Cubans in Alibamer . . . Peruvians in Jawja

Since 2011,  DNA testing of modern Native American descendants combined with linguistic analysis of indigenous words, recorded by the early French and Spanish explorers, have resulted in a radically different understanding of the Southeast’s Native peoples.

Forgotten Peoples of the Southeastern United States: Part Four

It was June of 2010 and a conversation at an Ingles Supermarket in Hiawassee, Georgia that I will never forget. I had just moved to a new campsite in the Tusquitee Mountain Range of North Carolina, just across the state line from Hiawassee, and was stocking up with food supplies. I would have never spoken at all except a little earlier in the day, I had gotten a hair cut in Hayesville, NC. Despite the hair cut, a half year of living in the wild had given me the aura of a hunter-gatherer. Apparently, the two young ladies saw through the appearance and recognized spiritual kinship.

They were working the evening check out station. At a distance, I assumed that they were indigenous people from some country like Guatemala or Colombia and was getting ready to practice my Spanish. When I got in line, though, I heard Southern Appalachian drawl. What the heck? They were obviously not Cherokees, but what were Seminoles doing up here?

Were they Florida transplants? The young ladies both had small, lobeless ears like most Itza Mayas, Georgia Creeks and Miccosukee Seminoles.

There was no one behind me in line, so I got up the courage to ask them, “No offense ladies, but what tribe are you? Are you second generation Latin Americans? The older one laughed and said, “Well the government calls us Cherokees, but we are nothing like the Cherokees. We call ourselves the Towns County Indians. My older brother married a Cherokee gal from North Carolina. We couldn’t get along with her. They eventually got a divorce.”

I asked them, “How long has your family live here?”

The younger lady answered, “Forever. My grandmother says that we were here before the whites and Cherokees. Our home place was back up on Hightower (Etowah) Creek. It’s national forest now.”
I shook my head in disbelief, but remembered back to about 2002 when I stumbled upon a Native American family living in a log cabin, deep within the Chattahoochee National Forest in the mountains, close to the Towns-Union County line. A jeep trail led to their farmstead and there were no cars, just horses and a mule. I had been greeted with a shotgun, but the man grew a bit more friendly, when he saw that I had some Native features. The family in the log cabin must have been some of those Towns County Indians.

This memory was pre-Track Rock Gap and my first prime directive was literally survival at the time. After the announcement about the Track Rock Terrace Complex on December 21, 2011, readers from around the Southern Highlands began sending me their DNA test results. Several from northeast Georgia and southwest Virginia contained both Maya and obscure South American DNA test markers. I was not sure if these tests were flukes or not.

The Itza Mayas are not ethnic Mayas, but originated in South America somewhere. A full-blooded Itza in Chiapas could conceivably have no Maya DNA test markers.

Then . . . in late winter of 2012, I received an amazing email from an executive of Dave & Buster’s restaurant chain. He was a Towns County Indian. He and his relatives had been receiving strange results on their DNA tests. They were up to 25% Asiatic, while the median on the North Carolina Cherokee Reservation is around 2%. Their Asiatic DNA was either all Peruvian or a mixture of Peruvian and Maya. Their Peruvian DNA was not Quechua, but obscure tribes that I had never heard of.

Soon I received DNA test results from people in two other mountain counties in Northeast Georgia. Although their Asiatic DNA was lower, their DNA test markers were a mixture of Peruvian and Maya. The Peruvian DNA was from the Shippibo-Conibo, Asháninka and Amahuaca.

In 2013, Marilyn Rae and I explored a book written by a 17th century French ethnologist, Charles de Rochefort, about the Native Americans of Georgia. The Apalache elite clearly had South American cultural traditions. The result was The Apalache Chronicles. At that point, we began to closely examine the cultural connections between the Southeastern United States and eastern Peru. There were many.

Traditional Creek and Seminole clothing originated in eastern Peru, as did the Sacred Black Drink. The Creek words for yaupon holly tea, for a high king, sweet potato, tobacco and for village chiefs came from the Panoan language of Eastern Peru. There may be more words. The concept of stamping pottery with a wood paddle first appeared in Peru. Swift Creek pottery in Georgia is identical to contemporary Conibo stamped pottery in Peru. Napier stamped pottery in Georgia is identical to contemporary Shippibo pottery in Georgia. Both the ethnic names Coni and Shippi appear in Southern Highlands geographical place names.

The section of Northeast Georgia that includes Towns County, was called Conas in the 1560s. There is still today a Peruvian province called Conas. Conestee (village visited by De Soto and Pardo in North Carolina) means “Conas People” in Itsate Creek.
As can be seen above, even today the Conibo People of Peru dye their clothing in patterns that are IDENTICAL to Georgia Swift Creek pottery from 1400 to 1800 years ago. All this puts a very different perspective on the Woodland Period in the Lower Southeast and who lived here at the time.

The Cuban Connection

Until pushed into the interior by the Taino, the Toa People occupied much of Cuba. They also were able to hold onto a section near Arecibo, Puerto Rico, which was called Toa Province. The Toa River in Cuba remembers their presence.

The Toa People were not as sophisticated as the Taino, who called them a word similar to Ciboney. They were gardeners, lived in large, cone-shaped communal houses and made thousands of stone balls. Like the Taino, they lived in a world of hundreds of imagined demons. They carved these demons on stone tablets.

In the early spring of 1540, the Hernando de Soto Expedition encountered a province on the Lower Ocmulgee River that was more advanced than the Indians in Florida, but not as sophisticated as the towns he would visit in the Appalachian Highlands. The province was called Toa. Satellite provinces of Toa in west-central Georgia, northeast Alabama and central Alabama were called Toasi, which means “Offspring of Toa.”

After leaving present day Rome, GA on a major trail that paralleled the Coosa River, the De Soto Expedition encountered another town named Toasi. It was part of a string of towns, whose names cannot be translated by contemporary Muskogean dictionaries. However, they seem to be derived from a dialect of Arawak. There is no doubt that another Toasi province in Alabama, on the Cahaba River near Birmingham had Arawak roots. A glossary of their language was written down by Virginians, who sheltered a Toasi man, who had escaped the Tuscarora after being their slave for many years.

Readers from Alabama will know that the Upper Coosa is also a region where hundreds, perhaps thousands of stone balls have been found – both in mounds and in village sites. Apparently, Alabama archaeologists did not place much significance in this phenomenon. There is great significance.

Cohaba was an Arawak name for tobacco snuff – often mixed with hallucinogenic drugs. Cohiba is the Toa/Ciboney word for tobacco that is used day for Cuba’s premier cigar brand.

There are two other sections of Georgia that shows profound influence from the Ciboney or Toa of Cuba. Along the Chattahoochee River in southwest Metro Atlanta is a cluster of archaeological sites with non-Muskogean traits. About a century ago, a hilltop shrine was discovered at the confluence of Sweetwater Creek and the Chattahoochee River. Stone steps led up to a stone stela, on which was carved a Toa demon. Georgia archaeologists ignored the stela, but Puerto Rican archaeologists were able to quickly assist me. It was a demonic figure typical of Toa Province near Arecibo.


Across the river is an massive boulder carved in the shape of a crouching owl. Stone effigies of owls are quite common in central Cuba. Down the river a bit, archaeologist Robert Wauchope found a complex of earthworks and a mound that was atypical of Muskogean sites. He called it Anawakee after a nearby creek. Most of the terraces and earthworks are gone now. In 1969, archaeologist NativeSweetPotatoArthur Kelly identified four varieties of feral sweet potatoes growing in this same section of the Chattahoochee. Unlike modern sweet potatoes, whose ancestors came from Peru, these plants only had single, massive tubers like a feed beet. Kelly and his student assistants discovered that the seeds from these feral sweet potatoes were hallucinogenic.

In 2012, a graduate student at the University of Georgia surveyed the acropolis at Ocmulgee National Monument with non-intrusive geo-magnetic techniques and ground radar. He found that the original settlers at Ocmulgee built massive center pole houses like what one sees today among certain tribes in Columbia and northern Peru. This style of house was also built in central Cuba.

Ocmulgee-Stage1It turns out that Arthur Kelly also discovered that the original settlers of Ocmulgee were ethnically different and built center-pole, round houses. However, his discovery was covered up by the next generation of archaeologists who adopted an orthodoxy, which stated that Ocmulgee was founded by missionaries from Cahokia.

However, we now know that the mounds at Ocmulgee are 100-150 years older than the earliest mounds at Cahokia . . . but people are still unaware that Caribbean or South American people were probably the founders of Ocmulgee.  By the way, another thing that you mere mortals are not told is that almost all the pottery with owl motifs in the Ocmulgee Bottoms, originated at the village on top of Browns Mount.  The Ciboney put owl motifs on much of their pottery.

Why has all this solid scientific information been ignored by Southeastern archaeologists? I obtained a partial answer from a 30 year old professional paper, published by a member of the team of professors, who gave us the current official route of De Soto. You better be sitting down.

This highly respected archaeologist specifically stated that his team ignored the chronicle of the Juan Pardo Expedition because its author, Juan dela Bandera, was “confused” about geography. Dela Bandera accompanied Pardo on all his travels. However, he placed the Conas Province in northeast Georgia and the headwaters of the Savannah River. That would put the city of Wara (Joara) in a canyon on the Jocassee River in northwestern South Carolina, rather than on a farm owned by one of the members of the archaeological team in the North Carolina Piedmont.

The Spanish notary also placed Cofitachequi two days walk from the ocean. These “confused” descriptions would completely invalidate the official route of the De Soto Expedition, adopted by these professors. It was better that the public not be confused by colonial archives, which conflicted with late 20th century academic wisdom.

So . . . we now have a new definition of pseudo-archaeology. It is what you read in university-published, mass-marketed archaeology books.

Happy Poskita, and the answer to the quiz is . . .

Bronze Age Ireland  . . . County Kerry

What is obviously a Native American flint sword from the Southeastern United States and classically shaped Deptford Style Pottery from the Deptford Site in Savannah, GA are actually artifacts produced by the aboriginal people of Southwest Ireland – The Late Bell Beaker Culture.

If County Kerry sounds familiar, a couple of years ago the People of One Fire ran a series of articles on the petroglyphic boulders in the North Georgia Gold Belt.  All, except the one at Track Rock Gap, are extremely similar or identical to petroglyphic boulders found in the southwest corner of Ireland . . . County Kerry  . . . and of all places, Ven Island in the Oresund Channel between Denmark and Sweden.  Ven was a Copper and Bronze Age marketing center of the Gamla Folk, who lived in Scandinavia before the Scandinavians.

Reinhardt Petroglyphs
The Reinhardt Petroglyphic Boulder was found next to an old Native American trail.
Kyrka Klippa on Ven Island, Sweden were petroglyphs are located
Kyrka Klipa on Ven Island, Sweden – where very similar petroglyphs are located

The aboriginal people of Ireland looked very different than the majority of Irish today, whose ancestors came from the British Isles and ultimately eastern Europe.  The Irish Natives had black hair, bronze skin,  non-European faces and were expert seamen.  They also mined large copper deposits in southwestern Ireland and sold it to the world, while still making stone tools and weapons for themselves.  They were pushed out of Ireland by newcomers bearing iron weapons, who looked like the modern Irish, except for those remnant mixed-heritage people, we now call the Black Irish.  The newcomers called the Natives, Ciarraighe, which was eventually Anglicized by their English overlords to Kerry.   The Natives called themselves the “Water People” or “Sea People.”

The kinsmen of the Ciarraighe to the northeast were called the Osraighe or Deer People.   They developed a dairy deer and made cheese from deer milk.  Remember the “preposterous” story early Spanish explorers told of the Duhare people near the mouth of the Savannah River, who lived like Indians, except that they raised dairy deer and domesticated waterfowl?  Du’h’aire was the pre-Medieval Gaelic word for Ireland.

Over a century ago,  Smithsonian archaeologists excavated enigmatic stone ruins at the edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains in western North Carolina.  They consisted of stone beehive tombs like the one in County Kerry, pictured above.  Several tombs contained Caucasian skeletons.  Nearby they found smelters where copper ore had been processed into copper, but also found what appeared to be iron tools.   The dig was well documented, but completely ignored by North Carolina academicians today.

More recently,  in 1937 Smithsonian archaeologist, James Ford, was dispatched to the mouth of the Altamaha River in SE Georgia to determine the eligibility of Santo Domingo State Park becoming a national park.  In test pits, he found 16th century European detritus, PLUS bronze axes, wedges, daggers and a sword.  He naively interpreted the bronze artifacts as being discarded by Spanish soldiers.   They were put on display in the Santo Domingo Park Museum during World War II, but the State of Georgia closed the park in 1947, because the Smithsonian sent it a letter stating that there was nothing of significance there.  No one knows what happened to the artifacts, Ford unearthed.

By the way,   the last time that “Spanish” soldiers carried bronze weapons was around 600 BC.   The park also contained the ruins of what was probably Fort San Mateo and Fort Caroline from the 1560s.  However, Ford did not examine the earthworks, because he assumed that “some Indians built them.”

Enigmatic words in a forgotten Native American language

During the past two months, I have become, on behalf of a client there,  deeply immersed into the early history of the Lower Savannah River Basin.  The simplistic “model” that anthropologists created for this region in the late 20th century, just does not “cut the mustard.”    I could not believe my eyes when a read a anthropological paper jointly written in 2014 by professors from public universities in Florida, Georgia and South Carolina, which stated, “We looked up the Native American village names along the South Atlantic Coast in Cherokee and Catawba dictionaries and could not find the words.  Therefore they must be from an unknown language. ”   What?  They can’t afford the $20 for a Creek dictionary?

Nevertheless, all but a few of these place names are from South America.  Most are Panoan from Peru.  However, some are Tupi-Guarani words from the Amazon Basin or Southern Arawak words, such as “ke” for people, from Ecuador and Peru.

The Euchee living along the Lower Savannah River had a very different language from those on the coastal islands, for which there is no dictionary.  Even though the Euchee consider the mouth of the Savannah River as the first place they landed after crossing the ocean,  the local Euchee language was different than spoken by their kinsmen elsewhere. They called their land Chikora.  They called themselves, “The Water People.”  Their Muskogean neighbors called their land Chikola.   Don’t pay any attention to what Wikipedia says about “Chicora’s” location being far to the north.

The Savannah River Euchee word for water is “ou-e”.   That’s the same word used by Muskogee speakers, but by nobody else in North America.   It that is not strange enough, there was another population in the world that used the same word for water.  They were those Pre-Gallic aborigines in Ireland, western Scotland and the western coast of France.  The first syllable of “whiskey” comes from that word, as does the French word for water, eau.

So we have a situation in which aboriginal peoples on both sides of the Atlantic made very similar petroglyphs, pottery and flint knives, plus used the same word for “water”  . . .  plus called themselves the Water People.  Obviously,  Eastern North America’s history is quite a bit more complex than is described in high school history texts.  There is much that we don’t know.


America has gone insane

The Spiritual Path of the Native Peoples was always a healthier way of life for humans, society and the environment. The abomination that occurred in Charleston this week is one more proof that America is being led by “the People of the Lie” to self-destruction.

Editorial Opinion

These will not be the words of some wussy dilettante, writing a blog on his Ipod from the comfort of his suburban McMansion. My face and most of my teeth were busted by baseball bats, while I was asleep in a tent during the winter of 2010. Immediately afterward, federal and state “law enforcement” officers spread rumors through all the fundamentalist churches in the Southern Appalachians that I was a male prostitute, who had intentionally filed down his teeth. Living hell spewed forth from those lies.

For the next year, everywhere I moved, gangs of white trash thugs from local Baptist or Pentecostal churches formed vigilante squads to attack my campsites at night. The most dramatic attack came while I was on Wolf Creek in Union County, GA. Two sheriff’s deputies led eight car-pickup truck loads of white thugs from a nearby Baptist Church to “whip up on the pervert.” Things didn’t go as planned. I am a Creek warrior. Those swine came within seconds of going earlier to hell than scheduled.

I did some investigating afterward in between bringing the Mayas to Georgia to upset the archaeologists. Both deputies were Florida transplants, who parents had become immensely wealthy from cocaine trafficking. The families then moved to the Georgia Mountains to hide their ill-gotten wealth and live like royalty. Their parents had used the drug money to become involved with rightwing extremist politics and buy respect in Union County. Oh, they are big shots because God rewarded their politically correct faith with MONEY!  Praise the Lord!

Look who first pays the horrific price for these corrupt cops. It is the honest, dedicated law enforcement officers, who are gunned down in cold blood for no reason whatsoever. Deranged members of tormented minorities strike out like wounded tigers at the first symbols of authority they see.

My herd dogs and I have been shot at so many times that they start panting in fright whenever they hear a gunshot anywhere within a two mile radius. They frantically run into the cabin and hide in the bathroom. So yes . . . this is not the blog of some pampered intellectual.

I must confess that just seeing the face of the murderer of those folks in Charleston made me so angry that took the dogs on a forced march in the afternoon sun, until I worked off my anger. It was the face of a brainless, bleached hair, jackal that I had seen so many times before . . . calling up women I dated to frighten them, attacking the campsite in the dark, slitting my nursing female dog’s throat on the front stoop, uttering profanities from passing pickup trucks . . . trying to break into this cabin at night while I was asleep. They are monsters created by an American society, whose insanity is fanned by demagogue politicians, who claim patriotism, but lust after power.

The greatest irony of what I endured in 2009, 2010 and 2011 was that I am an evangelical Christian and was being persecuted by hypocritical people, who called themselves Christians. I am straight and actually, a rather naïve former dairy farmer. Yet,  I was being hounded and sometimes fighting for my life, because of an element in American society that had perverted Christianity.  These nutcases assumed that I was a sexual predator, because I had an IQ over 75, a nice tan and wuzn’t frum around chere.

Well, I take that back.  For a short period, some former members of the Israeli Defense Forces in archaeologist Johannes Loubser’s synagogue also tried to hassle me.  They drove up to my cabin in their $80,000 sports cars, planning to frighten me like they once did Arab peasants, but got just close enough to see that I was carrying a well sharpened machete and was, let’s say, quite a bit more physically imposing than their former Muslim adversaries in the Middle East.  The sports cars turned around and went back to Hotlanta.

Lies the talking heads tell you

The media will tell you that these monstrous acts are solely the work of mad men. They lie because they want you to stay tuned for the many stories that will take you through the criminal justice process. One batch of extremists will tell you that America needs more cops with bigger guns and no constitutional restrictions. They lie because they actually want to control you. Another batch of extremists will tell you that if you take away all the guns, everything will be wonderful. They lie because they want your political donations.

The truth is that America is spiritually sick. During the past 35 years, America has been manipulated and bullied into a society that promotes self-centeredness, self-worship, self-indulgence and submission to self-appointed authority figures, aka celebrities. We are told that excessive accumulation of wealth is a religion and achieving that goal is proof of being blessed by the god, Commerce. Demagogues, waving miniature American flags, tell you that these were the values of our founding fathers. They want you to elect them to public office so they can stop big government while fattening the bank accounts of their major campaign contributors and corporate bosses.

Worshiping one’s self and living only for one’s self can only bring insanity and a society, destined for physical decay. Its ultimate result is that the individual becomes a slave to a self-proclaimed Fuhrer, Marxist dictator or a corporate oligarch.

The Spiritual Path

The Spiritual Path of Native Americans establishes harmony between all aspects of the physical and spiritual worlds. Diversity is honored as being part of the whole. The welfare of the community is equal to the personal growth of the individual. Mankind is viewed as the caretaker of the natural environment, which was created and owned by the Master of Life. Any person, group of persons or corporation that exploits the environment is considered a thief.

A Muskogean, whether the Mikko Rakko of Kusa or a pre-adolescent in Ichesi, always first considered the impact of a planned action on his or her family, neighbors or community. All children were loved and beating a child was forbidden. Men and women were equal in all things, but each had special responsibilities unique to their gender. Men opened up the soil, planted the seeds and hunted together. Women tilled the fields, wove and made pottery together.

Husbands and wives had equal rights and responsibilities in a marriage. Each had the right to a speedy divorce if harmony was impossible. The best of healthcare was a given right for all citizens. Medicine men and women were supported by the community.
Among my ancestors, the Apalache Creeks, all forms of bloodshed was forbidden within about two miles of the temple. The people believed there were two souls. One, perhaps called the civic spirit was shared by all. The other temporarily dwelled within a body.

Without going on ad nauseum with spiritual prose, the Spiritual Path of the Muskogean Peoples was best summed up by a former Jewish carpenter about 2000 years ago.

Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.

Can you identify these artifacts?

The dating and classification of artifacts can be tricky, especially if one is working from a professional body of knowledge that fossilized in the late 20th century.

The two ceramic containers in the photo on the left obviously have the standard form of Deptford Style Ceramics, which were decorated by slapping wooden paddles covered with fabric onto the damp clay body.  However, can you name the specific location where they were unearthed and the cultural time period?

Three hints

1.  The jars are not from the Florida Panhandle.

2.  The jars were found near the Atlantic Ocean.

3. In 1937,  archaeologist James Ford excavated bronze axes, daggers and a sword from the banks of the Altamaha River near St. Catherines Island, GA.   He never told his peers about the discovery, but for several years they were on display in a museum owned by the State of Georgia.

Professor Gene Waddell of the College of Charleston is not allowed to participate because he knows the answer!

The first winner of the quiz will receive a copy of “The Forgotten History of North Georgia.”

We will surprise you with the answer on June 21, 2015 – the Summer Solstice.

Muskogee language originated in North Carolina Mountains

Native American Brainfood

Mvskoki, the official indigenous language of the Muskogee-Creek Nation in Oklahoma, is the most aberrant  of all the Muskogean languages, even though their language family is named after the Anglicized form of Mvskoki.  Oklahoma Creeks actually pronounce the “ki” like a “gi” . . . which leads us to one of the many unexpected traits of Mvskoki.

The most accepted meaning of Mvskoke is “Herbs or Medicine – People.”  It first appeared in European colonial archives just before the American Revolution.  Over a century ago, a Minnesota anthropology professor looked at the Anglicized form of the word and decided that it was the way, ignorant Southern Indians pronounced an Algonquian word for “swamp” – hence the source of faulty etymology about the word in many references.

The Muskogee-Creeks, Southern Shawnee and contemporary Cherokees use the SAME suffix for “clan or tribe” – “gi.”   An archaic form of Cherokee also used the prefix “ani” for a similar meaning, but the Creeks and Shawnee do not.  “Ani” has the same meaning in the language spoken by Christian Anatolians in Turkey and Armenia. No other Muskogean language uses “ki” or “gi” for “people.”

There is something even odder about this shared suffix.  It originated with the Asháninka People of Peru, who were pushed out of the Central Highlands of Peru by the Moche Culture around 0-200 AD.   Some settled in the Andean Foothills.  Others just disappeared.

After the Moche Kingdoms became militarily powerful, they attacked the Panoan-speaking peoples, living to the east.  These provinces included the Satipo, Chiska, Shipibo, Conibo and Cashibo. The names of these peoples also appear as ethnic and geographical names in the Lower Southeastern United States.

Bo is the Panoan suffix for “place of” or “people”.  It also appears in several place names in South Carolina and Coastal Georgia.  Oh, did we mention that Muskogee also contains several Panoan words, such as the word for the Sacred Black Drink, vsse, and orata, the title of a appointed village or neighborhood leader?

The core of Muskogee appears to have evolved from either Itsate Creek or Alabama, but there are also some distinctly different words.  Itsate would be quite similar to Alabama, except that most of its words having to do with agriculture, architecture, political offices, writing and trade are drawn straight from the Itza Maya language, which was also called Itsate.

Muskogee and Cherokee also includes some borrowed words from Southern Shawnee, such as the word for a buzzard, sule.   This is more evidence that strongly suggests that the three peoples were at one time in close contact with each other.

Sudden appearance of Muskogee name and language

All of the town names, mentioned by the chroniclers of the De Soto Expedition, while it traveled through Georgia, the Carolinas and Eastern Tennessee are either Muskogean, Itza Maya or Panoan words.  Very, very few could be Muskogee words, however.  Yet by 1735, when the Migration Legend of the Creek Indians was written down in Savannah,  Muskogee was used by the Creek speakers, even though at home, they spoke Itsate,  an archaic form of Hitchiti.  Nevertheless, the Middle Creeks of the Creek Confederacy at that time were called the Coweta’s.

The town of Coweta rose to prominence in 1717 after the Coweta Accords were signed, creating a confederacy of tribes that agreed to always, henceforth be allies of Great Britain and use Coweta’s language as the alliance’s official diplomatic language.  Prior to 1715 (the start of the Yamasee War) an earlier “Creek” Confederacy had used Itsate, the language of its capital town of Ichesi, as its diplomatic language.  The Yamasee Alliance used Yama (Mobilian Trade Jargon) as its diplomatic language.  Yama is more similar to Choctaw than Creek.

The original “Creek” Confederacy was the old Apalache Kingdom. The boundaries of the Apalache Kingdom correspond to those typified by the pottery styles that archaeologists label Lamar, Dallas, Mouse Creek  and Pisgah.   The Apalache elite spoke a now extinct language that mixed Itsate with Panoan and Paracusa – another Peruvian language.   The commoners of the Apalache Kingdom spoke several languages, which probably included archaic forms of Yuchi, Itsate, Koasate, Chickasaw, Shawnee and Muskogee.  Apalache disappeared after the catastrophic smallpox epidemic of 1696, but the first emperor of the new Ichisi Confederacy, Emperor Bemarin (Apalache) or Bream (English) obviously traced his royal lineage to the former mother province of the Apalache, Bemarin.

In 1715, Coweta was located on an island in the Upper Ocmulgee River in Butts County, GA near present day Indian Springs. After the town of Okamoleke (Ocmulgee) fled from present day Amerson Park in Macon during the Yamasee War, the Coweta’s moved south and reoccupied the town site . . . simultaneously proclaiming Coweta’s language as the lingua franca.  To the victors, go the spoils.

Kowetv (Coweta) is the Muskogee way of saying the Itsate word, Kowi-te, which means “Mountain Lion People.”  The original location of the Coweta People can be traced to a cluster of towns along the Upper Tennessee and Upper Tuckasegee Rivers in North Carolina and Georgia.

A mound complex in Otto, NC  ( Macon County) is a mirror image of Etowah Mounds in NW Georgia, and is aligned precisely with Etowah Mounds along the azimuth of the Winter Solstice Sunset.  The virtual reality image above portrays the Otto Mound Site.  The nearby Woodland Period Coweeta Mound is also in Macon County, NC.  The Cowee Mound is in Macon County, while Cowee Gap is on the line between Macon and Jackson County, NC.

To the northeast are Transylvania and Henderson Counties, NC.  All of their Native American place names are Muskogee Creek words, even though their Chambers of Commerce now proudly announce that the Cherokees lived there for thousands of years.

Actually, the Muskogee Creeks lived in these sections of the North Carolina Mountains until booted out without compensation in 1763.   That is the reason that many of you Muskogee Creeks have ancestors that moved from the North Carolina Mountains to West Georgia in the 1760s and 1770s.  Shawnees and Yuchi’s lived in Buncombe, Polk, Burke and Rutherford Counties, NC until 1763.

During the late 1970s and early 1980s, while I was executive director of the Downtown Revitalization Commission, and later, the Historic Resources Commission in Asheville, NC, the presence of Muskogees, Shawnees and Yuchi’s in the North Carolina Mountains was common knowledge.    The surprising information  was completely erased from the history books by the rising generation of archaeologists and historians, coming out of the University of North Carolina and Western Carolina University.

Most recently, the Eastern Band of Cherokees has pressured the State of North Carolina to remove all references to the Creek Indians from the Town Creek Mound Site, over 100 miles to the east of Asheville and replace those labels with academic verbiage that infers Cherokee occupation of the town site.  I have also noticed that North Carolina archaeologists are now also labeling Mississippian Period – Muskogean mound sites in North Georgia as being Cherokee, by labeling them “Pisgah Phase” sites rather than using standard nomenclature used by Georgia archaeologists for the phases at Etowah Mounds.

The final proof that the Cowetas and thus, Muskogee, came from the North Carolina Mountains, comes from the year, 1754.  In that year, the British Crown pressured all divisions of the Cherokees and Creek Confederacy to sign a peace treaty, ending the 40 year long Creek-Cherokee War.   The town of Coweta refused to sign, because it has lost much of its territory in North Carolina and the northeastern tip of Georgia between 1716 and 1717, after the Cherokees had murdered 32 Creek leaders in their sleep during a diplomatic conference in Tugaloo.

Even though the capital of Coweta was by 1754 much closer to the Overhill Cherokees, the Cowetas immediately launched a blitzkrieg into the heart of the North Carolina Mountains – exactly where today, Creek place names remain.  All Cherokee armies that tried to stop them were wiped out.  All Cherokee villages in northeast Georgia, plus the Upper Hiwassee and Upper Tennessee River Valleys were burned.

Thirty-two Cherokee chiefs were either burned at the stake on the banks of the Chattahoochee River or murdered on the streets of Charleston, while they were begging for the Redcoats in South Carolina to come to their aid.   Georgia secretly blocked military assistance because the Cowetas were their “pet Injuns,” not the Cherokees. At the time, Georgia and South Carolina were feuding as to who owned what is now North Georgia.   After recapturing all their former territory in North Carolina and Georgia, the Cowetas declared an end to the Creek-Cherokee War.

Malachi, the mikko of Coweta, soon died after its great military victory.  The next generation of Emperor Bemarin’s descendants proved to be ineffectual leaders.

Tuckabatchee, a town on the Tallapoosa River in Alabama, persuaded the other members of the Creek Confederacy to elect the Mikko of Tuckabatchee as their Principal Chief (ie king.)  Tuckabatchee replaced Coweta as the Capital.   However, the original location of Tokoh-le people, who founded Tuckabatchee (Tokoh-pa-se) was the Upper Tuckasegee River in Jackson County, NC.  Thus, the Creek Confederacy was continuing its pattern of electing Muskogee-speaking leaders, whose heritage was in the North Carolina Mountains.  However, in 1776, most of the population of Tuckabatchee moved eastward to the Chattahoochee River to an old town site with multiple mounds.  There they remained until around 1725-27.  You know this place as “Six Flags Over Georgia.”

Photo shows the famous Cherokee, Junaluska, wearing cap of Zoroastrian conjurer

In this photo from the 1850s or 1860s, a very old Junaluska appears to have lost a leg to amputation. He died in 1868. – From the Barden Collection at UNC.

Junaluska (Tsunu’lahun’ski) was the spiritual leader of a band of Cherokees, living outside the Cherokee Nation in the Maggie Valley, NC until 1838.  However, he was born near present day Dillard, GA and after the Trail of Tears lived in present day Graham County, NC.  He was the founder of the Snowbird Clan of Cherokees, which have their own reservation.

Junaluska is best known for raising a company of 100 Cherokee soldiers to assist General Andrew Jackson in his military campaign against the Red Stick Creeks.  He saved Jackson’s life in one battle and in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, led an attack on the rear of the Red Stick village, which made escape impossible for the Creeks.

What is not generally known about Junaluska is that he was a haggi, (conjurer or sorcerer) in the traditional Cherokee religion. In their communal worship services, he conjured demons from flames in order to seek their guidance.  He then interpreted what the demons were saying to those attending.   The appearance of this religious practice is virtually identical to that of “speaking in tongues” in a Pentecostal Christian Church.   I have personally observed both.

Charate Haggi of Tugaloo was a famous conjurer in the early 18th century.   His name means “Sacred Fire People- Conjurer.”  In December of 1715, he told the leadership of the embryonic Cherokees that they should kill the delegation of Muskogean leaders, who were their guests then switch sides to fight for the British in the Yamasee War.  The demons promised that as a result the Cherokees would conquer a great empire.  That, in fact, is what happened for exactly 20 years,  then several, horrific smallpox plagues devastated their population.  The Cherokee lost every war they fought after 1737.  That they continued to exist at all was due to the constant protection of the Colony of South Carolina.

The Zoroastrian pronunciation of their word for “Sacred Fire” is identical to that of the Cherokee word for the same.  I am convinced that the Cherokee tribe was never an ethnic group, but a religious-political movement that swept through the Appalachians in the late 1600s and early 1700s.   It was most likely introduced by Zoroastrian refugees from the Middle East.  This is why the Cherokees have no cultural memory before the early 1700s and are constantly trying to “steal” cultural symbols and town sites from the Creeks in Georgia.

The secret history of the Middle East

In 1492,  Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians were the oppressed majorities in many areas of the Ottoman Empire.  The current batch of prevaricating Muslim talking heads don’t tell you this, but an unimaginably brutal genocide of Christians and Zoroastrians occurred between 1500 and 1700 in the Middle East in order make these horribly persecuted, non-Muslim majorities, impotent minorities.  Millions upon millions of Christians and Zoroastrians were either killed, castrated, enslaved or deported.  The Muslims repeatedly launched massive invasions of Eastern Europe in attempts to destroy Christianity.  There are many ways of explaining how some of these refugees ended up in the Appalachians.

Haggi means exactly the same in the Zoroastrian religion of the Middle East as it did in the Proto-Cherokee language.  In fact, there are many shared, identical beliefs between Zoroastrianism and traditional Cherokee religion such as multiple layers of heaven and conjuring of demons within fires and springs.  The primary difference is that Middle Eastern haggi were not supposed to conjure demons into harming other persons.

Conjuring of demons today

In contrast, the conjuring of demons against humans is currently endemic among the North Carolina Cherokees.   The story they give tourists of traditional Cherokee religion being one of worshiping the Great Creator in a Judeo-Christian context is pure caca de toro.

While living among the Snowbird Cherokees in 2010, I saw things that tourists don’t see.   Word quickly spread that I was homeless and penniless.  The presumption was that since I had been evicted on Christmas Eve, I would be bitter toward the Master of Life and extremely vulnerable to indoctrination into the Cherokees’ secret demonic religion.

Now is as good as time as any to tell you the reason for the continued fabrication of Cherokee history by white satanists, New Agers and other sundry occultists.  It is also the reason behind the bizarre opposition to the Mayas in Georgia Thing.   They know about the Cherokee’s secret religious practices and therefore consider the North Carolina Cherokees their partners in crime.  The demonic religion has also spread to some members of tribes in Oklahoma, including the Muskogees.  When is the last time that you attended a Jewish or Christian funeral for an anthropology professor?

Based on what I observed, while among the North Carolina Cherokees in 2010,  their current obsession with demonic spirits is the major cause of the widespread mental health afflictions in their population.  That certainly also contributes to their generally abysmal physical health. In the process, they have literally given away the commercial portions of the Qualla Reservation to the Russian Mafia. This unclean spiritual environment has spread to all of western North Carolina.  It is now called by law enforcement officers, the meth capital of the world.

The Cherokee conjurers are charlatans and predators that prey on the superstitions of a culturally isolated population that has a tendency toward bipolar disorder and diabetes anyway. They are like poisonous spiders, who destroy the lives of all who come into their webs.  They are quickly bringing down the Cherokee people in North Carolina to total state of moral, physical and financial degradation.

Back in 2010, while I was standing in the “Creek Square” of the Oconaluftee Living History Village in Cherokee, NC,  I caught out of the corner of my eye a conjurer trying to cast a demon on me.  I turned around and whipped out the gorget hidden under my shirt. It signified that I was a Keeper of the Wind Clan.

The conjurer froze in terror and turned white as a ghost.  He put his hand out in front to block his view of the gorget and my face. While walking backwards out of the square, he repeatedly chanted “What you say is untrue . . . what you say is untrue.”  I had said absolutely nothing . . . but you better believe I am saying it now.

Once out of the square, the conjurer RAN completely out of Oconaluftee Village to the astonishment of the young Cherokee women working there.  Apparently, he was assumed by them to be someone powerful. They looked at me like I was the Creature from the Black Lagoon, who gobbled up their hero.

FINAL SCORE:   Master of Life – 7  . . .  Cherokee Demons – 0


The Mayas in North America “Thing” – Part Three – The Track Rock X-files

Since December 2012, life has not been good for the members of the US Forest Service bureaucracy, Eastern Band of Cherokees bureaucracy and Oklahoma Muscogee-Creek bureaucracy, who participated in the doomed, “Maya Myth Busting in the Mountains” campaign.  The EBC is facing a default on over a billion dollars in debt, if its new Murphy casino doesn’t quickly get into operation and producing exceptional income.   USFS bureaucrats are looking over their shoulder to see who is being investigated or transferred next.  The Principal Chief of the Muscogee-Creek  Nation has been rocked by one corruption scandal after another, the most recent being a 12-2 no confidence vote by the MCN Council.  From whence the Wind Clan blows, nobody knows.

See what else went on behind the scenes during those years that a lot of people, especially Georgia archaeologists,  would like to see swept under the rug.  Do you have the sleuth qualifications to be a star on the new X-files series?  Try to answer the questions.

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The Closing Statement of King Chikili in Savannah June 7, 1735

Native American Brainfood

Readers are going to be getting many surprises as a result of the discovery of the original Migration Legend of the Creek People.  For example,  the four original members of the Creek Confederacy were the Georgia Apalache (Apalachicola in Spanish, Conchaqui in French), the Kusa-te, the Koweta AND the Chickasaws . . . yes, Chickasaws.

There is no mention of Ichesi or Ochese in the legend.  Apparently, the Itsate speakers in the Macon, GA area and Southern Highlands initially had their own alliance.  The Apalache towns dominated the confederacy until after the death of Chikili.  He was the last Apalache king of the confederacy.  He spoke a language similar to Hitchiti, but after then Muskogee became increasingly dominant.

Chikili brought with him to the conference a bison vellum on which was painted in the Apalache writing system, the Migration Legend.  He read it in some dialect of Creek.   Kusaponakesa (Mary Musgrove) translated and Georgia’s Colonial Secretary, Thomas Christie wrote down the English translation.   After explaining the vellum, Chikili spoke for awhile on Creek-British relations.  The following is his last remarks before closing the diplomatic conference.  You are among the first people to see these words in 280 years.

“Our eyes have been shut but now are more open and they believe the coming of the English to this place is for the good of us and our children.  We will always have straight hearts toward the English and hope that though we were naked and helpless, we will have more good things done for us.”

“I, Chikilly, the Joani * (priest) of the Eldest Town, was chosen to rule after the death of the Emperor Bemarin (Bream in English). I have a strong mouth and will announce this resolution to the rest of the nation and counsel them that we are glad the Squire Oglethorpe carried some of our friends to the great king and his nation.”

“I never tire of hearing what Tomochichi tells us about the trip. All my people return their thanks to all the Trustees for so great a favor.  We will always do our up most endeavor to serve them and all the great King’s people whenever there shall be an occasion.

I am glad I have been down and seen things as they are. We shall go home and tell the children and all the nation about this great talk.

Tomochichi has been with the great king.  We will always remember this place where we first met together and call it Georgia.”

“I am sensible that there is One who has made us all.  Some of us have more knowledge and others are great or strong, but in the end of life, all must become dirt again.”

*Joani is an Apalache word that is not found in Muskogee.

The ORIGINAL Migration Legend of the Creek People

“The chances of rediscovering the original English translation of the Migration Legend of the Creek People are therefore almost as slim as recovering the lost books of Livy’s History”  (Roman historian)

Albert Samuel Gatschet, 1881
Ethnologist at the Smithsonian Institute

“Say what-t-t-t?  Never say never!”

Bubba Mountain Lion – June 1, 2015

Yesterday I had the singular honor of being the first American and Native American in 280 years to view the original Migration Legend of the Creek People.  It was recorded by Colonial Secretary, Thomas Christie, from  Mary Musgrove’s translation of  High King Chiliki’s speech on June 7, 1735.  The cover letter (below) for transmitting the Migration Legend to the Georgia Board of Trustees in London and King George I was written by Christie on July 6, 1735.  The bison vellum, portraying the Apalache (Georgia Highland Creek) writing system, was attached to this cover letter.  The remaining pages of the Migration Legend are currently being transcribed.



Florida’s Apalachee &. Apalachicola . . . some things just don’t jive

Forgotten Peoples of the Southeastern United States: Part Three

Of course, the Florida Apalachee have not been forgotten. Some of their former village sites are important tourist income generators for Florida. However, the Apalachicola People have been relegated to being a name on a list of members in the former Creek Confederacy.   Meanwhile, the Florida Apalachee have been caricatured into a few Wikipedia paragraphs. Their interrelationships with other peoples in the Southeast, prior to the arrival of the Spanish, remain an unsolved mystery.

Were the Apalache of North Georgia, the Apalachicola of the Chattahoochee River Basin and the Florida Apalachee originally the same people, but alienated by the rise of a non-Muskogean faction among the Florida Apalachee?  We will look at the facts.

Etymology of the words

We start in the year, 1920 – at the point when anthropologists began to go astray in regard to the Apalachee and Apalachicola. Smithsonian ethnologist, John Swanton, did not realize that both words had been Europeanized, but apparently he also smoked wacky weed immediately prior to anytime he tried to translate Muskogean words.

Very few of Swanton’s Muskogean translations are accurate.   Swanton said that Apalachee meant “People on the other side” in Hitchiti – say what-t-t-t? That word is Note-le in Itsate-Hitchiti and Vpvlhvmke in Muskogee. Use a dictionary, approved by tribal officials and scholars, for translating words, to insure accuracy.

Since then, no one has fact-checked Swanton’s original statements, but merely elaborated on them. This is Online Etymology’s updated version of what Swanton originally wrote: “Originally the name of the Apalachee, a Muskogean people of northwestern Florida, perhaps from Apalachee abalahci “other side of the river” or Hitchiti (Muskogean) apalwahči “dwelling on one side.”

The Dictionary of Creek/Muskogee by Jack Martin and Margaret Mauldin, does not contain either of those words. The word for river is “hvci” not “hci. “ Apala means “light or torch,” not “dwelling on the other side.”

The most likely translations of Apalasi and Apalasi-kola are “Children of the Light” and “Children of the Light – People.” The “light” in the name would have referred to sunlight or spiritual light.  It may have been an archaic word for the sun in the Apalache language.

In Itsate, “si” would be pronounced jzhē. In Muskogee, “si” would be pronounced “tshē.” Kola is the Gulf Coast Choctaw and Yama (Mobilian Trade Jargon) word for people.

Which leads us to an obvious question . . . at least linguistically, the Apalachee and the Apalachicola appear to be the same ethnic group. However, Wikipedia says that they were two different ethnic groups and were often enemies.

When a combined army of Apalachicola Creeks and South Carolina militia invaded Florida, one faction of Florida Apalachees joyfully offered to become their allies, while the other faction fought to the death. According to the report that Gov. James Moore made to the Carolina Assembly, most of the populations of seven villages joined his march voluntarily. The women and children survivors of those Apalachee villages, which opposed the British-Creek Indian invaders were marched to South Carolina slave markets. If the Florida Apalachee were one ethnic group or united politically, that story does not make any sense.

Charles de Rochefort wrote in 1658 that the Apalache (proto-Creeks) of Georgia were on good terms with their first cousins in Florida, whom the Spanish also called Apalache. The two related peoples continued to trade with each other despite the Florida Apalache being under the domination of the Spanish. In contrast, an anonymous author of the Wikipedia article about the 1704 British invasion of Florida, stated, “The Creeks were traditional enemies of the Apalache.”

Actually, the Muskogean confederacy in Georgia would not be called Creek Indians until the late 1740s. In 1704, they were called the Cowetas by the British. Nevertheless, insertions and assumptions by 20th century scholars has so distorted the Colonial archives, it is difficult to discern what the real situation was.

Eyewitness accounts describe particularly brutal behavior by the Cowetas, who accompanied the British force into Florida. Spanish priests and Florida Apalache combatants were tortured to death, if captured alive. The Cowetas were obviously seeking revenge for Spanish oppression that had occurred in the past. The specific instances remain unknown.

The Spanish fabricated the names of provinces

Very few of the tribes in the Lower Southeast called themselves the same name that Europeans labeled them. The 16th century Spanish typically took the name of one village and applied it to an entire administrative district. The Native peoples of the Tampa Bay area introduced the knowledge of a land of gold to the north, known as Apalache to survivors of the Narvaez Expedition. The survivors reached Mexico City in 1536.

The Hernando de Soto Expedition embarked three years later. The Spaniards encountered the first agricultural peoples in North-Central Florida. The village was called Palache in the original Spanish text, but Apalache or Apalachen in the English translations of the various versions of the De Soto Chronicles . . . but was it?  Did the De Soto Expedition make up the name of the village along with giving its name to the province?  We may never know.

It was also the Spanish, who called the proto-Creeks living on the Lower Chattahoochee, Apalachicola. Was that name originally what they called themselves?  Cola is a Mobila Trade Jargon and Gulf Coast Choctaw suffix.  We don’t know, but since they were a province of the Kingdom of Apalache (North Georgia), it is likely that they just called themselves Apalache . . . or maybe they called themselves Konchakee’s. We just don’t know for sure. Very few of the Apalachee village names that are quoted in the De Soto Chronicles, appear as Apalachee mission villages a century later.

What we do know is that in 1658 French ethnologist, Charles de Rochefort, wrote that the Florida Apalache did not call themselves Apalache, but rather used the Itsate Creek words, Tula-hawalsee, which mean, “Offspring or colony of highland towns.” The Muskogee Creeks, who arrived in the region a century later, assumed that the word was Talwa-hasi, which means “Town-old.”

According to De Rochefort, the original Florida Apalachee People were colonists from North Georgia, who had eventually intermarried with a different ethnic group and as a result, their language had changed.   His book never told the reader what the other ethnic group was.   However, their relationship with the original Apalache was still friendly.

Apalachicola People

The Apalachicola People originally did not only live on the Apalachicola River, as John Swanton assumed, but were the builders of a chain of large towns with mounds from near present day Columbus, GA southward to the Gulf of Mexico. Muskogee-speakers were nowhere around when these towns were built.

Charles de Rochefort said that the people on the Lower Chattahoochee River were Apalache and part of the confederacy ruled by the High King of Apalache. They spoke the same language as the Apalache in northeastern Georgia and along the Etowah River.

As seen in the map below, the French called the Apalachicola, the Conchaque. That means “Conk Shell People” and was meant to distinguish Spanish allies from French allies.  The province of Apalache-Bemarin in this French map was called Ochese and Coweta by the British officials in Charleston.  Emperor Bemarin in French became Emperor Brim in English.

Note below that in 1703,  the entire Little Tennessee River was occupied by branches of the Creeks and Shawnees.  There were no Cherokee villages shown on this map.


Section of 1703 map by Guillaume De Lisle

The capital of the Apalachicola Province along the Chattahoochee River until 1717 (end of the Yamasee War) was Vitacuche. It was probably located at Roods Landing, but this is not certain.  Many of the Apalachicola town names had a definite South American “ring” to them. After the Yamasee War, Vitacuchi’s name disappeared. The Apalachicola towns on the Chattahoochee River ether moved southward or to northwest Georgia. They were replaced by a string of Muscogee and Itsate-speaking towns.


Were the 17th century Florida Apalachee  the mound-builders?

All standard references, written by anthropologists, describe the Apalachee encountered by the Spanish as Muskogean Mound Builders. The same articles list several mound centers near Tallahassee, Florida as proof. No reader is the wiser.

These same articles state that the Apalachee villages were clustered in the Red Hills region of the Florida Panhandle and had an estimated population of 50 to 60,000. Say what? That’s 2 ½ to 3 times the population of Metropolitan Cahokia on far less fertile ground. Who made this estimate? What were his or her qualifications in demographics and urban planning?  The accuracy of the statement is irrelevant, since it has been replicated in so many locations that it would be impossible to remove from the internet.

Then one gets to the fine print. The Apalachee Mound Centers had pretty much been abandoned when the De Soto Expedition came through in 1540. Florida Apalachee Mounds were about the same size of Lamar Culture mounds in the proto-Creek cultural region to the north. The Apalachicola were still occupying and building mounds on the Chattahoochee River. The Lamar Culture Mounds in Georgia were still occupied in 1540.

By the time that the Spanish began establishing missions in the western part of Florida, all the towns visited by De Soto’s men were abandoned. The mounds had already been abandoned in 1540. Thus, the people proselytized by the friars, were culturally different than the sophisticated society that had constructed the mound centers, 200 years before.

There is linguistic riddle associated with the ethnic identity of the Colonial Era Apalachee. Relatively few of the Apalache village names can be translated with Muskogean dictionaries (Muskogee, Itsate, Koasati, Choctaw or Alabama). Even those that can be translated, it was assumed that the Spanish somewhat misunderstood the phonetics of the words. Several of the village names, including the capital, contain common Arawak or Tupi-Guarani suffixes.

A glossary of supposed Apalache words survives. They were written by a friar at one of the villages. However, it turns out that the village he served, Tamale, was composed of Catholic converts, who originally lived among the Tamale Creeks of South Central Georgia. So, the language spoken by this particular priest’s parishioners, may not be representative of all Apalache villages.

Below is the seemingly conflicted evidence.  What do you think was going on in Northwest Florida 4-500 years ago, when North America was first being invaded by peoples from the Old World?

1. The Great White Path (Nene Hvtke Rakko) was constructed in Pre-Columbian times to interconnect Chiaha in the Smoky Mountains with the Apalache towns in the Georgia Mountains, the major mound complex and towns in Ocmulgee Bottoms, the towns around Tallahassee, Florida and the towns at the mouth of the Suwannee River on the Florida Gulf Coast. Great White Path is also the Maya words for a major highway that interconnected towns.

2. Florida Apalache Royal compounds (mound centers) were first occupied around 1150 AD, when the acropolis of Ocmulgee was abandoned and then themselves abandoned prior to 1538, when De Soto arrived.

3. The pre-Hispanic name of the Florida Apalachee’s was Tula-halwasi, which means “Colonies of Highland Towns.”   These colonies eventually mixed with another ethnic group, which introduced Meso-American deities into the Florida Apalachee culture.  The Apalache’s in Georgia remained monotheisitic, worshiping a single, invisible sun goddess.

4. Florida Apalache mounds were low, linear earthworks that faced the south. Identical mounds were constructed by the Tamatli Creeks along the Upper Altamaha River in Georgia and in along the Valley River between Murphy, NC and Andrews, NC. Most other proto-Creeks built pentagonal mounds that faced the Winter Solstice Sunset or oval mound that faced the Summer Solstice Sunrise.

5. A majority of Apalache village names, both in 1539 and in 1700 cannot be translated by a Creek or Choctaw dictionary. Many names contain Caribbean or South American suffixes.

6. Several of the Florida Apalache villages that defected to the British during their 1704 invasion had Muskogean names.  The other names of villages may also be Muskogean, but their Muskogean meaning is not readily obvious.

7. The Florida Apalachee villages, which moved to the Savannah River Basin,  were soon absorbed into the Creek Confederacy and lost their separate identity.

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