara please stand up?

Forgotten Peoples of the Southeastern United States: Part Seven

In the 1950s, one of the most popular shows on TV was “You Are There.”  Host Walter Cronkite would take viewers on a trip through time to major events in history.  You are now entering a time machine to go back to when some academicians with a hidden agenda first began to fictionalize the history of the Southeast’s indigenous peoples.

The plazas around Pack Square in Asheville were the first projects to bear my Architect's seal.  The meeting with the professors was in Asheville City Hall, on the right.
The plazas around Pack Square in Asheville, NC were the first projects to bear my Architect’s seal. Our meeting with the anthropology professors was in Asheville City Hall, on the right.

It was the last place I wanted to be. The Reagan Administration had allowed bank loan interest rates to explode to 24%, destroying the livelihood of many Middle Class entrepreneurs. I was focused on getting my architecture practice going in this miserable financial environment, but friends in the Western District Office of the North Carolina State Archaeologist wanted me to back them up in a confrontation with a some college professors. All the professors were graduates of UNC-Chapel Hill, but one was now teaching at the University of Georgia.

The professors had given a presentation that morning to the monthly Asheville Chamber of Commerce Breakfast. They had announced that during the 1500s, two Spaniards named Hernando de Soto and Juan Pardo had come through Asheville. Prior to that, de Soto had visited a Cherokee town in Burke County, NC and Pardo had built a fort there. Keep in mind that this is the mid-1980s, about 30 years before the recent press release announcing the discovery of a fort!

I vaguely knew who De Soto was, but had no clue about Pardo. That they came through Asheville sounded cool, but my concerns were entirely elsewhere. What got my friends riled up, though, was that in the process of making their theories about De Soto and this guy Pardo work, the professors had changed North Carolina’s early history. They had called a dinky little 1500 year old mound on the Biltmore Estate, “the Ancient Capital of the Great Cherokee Nation.” They had re-labeled very old Indian village sites near Asheville as being “Mississippian” – whatever that was. The professors had also stated in the chamber breakfast that the state archaeologists had worked with them throughout the research and backed the “findings” completely. That was a total lie. These professors were charlatans.

The state historic preservation planner and archaeologists explained to the professors that there were no occupied Indian village sites in the French Broad Valley during the period when De Soto and Pardo were traveling around the Southeast. It was impossible that either De Soto or Pardo could have stayed at an occupied Indian village near Asheville.

The state historic preservation planner then asked me to explain the locations of Indian tribes during the 1700s to the professors. I told them, “There is no mention in the colonial archives about the Cherokees being in western North Carolina until 1717. When the French came up the French Broad River in the late 1600s, only Shawnees lived here. There was a huge Shawnee town at the entrance to the Biltmore Estate until 1763. Above Asheville, the French Broad was occupied by my people, the Creeks. The area around Old Fort, Marion and Burke County was Yuchi. All the Indians were kicked out by the British in 1763. A few Cherokees hid around Asheville during the Trail of Tears period, but they never occupied villages here.”

The professors said nothing.  They grinned contemptuously at me as if I was some Amazonian hunter-gatherer. Little did they know that this meeting with a young, disinterested architect would come to haunt their profession in the 21st century.  The emperor had no clothes. He never did.

From the beginning, I had noticed that these academicians, who represented themselves as being experts on the Spanish, were butchering the pronunciation of Spanish words. When I pronounced such words as Guaxale and Joara correctly, the professors looked at me blank faced. They did not have clue what I was saying.

The professors were using state highway maps to determine de Soto’s and Pardo’s routes.  In several cases they had de Soto going through mountain passes that  were blasted through in the late 20th century.  They had already decided which major highways De Soto had taken before meeting with us or ever even visiting the North Carolina Mountains.   A few questions and I quickly realized that they were completely ignorant about the geography of the Southern Highlands.  They were Flatlanders and very arrogant ones, at that.

It was obvious that I was wasting my time and I had an appointment elsewhere. I left the meeting while the archaeologists were still arguing with each other. That afternoon, the professors gave a press conference at the Biltmore Estate, repeating what they had said at the breakfast meeting, including that they were backed by the state archaeologists. They then picked up a BIG check from the Biltmore Estate for saying that De Soto slept there, and traveled 60 miles west to the Cherokee Reservation, to pick up another check from the Cherokees, because they had promised “to put De Soto in Cherokee” as a tourist attraction.  Their final route for de Soto looped widely around both the Qualla and Snowbird Reservations.

In 2010, after studying the North Carolina Mountains intimately with  the De Soto and Pardo  Chronicles in hand, I am completely convinced that both De Soto and Pardo went through the Snowbird Cherokee Reservation via the Little Tennessee River, and Chiaha was very close to the Qualla Reservation, but that is another story.

I assumed at the time that these yokels, disguised as anthropology professors, would have no credibility among scholars elsewhere in the nation, because they were so ignorant of Spanish language and culture. What I didn’t realize at the time was that they were also ignorant of Muskogean language and culture. During the following decades, their clique would create a mythical history of the Cherokees as a substitute for that ignorance.

And yet . . . the outlandish statements made that morning long ago are now enshrined in a legion of books and online references as irrefutable facts. My friends in the State Archaeologist Office were eventually required by the governor to sign a statement endorsing the false belief that the Cherokees had lived in North Carolina for at least 1000 years, plus that De Soto and Pardo had come through Asheville. They soon left North Carolina and the Southeast in disgust. Not too long after that I moved to greener pastures in Virginia.

Ironically, by the time that the report on the Hernando de Soto Expedition was actually published as a book named The De Soto Chronicles, the Asheville route had been dumped. The book took De Soto on a 400 mile detour through the extreme northwest corner of North Carolina and across a vaguely described trail that doesn’t exist, to the northeastern tip of Tennessee.

The book does not explain why De Soto would take this detour when his chronicles repeatedly stated that he was heading directly west to visit the great town of Kusa in northwest Georgia. However, the detour gave the authors time to provide the reader extensive verbiage about the mythical culture of the Cherokees that they had created . . . not telling the reader that De Soto never passed through any town or village with a Cherokee name. Archaeologist Charles Hudson repeatedly labeled Native American towns with standard Creek names . . . ancient Cherokee words, whose meanings have been lost.

Despite the fact that even these professors changed their story in the end and did not have De Soto and Pardo going through Asheville,  that is what you will read in Wikipedia.  The occult loves Asheville.  Their Wikipedia version of the story is that De Soto and Pardo traveled deep into the heart of the mountains to visit Asheville and then turned back east so they could go through the Berry Site in Burke County, NC  – then continued on the route shown in The De Soto Chronicles.

The Berry Site in Burke County, NC

The Pardo Chronicles specifically stated that Joara was at the bottom of a deep mountain canyon - next to a rushing mountain river, but the Berry site is on gently rolling Piedmont land and has no rivers.
The Pardo Chronicles specifically stated that Joara was at the bottom of a deep mountain canyon – next to a rushing mountain river, but the Berry site is on gently rolling Piedmont land and has no rivers.

The Berry archaeological site covers about 13 acres and 500 years ago, contained about 25-30 houses. It had a single small mound. In Muskogean terminology, it would be a talula or district administrative center, administered by the orata, or chief, who was appointed by the mikko (king) living in a much larger town. It is located about 50 miles northeast of Asheville.

Recently,  all the major news outlets in the United States regurgitated a press release from North Carolina, which stated that archaeologists had found the oldest European fort in North America at the site of Joara in Burke County, NC.   Archaeologists call it the Berry Site.  There was even a National Geo TV special on the site.  The commentator in the program also mispronounced the Spanish words.  The land is owned by the family of one of the archaeologists, who studied the routes of De Soto and Pardo.     Hm-m-m.

North Carolina archaeologists are now stating that the Berry Site, during pre-European times, was one of the most important Native American towns in the Southeast.  This ridiculous claim is replicated on state sponsored literature and websites.  By the way,  the terms “bunch of Buncombe,” “a bunch of bunk” and “bunko” come from the name of Buncombe County, where Asheville is located – yes, really!

Absolutely no historian or archaeologist has challenged the contents of these press releases that periodically take for granted that the Berry Site is the location of Joara, even though their claims become increasingly outlandish and unsupported by scientific testing.  There are no radiocarbon dates that link this site with the time period of De Soto and Pardo  (1540 and 1567).   Two radiocarbon datings of a Native American hearth were from the 15th century.

The viewers of this broadcast of “You Are There” are now in for some more OMG moments.

The facts on the two Juan Pardo Expeditions

Dr. Chester DePratter (University of South Carolina) was a member of the De Soto Route Consortium, whom I never met. In 1987, he wrote a paper on the Juan Pardo Expedition. In the paper, DePratter specifically stated that the routes of de Soto and Pardo were determined by their committee without consulting the journal of the Pardo Expeditions, prepared by Juan dela Bandera. Bandera was Pardo’s notario (lawyer-journalist) and right hand man, who accompanied him everywhere. The reason give was that Bandera was obviously “geographically confused.” According to DePratter, if his routes for Pardo had been followed by the professors, then the previously adopted routes for De Soto would have been invalidated. That should have been a warning to the archaeology profession, but it wasn’t heeded.

In that morning meeting in Asheville a few years earlier, it was obvious who was really “geographically confused.” Those professors would have gotten lost, if they had ventured a hundred feet from a parking lot in the mountains. De Pratters report may be read in its entirety at DePratter-Pardo

1. In the fall of 1566, the governor of La Florida, Pedro Mendéndez de Avilés, ordered Captain Juan Pardo to find the closest land route between the new provincial capital, Santa Elena, and the mines at San Martin and Zacatecas in north-central Mexico. Santa Elena was located 29 miles northeast of present day Savannah, GA. It is absolutely ludicrous to think that Pardo would head north 310 miles to Burke County, NC in order to create the most direct route southwestward to Zacatecas, Mexico.

2. Pardo’s company reached a large town that he named Joara on December 1, 1566. Joara is the only indigenous settlement that Bandera called a city. Bandera stated that Joara was 120 Spanish leagues (before 1568 = 312 miles.) This distance is the primary justification for designating the Berry site in Burke County, NC as Joara. Joara in phonetic English would be pronounced Wȁ : rä, not Jō : äh : rȁ, as Southeastern archaeologists pronounce it.

However, Joara may not have even been the town’s real name, as Joara is a city in northern Leon Province, Spain. Elsewhere, Joara is defined by Bandera as meaning “lugar” in the original Spanish report. Lugar means “place” in English. “Place” may be the meaning of Wara in an unknown indigenous language.

Bandera stated that this city had many streets, temples, plazas and houses. It was the largest town that the Spanish visited. Being that Pardo also visited Cofitachequi and Chiaha, this suggests that the town at least covered 80 acres or more – the scale of Etowah Mounds in Georgia.

The natural environs of Joara was described as being at the escarpment of very high mountains and within a deep ravine where four fast flowing rivers met. It was a geography which reminded Juan Pardo of his hometown of Cuenca, Aragon (see photograph above.) Therefore, without consulting its inhabitants, Pardo renamed Joara to Cuenca.

The Berry Site, which all references now call Joara, bears absolutely no resemblance to Cuenca. I have been in both locations. The Berry Site is gently rolling Piedmont farmland with no canyons and no rushing rivers. There are mountains on the western edge of Burke County, but they are not visible from the archaeological dig.

Early snow storms had already blocked the trails in the Blue Ridge Mountains, so Pardo elected to build a fort that he named San Juan after his patron saint and garrisoned it. Pardo was then ordered to return to Santa Elena by Vice Governor Estabano de las Alas in order to protect it from attack by the French or English.

3. The following spring, Pardo was ordered to explore the interior of what is now South Carolina to find free food for the lazy colonists in Santa Elena, then head west to Joara to replenish the garrison at Fort San Juan. From there he traveled northwestward to Chiaha with the goal of reaching the fabled town of Kusa in northwest Georgia. Pardo visited Chiaha twice, but never got to Kusa because he was warned that he would be ambushed along the way.
In late March and early April of 1568, Pardo learned that all the forts, which he had built, had been massacred. Two weeks later joint a French-Native American force, under the command of Captain Dominique Gourgues, massacred three Spanish forts on the Georgia coast. There may be a connection.

The terrain described by Bandero is immediately recognizable to someone like me, who has hiked and camped the Southern Appalachians extensively. There was the valley around High Point, NC, the Tuckasegee River Valley, the Little Tennessee River Gorge next to the Smokies, US 129 through Graham County, NC to the Hiwassee River and then Hiwassee Island, Tennessee. On Pardo’s return to Santa Elena, he went through Nantahala Gorge, the Andrews Valley, the Upper Hiwassee River Valley, the Nacoochee Valley in Georgia and then on down the Savannah River.

What is the Berry Site then?

The Berry site could not possibly be Joara (the largest Native town in the Carolinas?) Neither its physical environs or is man-made features match the description of Joara in the report made by Juan dela Bandera.

Two locations in the Southern Highlanda do match the physical description of Joara and are on a line from Santa Elena to the probable location of Chiaha near Bryson City, NC. They are the mouth of Jocassee Gorge in South Carolina and the mouth of Tallulah Gorge in Georgia.

The archaeologists at the Berry Site have found what they call 16th century European artifacts, but have not obtained radiocarbon dates for any European artifacts or structures, only two 15th century dates for a Native American house. One can assume that either Europeans lived here during the Early Colonial Period or that the occupants of the village were in extensive contact with Europeans.

The structures unearthed by the archaeologists may be one of the forts erected by Juan Pardo during 1567, when he was touring the countryside searching for food. This may also be the site of a mission, established by Pardo at the village of Otari in 1567.

There is another possibility. After Santa Elena was abandoned in 1587, Sephardic Jewish refugees maintained two routes, protected by friendly Native American towns and possibly, European style forts, to reach colonies in the Georgia, North Carolina and Tennessee Mountains. One followed the Savannah River. The other followed the Catawba River. The headwaters of the Catawba River flow through Burke County, NC.

This situation with the Berry Site is symptomatic of the complaints that Southeastern Native Americans (other than the Cherokees) have had for the past 25 years. In their quest for peer acceptance, Southeastern archaeologists, have far too often put architectural, ethnological and historical research in the back seat, or not considered them at all, in order to please the occult and government agencies or Native American tribes, who can write them checks. In particular,  the activities of Caucasian archaeologists in North Carolina, Georgia and Florida, bear the distinct mark of the occult.

Oh what tangled webs mortals weave, when they live lives, trying to deceive.

The Magic Garden . . . a new series

It began as a way to have a better quality of life on a meager income.  It has turned into technology that could radically change America.

In 2011, I was living in an abandoned chicken house in Union County, GA and trying to figure what in the heck was on the side of the mountain at nearby Track Rock Gap. The only store-bought food that I could afford was loaded in preservatives and those preservatives were making my tummy swell up, even though I was obviously not “living off the fat of the land.”  I planted a small garden with a shovel and hoe next to the chicken house.  The only fertilizer that I could afford was kitchen waste, diluted human urine and humus hauled from nearby woods.  I also could not afford insecticides, but birds and lizards took care of the veggie-chomping insects.

The first magic garden packed many plants into a small space.  I used Creek gardening techniques, practiced by my grandparents.
The first magic garden packed many plants into a small space. I used Creek gardening techniques, practiced by my grandparents.

That little garden made a big difference in my budget during the summer, but I did not have a freezer or equipment to can veggies, so during the winter, I developed the same water retention problem from the preservatives.  During the following four seasons, the concept of the little garden has become a terrace complex at another location.  By mixing the sophisticated indigenous farming techniques from several parts of the Americas,  I am achieving unimaginably large food production quantities from terraces hand dug out of the mountainous forest.

While at the chicken house, I  received astronomical power bills, even though I did not have an electric water heater, central furnace or air conditioning system.  I learned why in September 2011.  Power was being drawn off my box to run an underground marijuana operation.  After “someone” tried to burn down the chicken house, I quickly had to move to another location, the basement of a house in the northern part of Union County, GA.

In March of 2012, I was informed by production companies, associated with PBS, National Geo and the History Channel that they wanted to film the Track Rock Terrace Complex in May or June.  Then in late April, the film makers informed me that they had been refused access to Track Rock Gap by the US Forest Service, so the documentaries were cancelled.

Later in March,  I started a Maya-style raised bed garden in back of the house, where I was renting.  The sandy soil was composed of decomposed limestone and chalk that was high in calcium and magnesium.  I hauled top soil from the woods to build the beds. I did not use either chemical fertilizer or insecticides.

Meanwhile, the owner of that house was busted for selling oxycodone, stolen from the local hospital. My personal belongings began to disappear as she struggled to pay her court costs.   I had to quickly get away from the insane drug-trafficking in Union County . . . in the process, abandoning my new garden before I could harvest the picture perfect cabbage plants.

Raised bed garden in early spring in northern Union County. The soil was sandy and calciferous in this section of the county, but dark humus where the terrace complexes are located in the southern part of the county.

With no money for a rent and a security deposit . . . and accompanied by three herd dogs, I was very limited to where I could move.  Finally, the owner of a resort complex near Dahlonega, GA kindly allowed me to move into a cabin on land owned by the resort.  Just a month before, his daughter had moved into the cabin, lived there three days, then died instantly when she drove over a mountain cliff, while drugged on oxycodone and booze.   The man was very sympathetic to my hatred of the corruption in the mountains caused by drug dealers.  I think that is why he took the gamble of me moving in there.

This is what has happened in the areas of the Southern Highlands, north of the Blue Ridge Mountains in western North Carolina, the northern tip of Georgia and eastern edge of Tennessee.   High ranking politicians and law enforcement officials are in bed with major drug dealers and organized crime.   Trying to find something to arrest me for was just a side show,  intended to show some result from all the years of work that went into having me evicted from my home on Christmas Eve in 2009.  They busted the property owners for doing things that a lot of people are doing in those mountains, in hope that in return for leniency, the owners would provide lies that could be used for an arrest.   Things did not go as planned,  yet again.  As far as I can tell, most law enforcement officers, where I live now, are quite honest.

The cabin was covered in vines and even had vines growing inside.  All the young woman’s clothes and person belongings were left as they sat on the day she drove off the cliff.   He offered me free rent for awhile, if I would take care of her belongings and clean up the property.  It was a deal I could not turn down.

Appearance of the cabin on moving day. No wonder the girl took to using drugs!

Part of the cabin had been damaged by a fire caused by the previous tenants before his daughter and not repaired.  Scorpions were everywhere.  I had no bed and so still sleep on the floor – but the scorpions were eventually eradicated.   At night you could hear the skunks, ground hogs and rats who occupied the place scampering up the walls as black snakes and copperheads chased them.  Previous tenants had filled the dirt-floored basement three feet deep with garbage bags.  The bonfire for the items in the basement and yard that couldn’t be hauled to the dump was 25 feet long and 8 feet high.  I got rid of the copperheads as quickly as I did, the scorpions.

I only been in this hovel about three days, when Scott Wolter, future host of America Unearthed,  emailed me.  The History Channel executives were furious about the refusal of the US Forest to allow filming.  This had given them the idea of making the documentary into a pilot for a series in which Scott Wolter investigated archaeological sites that government agencies or academicians had covered up.   They wanted to film me at my house for a full day in June, before going to Mexico to check what Mexican archaeologists thought of my theories.  All Georgia archaeologists contacted, had refused to be filmed or even to make off-film comments.

OMG!  I begged Scott not to come to this hovel.   His producers insisted.  In retrospect, I don’t believe that it was an accident.  If you recall the beginning of the America Unearthed premier, it portrays me as a Snuffy Smith type eccentric.  The program was actually changed  from portraying me as somewhat of a nutcase, after the Mexican archaeologists backed me up 100% and the University of Minnesota proved that attapulgite was mined in Georgia by the Mayas for many centuries.

The Mayas probably also mined mica.  gold and copper here in the Georgia Mountains, because the Mayas used even more mica than attapulgite and there is very little mica in southern Mexico and Guatemala.  The nearest significant quantity of mica is 800-1400 miles away from the large Maya cities, near Popocatépetl  Volcano,  southeast of Mexico City.  That mica could only be hauled on human backs, while Georgia mica could be transported in freight canoes down the Chattahoochee and Oconee Rivers to the ocean.

Meanwhile, the Maya Myth-busting in the Mountains campaign was in full swing. Teams of Georgia archaeologists were going around the Atlanta area, giving talks to the elite that mainly consisted of slandering me professionally.  They refused to call me an architect, but used a wide range of mocking labels instead.  The reason was that the ignoramuses had no clue who built the terrace complexes in the mountains and very few even knew they existed until I publicized them.

Federal and state cops were telling everyone around Dahlonega that I was simultaneously crazy,  a male prostitute, a gay predator of young boys, a heterosexual predator of college coeds, probably a serial killer, but they couldn’t find the bodies . . . and that my three Scottish Farm Collies were killer attack dogs, who would devour all the small dogs and children in the neighborhood . . . but worse of all, they were convinced that I was a LIBRUL, but could not find enough evidence yet to arrest me on that charge.

The bit about being a predator of coeds was not quite as insulting to me personally as the other lies , but highly insulting to the coeds at the University of North Georgia. No sane young woman would have wanted to be within 25 feet of me.  A bunch of my teeth had been knocked out in the winter of 2010 and I had a net wealth that could easily fit into one’s pant pocket.

Nevertheless, the tracking device that had been used to monitor my previous paths of mayhem and destruction throughout the Appalachians was linked to the computer of the University of North Georgia campus cops.  Unfortunately,  I had to pass through the campus to reach any stores in the county.   A trip to the Dollar General,  WalMart, Fresh and Frugal Supermarket or Andersons Feed Store would trigger an all points alert.  Campus cop and Sheriff’s deputy patrol cars would race out to the road leading through the campus to make sure that I didn’t grab a coquette to go along as dessert with my pork chops, collards and brown rice with mushroom gravy.  Well-lll  . . . maybe one of the single, female professors, but she would have been grossed out by me also.

In that insane environment, I was in a panic.  I had to build something  within a few weeks that would draw the attention of the Minnesota-based film crew away from my hillbilly hovel.

THEN a seven inch long black lizard came to the rescue  You heard him at the beginning of the America Unearthed Premier.   Why these huge lizards live in the Dahlonega Area, I don’t know . . . because Wikipedia says that they only live in the region of Mesoamerica, inhabited by the Mayas and that they keep their gardens free of insects and field mice.   Hm-m-m,  do you see the plot thickening?


By the way, I am not a novice at agriculture.   For the first half of my adult life, I operated a federally licensed goat dairy farm, sheep operation and cheese creamery – complete with a huge historic barn filled with hay, a tractor and tractor equipment.  One year, I was US Soil Conservation Service Farmer of the Year.  HOWEVER,  at no time back then, did my vegetable gardens begin to approach the productivity of what I am achieving now with indigenous technologies.  The productivity here is at least triple what was grown in the Shenandoah Valley farm’s garden.

Ohio astro-archaeologist produces landmark book on the Adena and Hopewell Cultures

Dr. William F. Romain,  long considered a expert on the Adena and Hopewell Cultures,  has radically raised the standard for what an anthropology text should be.  He is a true scientist, not a regurgitator of past speculations or a neophyte professor, merely publishing a book so he or she can obtain tenure.

Romain received his doctorate degree in archaeology from the University of Leicester. He is Director of The Ancient Earthworks Project (www.ancientearthworksproject.org) and the author of Mysteries of the Hopewell: Astronomers, Geometers, and Magicians of the Eastern Woodlands, and Shamans of the Lost World: A Cognitive Approach to the Religion of the Adena-Hopewell. He is an advocate for the preservation of ancient Native American sites;and a past recipient of the Converse Award for Outstanding Contributions to Ohio Archaeology.  He also obviously likes long book titles, but no one can be perfect.

On July 22, 2015  Romain published An Archaeology of the Sacred: Adena-Hopewell Astronomy and Landscape Archaeology.  The 332 page book contains 513 illustrations and 258 references.  It is the result of thousands of hours of research across the Eastern United States.  Astronomical equipment was taken to hundreds of ancient town and ceremonial sites to obtain a comprehensive body of knowledge on the site planning practices of indigenous Americans.  The book is available on Amazon.com and retails for $53.

Two thousand years ago, indigenous peoples created thousands of mounds and geometrically shaped earthworks across the Eastern North America.  Most people don’t know that there were even several large mounds where downtown Boston sits today.

Many of these indigenous earthworks are larger than Stonehenge; most are aligned to celestial events. Among the most impressive of these earthworks were those created by people of the Adena and Hopewell cultures in south and central Ohio. Romain’s book presents is the most comprehensive and detailed study of the Ohio earthworks ever written. More than one hundred sites are documented using on-site photographs, maps, and LiDAR imagery. Using these data, he assessed each earthwork relative to its astronomy, geometry, mensuration, and landscape setting.

Romain then explained how earthworks were integral to Adena-Hopewell religious beliefs and practices. For the Adena-Hopewell, the landscape – to include earth, sky, and water were part of who they were. To move through the landscape was to engage with the sacred. Using new approaches drawn from relational archaeology and state of the art technology, this book examines and explains the deep connection between ancient Native Americans and the land.

The mystery of Tuckabatchee just got bigger

Forgotten Peoples of the Southeastern United States: Part Six

The second location of Tuckabatchee was much farther north than we assumed earlier this year.  It was on Peachtree Creek in Atlanta!

In a previous news article, it was announced that the capital of the Upper Creeks, Tuckabatchee, was shown on late 18th century and early 19th century maps as being in Georgia.  ALL books and academic papers assume that Tuckabatchee was on the Tallapoosa River in Alabama until the Muskogee Creeks were forcibly deported to the Indian Territory, now Oklahoma.  High resolution maps from 1795 to 1825 show Tuckabatchee at the prior location of the large town of Chattahoochee,  where Six Flags Over Georgia is now situated.

British military maps from the Revolutionary War period seem to show that Tuckabatchee was in present day Georgia after 1776, but they were at such a small scale and the geography was so inaccurate, it was impossible to determine exactly where Tuckabatchee was located.  Its post 1776 location seemed to be somewhere in the Atlanta Area – the presumption was that the large town was at the Six Flags site.

A high resolution map of the Province/State of Georgia was recently discovered in the UK National Archives, which was made at the end of the American Revolution.   It contained a big surprise.   When the people of Tuckabatchee left the Tallapoosa River Valley, they first went to the confluence of Peachtree Creek and the Chattahoochee River.  Several decades later, this would be the site of Fort Peachtree, from which Peachtree Street gets its name.

Note that this 1785 map, based on a 1784 survey, shows all of Northwest Georgia to be Creek Territory. The map totally negates the myth of Nancy Ward and the Battle of Taliwa, where the Cherokees claim to have won all of North Georgia in 1755. Note that even Estenaula, the future site of the Cherokee Capital of New Echota was considered to be in Creek Territory.

The new town site was connected by a major road to Ustanauli,  which at that time was still a Creek-Chickasaw town.  That route is now four lane US Hwy. 41.  In 1735,  Ustanauli had been the capital of the Kusa (Upper) Creeks.  The principal chief of the Upper Creeks was named Usta.   It is no accident that in 1825,  the Cherokees chose the site of Ustanauli, the capital of their former enemies,  as the site of their capital.

Later in 1785, after the map above was published,  the Cherokees were invited separately to Hopewell Plantation in South Carolina. The agents working for the United States and the state of Georgia,  secretly took away north-central and northwest Georgia from the Upper Creeks and gave the region to the Cherokees.  They hoped that the land deal would end the Chickamauga War.  It did not.

The leaders of the Creek Confederacy did not learn about the land theft until 1790.  They threatened to declare war on the State of Georgia because of deception.  General Marinus Willett was dispatched by George Washington to quell the anger of the Upper Creeks.   At that time, there was still a string of villages with Creek names in the Etowah Valley.  They were forced to move south.

Apparently, it was about 1791, when the leaders of Tuckabatchee decided to move farther south.  By 1795, a Creek town was at or near Tuckabatchee’s second location.  It was called Pakanahuili . . . Standing Peachtree.   Where things get confusing though is that a village by that same name was at that same location in 1762.

In this 1812, map, Tuckabatchee is clearly on the west side of the Chattahoochee River, where Six Flags Over Georgia now sits.
In this 1812, map, Tuckabatchee is clearly on the west side of the Chattahoochee River, where Six Flags Over Georgia now sits. Nickajack Creek (Cobb County, GA) is the stream immediately north of Tuckabatchee.

Great Warrior, the mikko of Tuckabatchee and the Principal Chief of the Upper Creeks opposed the Red Stick War,  but also opposed the cession of 23 million acres made by the William McIntosh Faction at the Treaty of Fort Jackson.

In 1821, the Creeks ceded all land north of Utoy Creek to Georgia.  That put Tuckabatchee about 1/4th mile outside the Creek Nation’s boundaries.  The name Tuckabatchee disappeared from the maps at that time.

The question remains . . . did botanist William Bartram visit the Tuckabatchee in Alabama or the one in Georgia?  Actually, both sites were in Georgia in 1776.  Bartram visited with the Cherokees before traveling to see the Creeks. The route that Bartram took would have passed right through the Georgia location of Tuckabatchee, but there is currently insufficient information to make an definitive call on this riddle.




Original Creek Migration Legend Has Very Odd Grammatical Feature

The research team needs the help of POOF members and readers, who are knowledgeable about the Muskogee Language. 

Approximately 2/3 of the sentences in the original Migration Legend of the Creek People begin with the word, “that.”   In Muskogee, it would be Mv.   The use of “that” seems to have no communication function other than what might be seen in legal documents, which begin paragraphs with “Whereas”.   In fact, “that” has the same meaning as “Whereas” in these sentences, but why would Chikili constantly use the word in a speech that was otherwise informal?

For example, in the section of King Chikili’s closing statement shown above he says, “That I am never tired of hearing the stories told by Tamachichi about when he traveled  . . .”

I tried contacting professors that teach Muskogee in Oklahoma, but only one even responded  and that was only once . . . if you excuse the pun.  She didn’t understand that I had the ORIGINAL Migration Legend and wanted to know who was the translator of this  version of the story.  I wrote back, Mary Musgrove. The professor never replied to my response.   I strongly suspect that she didn’t know who Mary Musgrove was and assumed that she was one of our POOF researchers.

Fascinating history associated with the Migration Legend

According to the Migration Legend documents,  Palachicola was the oldest Creek town and originally was located where Downtown Savannah now sits.   Chikili said that the first Creek “emperor” was buried in a mound in Savannah.  Thus, the first Creek Indians were Apalache, not Muskogee.   This information is radically different than the story now being told by Oklahoma Muskogees, who place the beginning of the Creek polity at Muskogee towns on the Chattahoochee River near Columbus, GA.  Perhaps that is why they are not terribly interested in the discovery of the original Migration Legend.  It’s like telling the North Carolina Cherokees that they didn’t invent corn, beans, squash, the Stomp Dance, Swift Creek pottery,  Indian mounds, jet propulsion and the transistor radio.

The Master of Breath does have a sense of humor on this one.  If you recall, during late 2012,  two Oklahoma Muskogee bureaucrats came to Georgia to get in bed with the corrupt USFS office in Gainesville, GA.  I knew that this office was under criminal investigation for association with organized crime, but had to keep my mouth shut.  One of the many nasty things the two Oklahomans said was that I was not a “real Creek” because I was not an Oklahoma Muskogee.  Lordamercy,  according the Migration Legend, I iz a bonified, blue-blood Creek, since my mother town was Palachicola.  LOL

The cover letter by Georgia Colonial Secretary, Thomas Christie, refers to an endowment to the Church of England in Mr. Christie’s will.   Thomas Christie only lived a few more months.  His endowment was used in November 1735 to hire the brothers, John and Charles Wesley, to travel to Georgia.  John was to be a missionary to the Creek Indians, while Charles was to be Commissioner of Indian Affairs.  Instead,  Governor James Oglethorpe assigned Charles to be the chaplain to the Scottish soldiers and colonists at Fort Frederica, while John was required to spend most of his time with the colonists in Savannah.

Charles was immediately rejected by the Scottish Presbyterians at Fort Frederica.   John went over like a lead balloon when he tried persuading the Creeks at Palachicola to adopt Anglican liturgy.  Their response was, “We have the same basic beliefs as you, except that we worship outdoors.  Why are you here?”   However, John became close friends with the Moravians at New Ebenezer.  Their simple faith would greatly affect his ministry in the future.

Charles left Georgia after a few months.   John courted the most desirable young lady in the colony then dumped her.  He got into big trouble, however, when he refused to give her communion after she married someone else.  He was charged with criminal slander and then quickly shipped back to England, where the colony’s trustees fired him.

However, later in life, John Wesley remembered the spirituality of the Creek people and their outdoor worship services at Palachicola, plus the simple faith of the Moravians.   These concepts were merged together into the Methodist Movement, which after Wesley’s death, became the Methodist Church.  Charles Wesley went on to become one of the greatest hymn writers of all time.

According to my mother’s family lore, our ancestors at Palachicola were converted to Christianity by John Wesley.  I don’t think that is factual, but it is true that the Creek congregation that they helped found in the late 1700s on the Savannah River, was one of the first Methodist churches in Georgia.

Governor James Edward Oglethorpe, founder of Savannah, is best known to Americans as a brilliant city planner.  However, after returning to England, he rejoined the British military.  Just before the American Revolution, he rose to the rank of commanding general of the British army.   However, he retired when things began heating up in the colonies, because he greatly sympathized with their complaints.  An elderly General Oglethorpe befriended John Adams when he became the first American ambassador to Great Britain in 1784.   Life is stranger than fiction.

Capital of Florida Apalachee had Southern Arawak name from Peru

Forgotten Peoples of the Southeastern United States: Part Five

During the winter of 1539-1540,  the Hernando de Soto Expedition stayed in the capital town of the people that the Spanish soon called the Apalache.   The town’s name is recorded variously as Anhaica, Anahaica or Anihaica.   The word has no meaning in the Muskogean languages, even though anthropologists have labeled the Florida Apalachee as being “Southern Muskogeans.”

I am currently translating the names of towns visited by de Soto in Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee and Alabama for a client.  North of Florida and east of Alabama, all of the words are either Itsate Creek, Itza Maya or Ciboney from Cuba –  no Muskogee or Cherokee words.

Florida place names are difficult to translate

The Florida town and village names have been a bear.  A few are pure Muskogean words – even some towns that Florida anthropologists have labeled “Timucuan.”  No tribe ever called itself by that name.  Timucua is a fabrication of the Spanish.

Most of the place names cannot even be translated with a “Timucuan glossary” and an “Apalachee glossary” that survive from the mission period.  I discovered that the so-called Apalachee glossary was based on the language spoken in one village, occupied by Tamatli Catholic converts from Georgia, who had been kicked out of their homeland by the Spanish-hating Tamatli.  So the Florida Apalachee glossary is really a record of the dialect of Creek, spoken in the upper Altamaha River Basin of Georgia in the 1600s.   It is useful for other purposes, but not for figuring out Florida’s heritage.

I also found that in several cases, Florida academicians had speculated inaccurately on the meanings of some place names, without use of indigenous language dictionaries. Unfortunately, those speculations were made by authority figures in the anthropology profession and have become institutionalized by the next generation of anthropology graduates and chamber of commerce brochures.

Pastor Charles de Rochefort comes to the rescue

Pioneer French ethnologist Charles de Rochefort in the 1650s said that the Florida Apalachee were originally a colony established by the Apalache of the Georgia Highlands after they built a road from the Great Smoky Mountains to the Gulf of Mexico near the mouth of the Suwannee River.  It is now US Highway 129.   De Rochefort stated that over time, the colonists absorbed the language of another people, but the original Apalache and the Florida Apalache were still friends and trade partners.  He said that the Florida Apalache actually called themselves, the Talahalwasi (Tallahassee) which means “Offspring from Highland Towns.”

I began looking around for another language, whose words had appeared on 17th century maps of the Southern Highlands and the DNA of Highland indigenous descendants. (See the article, “Cubans in Alibamer, Peruvians in Jawja.)

There was an extremely aberrant form of Arawak spoken by some tribes in northern Peru, Ecuador and Colombian Highlands that is labeled “Southern Arawak.”  They build the large cone shaped communal houses that have recently been discovered at the lowest levels of Ocmulgee National Monument.  (See the recent article on the new discoveries at Ocmulgee from the tab above.)

I found a Southern Arawak-Spanish dictionary online from a web site maintained by a Peruvian university.   It seems to be more capable of translating Florida Apalachee place names than any other dictionary identified so far.   In that language, Anahaica means “The  elite – place of.”   It makes perfect sense.  I am fairly certain that I will be able to translate Nantahala Gorge, NC and Amicalola Falls, GA with that dictionary.  Both are near US 129.

The picture that is emerging from our research in 2014 and 2015 is that Pre-European populations in the Americas were far more mobile that anthropologists imagined.  There were probably not massive movements of entire ethnic groups, but relatively large bands of people did relocate long distances in response to oppressive overlords, droughts and famines.

The movement of bands of people across hundreds or thousands of miles of varied landscape is exactly what “The Migration Legend of the Creek People” is all about.  The Cusseta’s originated near the foot of Orizaba Volcano in east-central Mexico and ended up on the west bank of the Chattahoochee River in Georgia and Alabama.

The wandering bands of people spoke MANY languages.  The response of their remnants after the American Holocaust was to form confederacies like the Yamasees, Catawbas, Cherokees and Creeks.  Our contemporary Southeastern Native American languages represent the blending of those parent languages in the 1600s.   It is a mistake for federally-recognized and funded Tribal Cultural Preservation Offices of the the Southeastern tribes to place the names of 21st century tribes on the Pre-European archaeological sites of the past.

This May Be the Last Time

Film Review:  Sterlin Harjo’s partially autobiographical film, “This May Be the Last Time”,  is one of the most intimate and accurate films ever made on contemporary Native American culture in the United States.  This is a must watch for all Native American descendants and music lovers.

Life is like a box of chocolates – Parte Trois:  So many moons ago that it is frightening, I was the drummer and co-leader of a teenage rock band.  The two songs that my fellow teenyboppers requested the most from us at sock hops were: “House of the Rising Sun” and “This Could Be the Last Time” as sung by the Rolling Stones.  If you have forgotten the song or are too young to know it, here are the Rolling Stones in 1965:  (Kids at my high school were definitely NOT dorky dancers like the ones on this TV program! LOL)

Now are you sitting down?   One of the many surprises that Sterlin Harjo provides us in this award-winging 2014 documentary is that the Rolling Stones adapted “Last Time” from a hit African-American Spiritual by the Staples Singers, “This May Be the Last Time.”   The Staple Singers didn’t tell anyone, but their African-American spiritual was actually an English translation of an old Muskogee-Creek spiritual  with the same name . . . that is still today sung in rural Oklahoma churches!

The documentary film weaves together several plots.  Harjo takes an introspective look at the Native American churches of his childhood and also explores the story of how his Seminole father went missing in a river.  The tapestry is completed by the research of a music science professor at Yale, who has become fascinated with Muscogee and Seminole church music.   The professor states in the film that he believes Muskogee spirituals were the first truly American music.   The climax of the film is when choirs from several parts of the United States and Scotland get together at Yale.   To tell you anything more would be a spoiler.

What deeply impresses me about all of Sterlin Harjo’s films are their deep and authentic spirituality.  This spirituality is not the New Age Princess Buffalo Calf Woman looking up at the moon and being serenaded by a wolf thing.   It is the deep faith of people, who endured an unimaginably horrific holocaust then were deported to a strange land.

My only negative comment on this film is that it projects the cultural experiences of  Muskogeans in Oklahoma as being universal, when in fact, their culture has changed during the 180 years of being away from the Motherland.  What little exposure I have had to traditional Creek music in eastern Georgia was very different music.  It was much happier and syncopated like Latin American music.  In fact, it was almost identical music to what the Taino descendants of the Caribbean region are playing today.

“This May Be the Last Time” is currently available on Netflix and may be available on other streaming services.  Do try to watch it.

Cubans in Alibamer . . . Peruvians in Jawja

Since 2011,  DNA testing of modern Native American descendants combined with linguistic analysis of indigenous words, recorded by the early French and Spanish explorers, have resulted in a radically different understanding of the Southeast’s Native peoples.

Forgotten Peoples of the Southeastern United States: Part Four

It was June of 2010 and a conversation at an Ingles Supermarket in Hiawassee, Georgia that I will never forget. I had just moved to a new campsite in the Tusquitee Mountain Range of North Carolina, just across the state line from Hiawassee, and was stocking up with food supplies. I would have never spoken at all except a little earlier in the day, I had gotten a hair cut in Hayesville, NC. Despite the hair cut, a half year of living in the wild had given me the aura of a hunter-gatherer. Apparently, the two young ladies saw through the appearance and recognized spiritual kinship.

They were working the evening check out station. At a distance, I assumed that they were indigenous people from some country like Guatemala or Colombia and was getting ready to practice my Spanish. When I got in line, though, I heard Southern Appalachian drawl. What the heck? They were obviously not Cherokees, but what were Seminoles doing up here?

Were they Florida transplants? The young ladies both had small, lobeless ears like most Itza Mayas, Georgia Creeks and Miccosukee Seminoles.

There was no one behind me in line, so I got up the courage to ask them, “No offense ladies, but what tribe are you? Are you second generation Latin Americans? The older one laughed and said, “Well the government calls us Cherokees, but we are nothing like the Cherokees. We call ourselves the Towns County Indians. My older brother married a Cherokee gal from North Carolina. We couldn’t get along with her. They eventually got a divorce.”

I asked them, “How long has your family lived here?”

The younger lady answered, “Forever. My grandmother says that we were here before the whites and Cherokees. Our home place was back up on Hightower (Etowah) Creek. It’s national forest now.”
I shook my head in disbelief, but remembered back to about 2002 when I stumbled upon a Native American family living in a log cabin, deep within the Chattahoochee National Forest in the mountains, close to the Towns-Union County line. A jeep trail led to their farmstead and there were no cars, just horses and a mule. I had been greeted with a shotgun, but the man grew a bit more friendly, when he saw that I had some Native features. The family in the log cabin must have been some of those Towns County Indians.

This memory was pre-Track Rock Gap and my first prime directive was literally survival at the time. After the announcement about the Track Rock Terrace Complex on December 21, 2011, readers from around the Southern Highlands began sending me their DNA test results. Several from northeast Georgia and southwest Virginia contained both Maya and obscure South American DNA test markers. I was not sure if these tests were flukes or not.

The Itza Mayas are not ethnic Mayas, but originated in South America somewhere. A full-blooded Itza in Chiapas could conceivably have no Maya DNA test markers.

Then . . . in late winter of 2012, I received an amazing email from an executive of Dave & Buster’s restaurant chain. He was a Towns County Indian. He and his relatives had been receiving strange results on their DNA tests. They were up to 25% Asiatic, while the median on the North Carolina Cherokee Reservation is around 2%. Their Asiatic DNA was either all Peruvian or a mixture of Peruvian and Maya. Their Peruvian DNA was not Quechua, but obscure tribes that I had never heard of.

Soon I received DNA test results from people in two other mountain counties in Northeast Georgia. Although their Asiatic DNA was lower, their DNA test markers were a mixture of Peruvian and Maya. The Peruvian DNA was from the Shippibo-Conibo, Asháninka and Amahuaca.

In 2013, Marilyn Rae and I explored a book written by a 17th century French ethnologist, Charles de Rochefort, about the Native Americans of Georgia. The Apalache elite clearly had South American cultural traditions. The result of this work was The Apalache Chronicles. At that point, we began to closely examine the cultural connections between the Southeastern United States and eastern Peru. There were many.

Traditional Creek and Seminole clothing originated in eastern Peru, as did the Sacred Black Drink. The Creek words for yaupon holly tea, for a high king, sweet potato, tobacco and for village chiefs came from the Panoan language of Eastern Peru. There may be more words. The concept of stamping pottery with a wood paddle first appeared in Peru. Swift Creek pottery in Georgia is identical to contemporary Conibo stamped pottery in Peru. Napier stamped pottery in Georgia is identical to contemporary Shippibo pottery in Peru. Both the ethnic names Coni and Shippi appear in Southern Highlands geographical place names.  “Bo” means “place of.”

The section of Northeast Georgia that includes Towns County, was called Conas in the 1560s. There is still today a Peruvian province called Conas. Conestee (village visited by De Soto and Pardo in North Carolina) means “Conas People” in Itsate Creek.
As can be seen above, even today the Conibo People of Peru dye their clothing in patterns that are IDENTICAL to Georgia Swift Creek pottery from 1400 to 1800 years ago. All this puts a very different perspective on the Woodland Period in the Lower Southeast and who lived here at the time.

The Cuban Connection

Until pushed into the interior by the Taino, the Toa People occupied much of Cuba. They also were able to hold onto a section near Arecibo, Puerto Rico, which was called Toa Province. The Toa River in Cuba remembers their presence.

The Toa People were not as sophisticated as the Taino, who called them a word similar to Ciboney. They were gardeners, lived in large, cone-shaped communal houses and made thousands of stone balls. Like the Taino, they lived in a world of hundreds of imagined demons. They carved these demons on stone tablets.

In the early spring of 1540, the Hernando de Soto Expedition encountered a province on the Lower Ocmulgee River that was more advanced than the Indians in Florida, but not as sophisticated as the towns he would visit in the Appalachian Highlands. The province was called Toa. Satellite provinces of Toa in west-central Georgia, northeast Alabama and central Alabama were called Toasi, which means “Offspring of Toa.”

After leaving present day Rome, GA on a major trail that paralleled the Coosa River, the De Soto Expedition encountered another town named Toasi. It was part of a string of towns, whose names cannot be translated by contemporary Muskogean dictionaries. However, they seem to be derived from a dialect of Arawak. There is no doubt that another Toasi province in Alabama, on the Cahaba River near Birmingham had Arawak roots. A glossary of their language was written down by Virginians, who sheltered a Toasi man, who had escaped the Tuscarora after being their slave for many years.

Readers from Alabama will know that the Upper Coosa is also a region where hundreds, perhaps thousands of stone balls have been found – both in mounds and in village sites. Apparently, Alabama archaeologists did not place much significance in this phenomenon. There is great significance.

Cohaba was an Arawak name for tobacco snuff – often mixed with hallucinogenic drugs. Cohiba is the Toa/Ciboney word for tobacco that is used day for Cuba’s premier cigar brand.

There are two other sections of Georgia that shows profound influence from the Ciboney or Toa of Cuba. Along the Chattahoochee River in southwest Metro Atlanta is a cluster of archaeological sites with non-Muskogean traits. About a century ago, a hilltop shrine was discovered at the confluence of Sweetwater Creek and the Chattahoochee River. Stone steps led up to a stone stela, on which was carved a Toa demon. Georgia archaeologists ignored the stela, but Puerto Rican archaeologists were able to quickly assist me. It was a demonic figure typical of Toa Province near Arecibo.


Across the river is an massive boulder carved in the shape of a crouching owl. Stone effigies of owls are quite common in central Cuba. Down the river a bit, archaeologist Robert Wauchope found a complex of earthworks and a mound that was atypical of Muskogean sites. He called it Anawakee after a nearby creek. Most of the terraces and earthworks are gone now. In 1969, archaeologist NativeSweetPotatoArthur Kelly identified four varieties of feral sweet potatoes growing in this same section of the Chattahoochee. Unlike modern sweet potatoes, whose ancestors came from Peru, these plants only had single, massive tubers like a feed beet. Kelly and his student assistants discovered that the seeds from these feral sweet potatoes were hallucinogenic.

In 2012, a graduate student at the University of Georgia surveyed the acropolis at Ocmulgee National Monument with non-intrusive geo-magnetic techniques and ground radar. He found that the original settlers at Ocmulgee built massive center pole houses like what one sees today among certain tribes in Columbia and northern Peru. This style of house was also built in central Cuba.

Ocmulgee-Stage1It turns out that Arthur Kelly also discovered that the original settlers of Ocmulgee were ethnically different and built center-pole, round houses. However, his discovery was covered up by the next generation of archaeologists who adopted an orthodoxy, which stated that Ocmulgee was founded by missionaries from Cahokia.

However, we now know that the mounds at Ocmulgee are 100-150 years older than the earliest mounds at Cahokia . . . but people are still unaware that Caribbean or South American people were probably the founders of Ocmulgee.  By the way, another thing that you mere mortals are not told is that almost all the pottery with owl motifs in the Ocmulgee Bottoms, originated at the village on top of Browns Mount.  The Ciboney put owl motifs on much of their pottery.

Why has all this solid scientific information been ignored by Southeastern archaeologists? I obtained a partial answer from a 30 year old professional paper, published by a member of the team of professors, who gave us the current official route of De Soto. You better be sitting down.

This highly respected archaeologist specifically stated that his team ignored the chronicle of the Juan Pardo Expedition because its author, Juan dela Bandera, was “confused” about geography. Dela Bandera accompanied Pardo on all his travels. However, he placed the Conas Province in northeast Georgia and the headwaters of the Savannah River. That would put the city of Wara (Joara) in a canyon on the Jocassee River in northwestern South Carolina, rather than on a farm owned by one of the members of the archaeological team in the North Carolina Piedmont.

The Spanish notary also placed Cofitachequi two days walk from the ocean. These “confused” descriptions would completely invalidate the official route of the De Soto Expedition, adopted by these professors. It was better that the public not be confused by colonial archives, which conflicted with late 20th century academic wisdom.

So . . . we now have a new definition of pseudo-archaeology. It is what you read in university-published, mass-marketed archaeology books.

Happy Poskita, and the answer to the quiz is . . .

Bronze Age Ireland  . . . County Kerry

What is obviously a Native American flint sword from the Southeastern United States and classically shaped Deptford Style Pottery from the Deptford Site in Savannah, GA are actually artifacts produced by the aboriginal people of Southwest Ireland – The Late Bell Beaker Culture.

If County Kerry sounds familiar, a couple of years ago the People of One Fire ran a series of articles on the petroglyphic boulders in the North Georgia Gold Belt.  All, except the one at Track Rock Gap, are extremely similar or identical to petroglyphic boulders found in the southwest corner of Ireland . . . County Kerry  . . . and of all places, Ven Island in the Oresund Channel between Denmark and Sweden.  Ven was a Copper and Bronze Age marketing center of the Gamla Folk, who lived in Scandinavia before the Scandinavians.

Reinhardt Petroglyphs
The Reinhardt Petroglyphic Boulder was found next to an old Native American trail.
Kyrka Klippa on Ven Island, Sweden were petroglyphs are located
Kyrka Klipa on Ven Island, Sweden – where very similar petroglyphs are located

The aboriginal people of Ireland looked very different than the majority of Irish today, whose ancestors came from the British Isles and ultimately eastern Europe.  The Irish Natives had black hair, bronze skin,  non-European faces and were expert seamen.  They also mined large copper deposits in southwestern Ireland and sold it to the world, while still making stone tools and weapons for themselves.  They were pushed out of Ireland by newcomers bearing iron weapons, who looked like the modern Irish, except for those remnant mixed-heritage people, we now call the Black Irish.  The newcomers called the Natives, Ciarraighe, which was eventually Anglicized by their English overlords to Kerry.   The Natives called themselves the “Water People” or “Sea People.”

The kinsmen of the Ciarraighe to the northeast were called the Osraighe or Deer People.   They developed a dairy deer and made cheese from deer milk.  Remember the “preposterous” story early Spanish explorers told of the Duhare people near the mouth of the Savannah River, who lived like Indians, except that they raised dairy deer and domesticated waterfowl?  Du’h’aire was the pre-Medieval Gaelic word for Ireland.

Over a century ago,  Smithsonian archaeologists excavated enigmatic stone ruins at the edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains in western North Carolina.  They consisted of stone beehive tombs like the one in County Kerry, pictured above.  Several tombs contained Caucasian skeletons.  Nearby they found smelters where copper ore had been processed into copper, but also found what appeared to be iron tools.   The dig was well documented, but completely ignored by North Carolina academicians today.

More recently,  in 1937 Smithsonian archaeologist, James Ford, was dispatched to the mouth of the Altamaha River in SE Georgia to determine the eligibility of Santo Domingo State Park becoming a national park.  In test pits, he found 16th century European detritus, PLUS bronze axes, wedges, daggers and a sword.  He naively interpreted the bronze artifacts as being discarded by Spanish soldiers.   They were put on display in the Santo Domingo Park Museum during World War II, but the State of Georgia closed the park in 1947, because the Smithsonian sent it a letter stating that there was nothing of significance there.  No one knows what happened to the artifacts, Ford unearthed.

By the way,   the last time that “Spanish” soldiers carried bronze weapons was around 600 BC.   The park also contained the ruins of what was probably Fort San Mateo and Fort Caroline from the 1560s.  However, Ford did not examine the earthworks, because he assumed that “some Indians built them.”

Enigmatic words in a forgotten Native American language

During the past two months, I have become, on behalf of a client there,  deeply immersed into the early history of the Lower Savannah River Basin.  The simplistic “model” that anthropologists created for this region in the late 20th century, just does not “cut the mustard.”    I could not believe my eyes when a read a anthropological paper jointly written in 2014 by professors from public universities in Florida, Georgia and South Carolina, which stated, “We looked up the Native American village names along the South Atlantic Coast in Cherokee and Catawba dictionaries and could not find the words.  Therefore they must be from an unknown language. ”   What?  They can’t afford the $20 for a Creek dictionary?

Nevertheless, all but a few of these place names are from South America.  Most are Panoan from Peru.  However, some are Tupi-Guarani words from the Amazon Basin or Southern Arawak words, such as “ke” for people, from Ecuador and Peru.

The Euchee living along the Lower Savannah River had a very different language from those on the coastal islands, for which there is no dictionary.  Even though the Euchee consider the mouth of the Savannah River as the first place they landed after crossing the ocean,  the local Euchee language was different than spoken by their kinsmen elsewhere. They called their land Chikora.  They called themselves, “The Water People.”  Their Muskogean neighbors called their land Chikola.   Don’t pay any attention to what Wikipedia says about “Chicora’s” location being far to the north.

The Savannah River Euchee word for water is “ou-e”.   That’s the same word used by Muskogee speakers, but by nobody else in North America.   It that is not strange enough, there was another population in the world that used the same word for water.  They were those Pre-Gallic aborigines in Ireland, western Scotland and the western coast of France.  The first syllable of “whiskey” comes from that word, as does the French word for water, eau.

So we have a situation in which aboriginal peoples on both sides of the Atlantic made very similar petroglyphs, pottery and flint knives, plus used the same word for “water”  . . .  plus called themselves the Water People.  Obviously,  Eastern North America’s history is quite a bit more complex than is described in high school history texts.  There is much that we don’t know.


America has gone insane

The Spiritual Path of the Native Peoples was always a healthier way of life for humans, society and the environment. The abomination that occurred in Charleston this week is one more proof that America is being led by “the People of the Lie” to self-destruction.

Editorial Opinion

These will not be the words of some wussy dilettante, writing a blog on his Ipod from the comfort of his suburban McMansion. My face and most of my teeth were busted by baseball bats, while I was asleep in a tent during the winter of 2010. Immediately afterward, federal and state “law enforcement” officers spread rumors through all the fundamentalist churches in the Southern Appalachians that I was a male prostitute, who had intentionally filed down his teeth. Living hell spewed forth from those lies.

For the next year, everywhere I moved, gangs of white trash thugs from local Baptist or Pentecostal churches formed vigilante squads to attack my campsites at night. The most dramatic attack came while I was on Wolf Creek in Union County, GA. Two sheriff’s deputies led eight car-pickup truck loads of white thugs from a nearby Baptist Church to “whip up on the pervert.” Things didn’t go as planned. I am a Creek warrior. Those swine came within seconds of going earlier to hell than scheduled.

I did some investigating afterward in between bringing the Mayas to Georgia to upset the archaeologists. Both deputies were Florida transplants, who parents had become immensely wealthy from cocaine trafficking. The families then moved to the Georgia Mountains to hide their ill-gotten wealth and live like royalty. Their parents had used the drug money to become involved with rightwing extremist politics and buy respect in Union County. Oh, they are big shots because God rewarded their politically correct faith with MONEY!  Praise the Lord!

Look who first pays the horrific price for these corrupt cops. It is the honest, dedicated law enforcement officers, who are gunned down in cold blood for no reason whatsoever. Deranged members of tormented minorities strike out like wounded tigers at the first symbols of authority they see.

My herd dogs and I have been shot at so many times that they start panting in fright whenever they hear a gunshot anywhere within a two mile radius. They frantically run into the cabin and hide in the bathroom. So yes . . . this is not the blog of some pampered intellectual.

I must confess that just seeing the face of the murderer of those folks in Charleston made me so angry that took the dogs on a forced march in the afternoon sun, until I worked off my anger. It was the face of a brainless, bleached hair, jackal that I had seen so many times before . . . calling up women I dated to frighten them, attacking the campsite in the dark, slitting my nursing female dog’s throat on the front stoop, uttering profanities from passing pickup trucks . . . trying to break into this cabin at night while I was asleep. They are monsters created by an American society, whose insanity is fanned by demagogue politicians, who claim patriotism, but lust after power.

The greatest irony of what I endured in 2009, 2010 and 2011 was that I am an evangelical Christian and was being persecuted by hypocritical people, who called themselves Christians. I am straight and actually, a rather naïve former dairy farmer. Yet,  I was being hounded and sometimes fighting for my life, because of an element in American society that had perverted Christianity.  These nutcases assumed that I was a sexual predator, because I had an IQ over 75, a nice tan and wuzn’t frum around chere.

Well, I take that back.  For a short period, some former members of the Israeli Defense Forces in archaeologist Johannes Loubser’s synagogue also tried to hassle me.  They drove up to my cabin in their $80,000 sports cars, planning to frighten me like they once did Arab peasants, but got just close enough to see that I was carrying a well sharpened machete and was, let’s say, quite a bit more physically imposing than their former Muslim adversaries in the Middle East.  The sports cars turned around and went back to Hotlanta.

Lies the talking heads tell you

The media will tell you that these monstrous acts are solely the work of mad men. They lie because they want you to stay tuned for the many stories that will take you through the criminal justice process. One batch of extremists will tell you that America needs more cops with bigger guns and no constitutional restrictions. They lie because they actually want to control you. Another batch of extremists will tell you that if you take away all the guns, everything will be wonderful. They lie because they want your political donations.

The truth is that America is spiritually sick. During the past 35 years, America has been manipulated and bullied into a society that promotes self-centeredness, self-worship, self-indulgence and submission to self-appointed authority figures, aka celebrities. We are told that excessive accumulation of wealth is a religion and achieving that goal is proof of being blessed by the god, Commerce. Demagogues, waving miniature American flags, tell you that these were the values of our founding fathers. They want you to elect them to public office so they can stop big government while fattening the bank accounts of their major campaign contributors and corporate bosses.

Worshiping one’s self and living only for one’s self can only bring insanity and a society, destined for physical decay. Its ultimate result is that the individual becomes a slave to a self-proclaimed Fuhrer, Marxist dictator or a corporate oligarch.

The Spiritual Path

The Spiritual Path of Native Americans establishes harmony between all aspects of the physical and spiritual worlds. Diversity is honored as being part of the whole. The welfare of the community is equal to the personal growth of the individual. Mankind is viewed as the caretaker of the natural environment, which was created and owned by the Master of Life. Any person, group of persons or corporation that exploits the environment is considered a thief.

A Muskogean, whether the Mikko Rakko of Kusa or a pre-adolescent in Ichesi, always first considered the impact of a planned action on his or her family, neighbors or community. All children were loved and beating a child was forbidden. Men and women were equal in all things, but each had special responsibilities unique to their gender. Men opened up the soil, planted the seeds and hunted together. Women tilled the fields, wove and made pottery together.

Husbands and wives had equal rights and responsibilities in a marriage. Each had the right to a speedy divorce if harmony was impossible. The best of healthcare was a given right for all citizens. Medicine men and women were supported by the community.
Among my ancestors, the Apalache Creeks, all forms of bloodshed was forbidden within about two miles of the temple. The people believed there were two souls. One, perhaps called the civic spirit was shared by all. The other temporarily dwelled within a body.

Without going on ad nauseum with spiritual prose, the Spiritual Path of the Muskogean Peoples was best summed up by a former Jewish carpenter about 2000 years ago.

Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.

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