Ian Conrey has discovered a terrace complex and ruins of at least one old cabin in the Chattahoochee National Forest between Ellijay, GA and Amicalola Falls. It contains all the features seen at other terrace complex sites . . . rock covered mounds, stone cairns, agricultural terraces and sometimes, the ruin of an old European style cabin. We have significant evidence that during the late 1500s and 1600s – perhaps early 1700s – European gold miners and traders lived in Itsate and Apalache towns. A published letter has been found from one of these European colonists in North Georgia that is dated January 6, 1660. Mr. Conrey describes his discovery here with photographic evidence. We have redacted the exact coordinates to limit possible vandalism. Established POOF members can contact Richard for the exact coordinates:
The Creek Confederacy was at the peak of its political influence and military power in the late 1700s, but in 1785 and 1794, was tricked out of most of its lands in northern Georgia by federal and state officials. In early 1785, two Creek mikkos were persuaded to sign a treaty that had been rejected by both the National Council of the Creek Confederacy and the United States Congress. In later treaty negotiations solely between the Cherokee leaders and federal officials vast swaths of Creek land were given to the Cherokees without the Creeks’ knowledge and consent.
Emerging from the collapse of the Great Mound Centers and the crumbling of old alliances, The People of One Fire craft a new confederacy beneath the encroaching shadows of the British, Spanish, and French empires. For thousands of years, the Keepers of the Adjik Hata have preserved the White Path of the covenant with Ofvngv. In this turbulent time of conflict and change, the Spanish attempt to forcibly convert the Adjik Hata. Mvhvlv, the last Keeper, dispatches his tvbalv, Little Bird, with a secret message to Emperor Brim and entrusts to his niece, Morning Light, a strand of medicine beads containing the ancient lore of the Adjik Hata.
As her uncle perishes, Morning Light flees the ruin of a burning chapel with the beads to seek out Hiram at Ocmulgee. But war is brewing, so Hiram sends Morning Light to the unlikely haven of Charleston. As Morning Light struggles to adapt to the strange, new ways of the whites, Little Bird is drawn into the brutal Apalachee raids by his desire for vengeance and the machinations of Emperor Brim. During the war, Little Bird discovers a dark sorcerer and a Fallen Hiyaulgee instigated the destruction of the Adjik Hata to seize the beads, annihilate The People of One Fire, and usher in an age of darkness and corruption unseen since the Adjik Hata shut the way between the worlds. In the shattering aftermath of battle, Little Bird is directed to Ocmulgee. Meanwhile, Morning Light, troubled by dreams of tragedy for her adoptive family and destruction of the beads, is also urged back to Ocmulgee. Will they uncover the answers they desperately seek – or a destiny more wondrous and perilous than any they could envision?
Most West Virginians have learned in school that the Mountain State was no more then a hunting ground for Native Americans, with very few isolated permanent settlements. Do any of our members doubt where this discussion is headed?
In 1842-1843 the Logan Historical Society1 published a monthly magazine called “The American Pioneer” which featured articles and contributed letters on the history of the Ohio River Valley, often including material specific to Native American earthworks. The letter featured here is one such item, and has been included on the POOF website as a first hand account in the late 1830’s of a little understood Native American archaeological site.
Logan County West Virginia Historical Society ↩
Dr. Jim Loewen, is a long time subscriber to the People of One Fire. Very shortly after I moved to this cabin, Jim and his wife rode Amtrak from Washington, DC to Atlanta, then rented a car to drive up to the mountains to visit with me. He is one of the few people in POOF that have seen my current environs AND visited Amicalola Falls.
Prior to then, about all I knew about him was that he would email me suggested corrections to my grammar and spelling. I don’t think that he realized that at the time I was living in a tent, hand-writing newsletters at the campsite in the Smoky Mountains, then sending them out from a video games parlor in Robbinsville, NC. LOL Try to write anything of substance when the combined cacophony of two dozen plus video games are going on . . . all of them involving machine gun, bombs, artillery and grunting Rambos.
In his best-selling book, Jim decries the hero worship in modern textbooks, but ironically, he has been one of my principal inspirations in the quest to discover the true Native American and Colonial History of the Southeast. Trust me . . . it is exactly as he says in his book and in the interview below. So much that young people are taught in history books is either false or not the whole truth. Just as he says in the interview, very few of the state historic markers are completely accurate. Many are patently false.
I think that you will enjoy this interview with him that was broadcast on C-SPAN almost 20 years ago.
It was a beautiful, crisp autumn day and I was going to cut up some dead trees for firewood. Then a Texas graduate student in anthropology, who is a POOF member, sent me a link to an article in “Indian Country Today.” Being the proverbial Native America hunter, I smelled blood and went after the game. The firewood had to wait.
Destroyed by the US army in 1836, Peliklikaha was possibly the largest community of free blacks and run away slaves in Spanish and early US territorial Florida. The community spawned two internationally known figures, Abraham, the sense bearer of Micanopy, and Juan Caballo (John Horse), who led survivors of the community on a long journey to freedom in Mexico. Learn about the Maroon culture of Peliklikaha and the descendants of this community who became known as the Black Seminoles who still live in Florida, Mexico, Oklahoma and the Bahamas.
Exactly one year ago, Lake Sumter State College celebrated Florida’s 500th year anniversary by hosting a speaking event of two Seminole elders, Willie Johns and John Griffin. Hear both talk about the experiences of being a Seminole.
Part 1 – Willie Johns – Ah-Tah-Thi Ki Museum
Part 2 – John Griffin of the Black Seminoles
A long-forgotten letter, discovered in early November of 2014 by regional planner and historian, Michael Jacobs, has provided very significant collaborating evidence that an English colony thrived in what is now northeast Metro Atlanta throughout the 17th century. Jacobs is Senior Regional Planner at the South Georgia Regional Commission in Waycross, GA. Michael was also one of the founding members of the People of One Fire.
The seven page letter was written on January 6, 1660 in perfect Renaissance French by Edward Graves (Graeves) a member of the board of directors of the colony, to the Rev. Charles de Rochefort, a French Protestant minister living in exile in Rotterdam, Holland. De Rochefort’s commentary on the letter said that Grave held a Doctor of Law and lived in Melilot within the Apalache Kingdom.
News about archaeological discoveries in central Mexico might seem irrelevant to your tribe, but think about this . . . three key Totonac root words, Tula (town), Tama (trade) and Chiki (house) can be found in various forms in the place names of many modern towns of the Southeastern United States and Lower Mississippian River Basin.
A dirty little secret revealed by the excavations at Teotihuacan
The first great city of the Americas was in the Peten Jungle of northern Guatemala. Known today as “El Mirador,” it was founded after the collapse of the Olmec Civilization in the 500s BC. In Maya folklore, El Mirador is remembered as the Place of the Reeds or Tula. This name came from the marshes near the city which sustained its life. The typical soil of the Peten is very infertile. The early Mayas scooped up rich organic soils from the marshes and filled stone walled terraces and raised planting beds with them to grow crops. This intensive form of agriculture supported a population of around 100,000 people at Tula I’s peak size and sphere of political influence around 350 BC.
When I first started studying the architecture and urban development of Ocmulgee, two National Park Service rangers discussed their theories on the town with me. They believed that Ocmulgee was the multi-ethnic “Super-Walmart” of the Southeast, whose impact was significant to the heritage of most tribes in the Southeast. At the time, all I knew was that I had always been told that it was the “Creek Mother Town” and all archeological texts described Ocmulgee as a small, isolated site that had no satellite villages and little impact on the remainder of North America. The theories of the rangers seemed far-fetched.